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Pioneering 

in 
Outer Space 

A course of lectures on selected topics in modern 
physics and space flight 

HERMANN BONDI, F.R.S. SIR MARK. OL1PHANT, F.R.S 



Professor of Applied Mathematics, 

King's College, London and 

Director-General of the 

European Space Research Organisation 

LEE B. JAMES 

Director of Lunar Operations, 

George C, Marshall Space Flight Centre, 

Hunts ville, Alabama 



Emeritus Professor, 

Fellow of the Australian 

National University, 

Canberra 



G. E. MUELLER 



Vice'President, 

General Dynamics Corporation, 

Washington, D.C 



G. HAGE 

Vice-President for Development, 
Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington 





Heinemann Educational Books 
London and Edinburgh 



Heinemann Educational Books Ltd 

LONDON EDINBURGH MELBOURNE TORONTO 

SINGAPORE JOHANNESBURG AUCKLAND IBADAN 

HONG KONG NAIROBI NEW DELHI 



im thf SAME SERIES 



WIGAN UftlAltHSR&rgy Today and Tomorrow 
WITB.DMLXWM 




435 68281 4 



speare Head Press, 



Scientific Services Pty., 

and S. T. Butler 1971 

First published in Great Britain 1971 

Published by Heinemann Educational Books Ltd 

48 Charles Street, London W1X8AH 

Printed in Great Britain by 

Biddies Ltd., Guildford, Surrey 



PREFACE 



The contributions comprising this book were delivered in 1970 at the 
thirteenth International Science School organized annually by the 
Science Foundation for Physics within the University of Sydney. 
These Schools are attended by students selected from Australia and 
New Zealand in addition to twenty students, chosen for their out- 
standing ability, from America, Britain, and Japan. The aim is to 
stimulate and develop science consciousness in Australia and through- 
out the world. 

On behalf of the Foundation we wish to take this opportunity of 
thanking Professor Hermann Bondi, F.R.S., Mr. George Hage, 
Colonel Lee B. James, Dr. George Mueller and Professor Sir Mark 
Oliphanl, F.R.S., for having given so generously of their time and 

effort. 



Sydney, August, 1970 



H. MESSEL and S. T. BUTLER 



INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE SCHOOL SERIES 



Edited by 



H. MESSEL 

B.A., B.Sc„ Ph.D. 

Professor of Physics and 

Head of the School of Physics 

University of Sydney 



S. T. BUTLER 

M.Sc, Ph.D., D.Sc. 

Professor of Theoretical Physics, 
University of Sydney 



THE SPONSORS 



The Science Foundation for Physics within the University of Sydney 
gratefully acknowledges the generous financial assistance given by the 
following group of individual philanthropists and companies, without 
whose help the 1970 International Science School for High School 
Students and the production of this book would not have been possible. 

FULL SPONSORS 

Ampol Petroleum Limited 

The James N. Kirby Foundation 

The Nell and Hermon Slade Trust 

The Sydney County Council 

W. D. & H, 0. Wills (Aust.) Limited 

PART SPONSORS 

A. Baden, Esq. 

Philips Industries Pty. Ltd. 



CONTENTS 



Europe's Space Effort and Gravitation 

HERMANN BONDI 

CHAPTER I Is Space Only for the Big Ones 

2 Europe in Space 

3 Newtonian Gravitational Theory 

4 General Relativity 

5 Gravitational Waves 



9 

IS 
29 

t 



U.S. Space Flight 

G. HAGE, L. B. JAMES, and G. E. MUELLER 

CHAPTER I Origins and Building Blocks of Manned Space Flight 

(G. Hage) 65 

2 Development of the Saturn Launch Vehicle 

(G. E. Mueller) 90 

3 Development of the Apollo Spacecraft 

(G. E. Mueller) 150 

4 Astronaut Selection and Training 

(G. Hage) 190 

5 Apollo Missions i through 10 

(G. Hage) 223 

6 The Lunar Landing 

(G. Hage) 248 

7 Scientific Results of Apollo II and 12 Missions 

(G. E. Mueller) 277 

8 The Impact of Space on Planet Earth 

(G. E. Mueller) 304 

9 Future Apollo Missions — Apollo 14 through 19 

(L. B. James) 340 

10 The Sky lab Programme 

(L. B. James) 387 

1 1 The Highroad to Space 

(L. B. James) 414 

12 Planning for the 1970s and 1980s 

(L. B. James) 445 



Science and Mankind 

M. OLIPHANT 

CHAPTER 1 Science and Technology Now Determine the Course and 
Nature of Civilization 

(a) The Development of Science and Technology 487 

(6) The Interaction between Science and Society 493 

2 Responsibilities of the Scientist 503 



Europe's Space Effort 



and 



Gravitation 



by 
Hermann Bondi 




Professor H. Baud!, 

Director-General of the European Space Research Organisation. 



CHAPTER ONE 



Is Space Only for 
Big Ones? 



Nowadays we are so deeply impressed by the gigantic achieve- 
ments of the two great Powers, such as putting a man on the 
Moon or sending probes to Venus and Mars, that one wonders 
whether there is room for anybody else in space. Is there any 
possibility or any desirability of going into space for anybody 
else? Would they be able to catch up with the great space powers? 
Is it possible to do something in a modest way that is useful and 
advantageous? Alternatively, we can put the question — what do 
you lose if you are not in space? One can perhaps analyse these 
questions best if one divides the gains from space into three classes. 
What can you gain from exploring, using space as a medium? In 
other words what can science, in the narrow sense of the word, 
learn through engaging in space research? Secondly, we can ask 
what can any other user gain by using space as a means? How 
much money is there to be made out of space in this sense? And 
the' third question is, how much benefit docs industry gain by 
working for space? How much better is a company that has 
built a satellite in the struggle for markets in certain fields than a 
company that has not built satellites? It is clear from what has 
been said that there must be three partners in space, universities 
and research institutions on the one hand, the government on the 
second and industry on the third. 

Let us look at the benefit to scientists. In the first instance 
there is the possibility of actually getting apparatus or a man to 
the object to be studied. The most famous example here of 
course is the man on the Moon but equally there are the probes 
that have visited Mars and Venus. It is, of course, ideal to proceed 
to a soft landing and a major success here was the Soviet Venus 



probe. Soon, the Mars orbiter and lander in the American programme 
will greatly increase our knowledge and equally there are of 
course plans for" visits to other more distant planets by automatic 
equipment. But it is not only the solid objects in space that can 
be directly visited, but simply the material in interplanetary space. 
To get out of the area of the Earth and make an in-position 
examination of the material that exists between the Earth and the 
Moon is of the highest importance. We have here a unique 
possibility to study what the scientist calls a plasma (that' is an 
ionized medium) and indeed this is an ionized medium that is very 
much more tenuous than could be obtained in the best laboratory 
vacuum. In such a medium electric currents flow virtually without 
resistance. This' leads to behaviour that is still ill-understood 
and that needs a lot more investigation. In this connection one 
might also mention one of the most famous experiments of 
Apollo 1 J when Dr. Geiss, of the University of Berne, devised a 
sheet that was put up on the Moon by the astronauts and caught 
the particles of the solar wind. The sheet was then returned to 
Earth and analysed for the composition of this exceedingly tenuous 
stream of particles coming from the Sun. This kind of in situ 
work also extends to the outermost atmosphere with satellites 
orbiting not too far away, a few hundred kilometres above the 
surface of the Earth, there traversing the outer ranges of the 
atmosphere and the ionosphere and capable of carrying out 
investigations of great interest and value. A second way of using 
space platforms is to get out of the Earth's atmosphere. As is 
well known, the atmosphere of the Earth is opaque to very many 
kinds of radiation. Indeed it is transparent in only two windows, 
the region of the visible light and a particular range of radio 
frequencies. That our eyes and those of other animals are essentially 
tuned to a transparent range of the frequency medium is of 
course a direct consequence of evolution. Therefore, we have 
the idea that the atmosphere is extremely transparent. Scientifically 
a great deal of use has been made of this through the centuries by 
the astronomer who has been watching the stars in the visible light 
with telescopes on the ground. In more recent times radio- 
astronomy has used the other window amongst the radio frequencies 
and in this field Australia has of course been in the foreground 

10 



f$ Space only for the Big Ones ? 



during the last quarter of a century and you know what tremendously 
important and exciting results have come from this, such as the 
quasars and the pulsars. But the astronomer is just as interested 
in other frequencies. Indeed one of the matters that radio 
astronomy has revealed is how vast is the amount of information 
that we do not get if we do not look at frequencies other than 
visible light. Another salutary lesson is this: Radio astronomy 
gave results of the greatest interest from the day it was started 
with serious means in the years just after the war, but it needed 
a decade and a half of this fruitful scientific work before the first 
really quite outstanding discovery was made, the discovery of the 
quasars. This just shows that even in our time, when progress 
seems to be so rapid, long periods must elapse before the tech- 
nology of a new subject is sufficiently well understood and before 
one starts looking for what might be the most exciting discovery 
of all. Thus new frequencies form a clear field of space research 
that is to supplement the efforts of the optical and the radio 
astronomers in space from outside the atmosphere. The astronomer 
can then look at the celestial radiation in any wavelength he 
pleases, gamma-rays and x-rays at the short end, infra-red or 
ultra-violet, extremely long radio waves or anything else that his 
apparatus might be capable of receiving. We are only at the very 
beginning of these researches but they have already shown great 
interest. Again we must follow here the lesson of radio astronomy 
and before it optical astronomy. Astronomy is by its nature an 
inexhaustible subject. The fact that somebody has made certain 
measurements in the ultra-violet doesn't mean that it is stupid 
for somebody else to take measurements in the ultra-violet, I 
want to remind you here that the opening of the 200-inch telescope 
in California did not make other ground based optical telescopes 
obsolete. On the contrary, it ushered in the period of the most 
rapid development of telescopes a little or substantially smaller 
than itself. It was never possible to say that it was useless to use 
other instruments because the 200-inch could do more. The 
200-inch was extremely busy and not suited necessarily to all 
types of astronomical work. It will be noticed that for this kind 
of operation it is not necessary to send a spacecraft very far, it 
has got to be above the atmosphere, that is all. There is no 



T 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

need to travel as far as Mars or Jupiter. Perhaps it might be a 
great thing to put a radio telescope on the far side of the Moon, 
not because there are things you can observe from there that you 
can't observe from here, but merely because on the Earth we 
generate in our lives, from our motor cars, from all the com- 
munication equipment, etc., so much interference that it certainly 
makes the radio astronomer's life difficult. On the back of the 
Moon he is shielded from all this. Yet it is sometimes difficult 
to avoid the impression that maybe by the time a radio telescope 
is built on the back of the Moon that area wilt not be so radio 
quiet either. There will be lots of package-tour tourists sent 
there by travel agencies on the Earth roaming about in vehicles 
that could make quite a lot of radio noise. A third line of 
space research is to examine the Earth itself from out in space. 
The advantage of a space platform here is that if it is orbiting 
it surveys a great deal of the Earth in the course of time and 
can, for example, gather information from automatic stations in 
rather inaccessible positions — say, buoys on the oceans which 
would enable us to learn a great deal more about oceans. It is 
of course well known how much meteorologists gain by viewing 
cloud patterns from above and how this has led to the possibility 
of forecasting the movement of hurricanes. The study of Earth's 
resources is another field in its infancy. The further development 
in meteorology beyond the study of cloud patterns will, I am 
certain, be enormously fruitful, 

Next, let us consider the application of space. What is space 
good for as a medium to be exploited industrially for the benefit 
of all of us? What services can we get from space that we can't 
get otherwise? The best known of course is telecommunication. 
We know that the short-wave radio links that alone can house 
the enormous amount of information we like to transmit, cannot 
travel round the Earth. In order to jump the oceans therefore 
it is either necessary to use submarine cables or, and this seems 
to be a lot cheaper, go via a space platform. There are enormous 
possibilities here for the future. 

Communication needs are constantly growing. There will be 
as much use made of any communication facility as can be 



12 






f$ Space only for the Big Ones ? 

provided. The market is virtually infinite. The possibility of 
satisfying needs, however, is always limited. Available frequencies 
are in constant demand. Technically, one goes to higher and 
higher frequencies to get wider and wider bands, to transmit not 
just tens of thousands of telephone messages but television in 
colour, if necessary, and to link distant computers for the exchange 
of data. However, when one comes down to wave-lengths of the 
order of a centimetre or so, the atmosphere ceases to be wholly 
transparent; particularly, if there is heavy rain there is a lot of 
attenuation. One can go some way with more powerful transmitters 
in the satellites and on the ground, with bigger antennae on the 
satellites and on the ground. 

There is a long way to go before the use of space telecom- 
munications is exhausted, but one can already see that there will 
be limits. Perhaps later on it will become possible to go to still 
shorter wavelengths and overcome some of the atmospheric 
problems. Perhaps in the visible. But we do know what a 
terrible obstacle, even to the sun's powerful radiation, clouds 
are. Whatever these more distant limitations, the exploitation 
of space for telephone and television and data transmission is 
certain to be in tremendous demand, extremely useful and highly 
profitable. It is, of course, not just something for the future but 
something which has been used for many years now. 

In the same general area, the control of air traffic over oceans 
offers a real field for space exploitation. To be able to locate 
an aircraft over the oceans, far out of the range of ground radar 
stations from a satellite; to be able to communicate with it, 
without any doubt at any time, to avoid collisions; to enable them 
to follow the best route. All these are matters where there are 
great gains to be had from space. The advantages that meteorology 
can expect are clearly also going to have great economic conse- 
quences. Indeed, hurricane warnings from space have already led 
to considerable benefits. The study of the resources of the Earth, 
whether of mineral type or underwater, or the state of harvests — 
all this is a great field for space exploitation. Beyond it lies the 
exciting field of space manufacture. It is very much on the cards 
that certain industrial techniques that are extremely difficult and 



13 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



extremely expensive on the Earth will be performed so much 
more easily in space, that the whole operation may be cheaper. 
Certain techniques of welding, production of ball bearings and so 
on are all in this class. 

Much further in the future, but just as much real, is long distance 
transport through space. The supersonic aircraft is not yet in 
civil use, but we are confidently looking forward to cutting the 
large travel times on the Earth substantially. 1 firmly believe 
that this will lead to a great intensification of industrial and 
commercial co-operation between far distant countries, like Japan 
and Europe, Australasia and Europe, South America and North 
America, and so on. The time taken by travel and its strain now 
certainly put limitations on the willingness of private industry to 
co-operate inter-continentally, particularly if business is of the 
small and medium type. But the supersonic aircraft will not be 
the end point of travel evolution. To use a transport that takes 
off from the ground, flies through space at tremendous speed and 
can reach any other point on the surface of the Earth with a good 
quiet landing in perhaps two hours, would make a further vast 
difference to global industrial, commercial and political co-operation. 
I realize that this is still twenty years or so away, but it will 
undoubtedly be achieved. 

To come now to the third side, industrially. What does industry 
gain from being occupied in space activities? The technological 
gain is the gain that comes from every very demanding task, an 
improvement in capability. To a certain extent, this is straight- 
forwardly technical. A knowledge of how to handle new materials; 
an ability to design and manufacture the most complicated electronic 
gadgets; an ability to design for the hostile space environment with 
its vacuum and its sharp temperature fluctuations; and, equally, for 
the similarly hostile launching environment with its tremendous 
vibrations. Beyond this is the task of designing for reliability and 
long life for un serviced automatic equipment. This should, in due 
course, lead to a better understanding of reliability engineering to 
the benefit of us all in our use of equipment every day of our lives. 
Beyond this are the management techniques perfected in the 
demanding field of space. To make sure that all the vast number 



14 



is Space only for the Big Ones ? 

of bits of a space enterprise fit together, work together, are tested 
in a coherent way and in no way conflict with each other, is an 
enormous task for management. A task, above all, that must insist 
that all the people who devise this and devise that, work together 
sufficiently, and talk to each other often enough. In this sense, space 
is intensely human because it requires the co-operation of a vast 
number of human beings. It is this field of applied psychology that 
can be called management. It has to get over certain human 
reluctances and difficulties; above all, our shyness and our tendency 
to be absorbed in a particular task. Who hasn*t heard a man say, 
'"How awful, I'm just engaged in my job which is fascinating, 
interesting and difficult, and here I am called away to a meeting 
to vvaste my time!" Well this is not what work in a big enterprise, 
like space, involves. In a big enterprise, the meeting is nine-tenths 
(if the work. To make this bit and that bit is not half as difficult, 
not one-tenth as difficult, as to ensure that the one who makes the 
one bit and the one who makes the other talk to each other enough 
about their work, so that these two pieces can work together in 
the end. 

But this long prospectus for these space advantages goes only 
some way to answer my original question. What is there in space 
for the small man? For the country not participating on the scale 
of the United States or the U.S.S.R.? I think the answer is clear 
now. Space is not just a prestige matter. Space is not just a 
matter of getting there first. There were many who followed 
Columbus after his discovery of America. There are vast numbers 
who split the atom since Rutherford did it first. Many manufacturers 
make a lot of money from producing motor cars, not only the 
one whose car wins the Monte Carlo Rally. To exclude one's 
industry from such an enterprise would seem to be very rash. 
The really difficult question governments have to debate is to what 
extent, ana at what time, they want to go into these matters. 
Space is expensive or, to put it differently but meaning the same 
thing, it requires many people to work on it and a large percentage 
of them must be highly qualified. Any space installation, even 
the smallest one, must contain certain essential features so that 
one cannot make them arbitrally small and cheap. These are 



15 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



public enterprises of real magnitude but not perhaps of the over- 
whelming magnitude sometimes ascribed to them. 

Perhaps a few figures will help. When one speaks of public 
expenditure, that is expenditure by us all jointly, one comes very 
soon to millions and billions, and one loses one's understanding of 
what this means. I would like to have a general rule that public 
expenditure should always only be expressed on any and every 
occasion in expenditure per head of population. Then w£ can 
come to figures that we can compare with what we, ourselves, 
spend in our private capacity and it will be much easier for us 
to see what is reasonable and what is not reasonable. We know 
rather well the figure for the United States civil space programme, 
NASA, This comes to approximately 20 dollars per head per 
year. Per head here of course means every man, woman or child. 
Four billion dollars a year may sound a staggering sum that 
leaves us completely unable to comprehend it, but 20 dollars a 
year is the sort of sum one has an understanding for. In a family 
of four that would, of course, be 80 dollars a year. It's real 
money, the sort of money one notices but not a major factor in 
one's expenditure. Perhaps it is worth saying that the women of 
America spend annually at the hairdressers a sum slightly larger 
than NASA spends on space. To put it differently, the number 
of people who deal with women's hairstyles, whether as hair- 
dressers or producing the materials to be used, or even as owners 
of the buildings in which the shops are located and they receive 
rent for; all these together must be more people than work on 
the space programme. To talk of other public expenditures, the 
United States' expenditure on defence is 20 times as large as the 
NASA expenditure. That is to say, 400 dollars per head per 
year, 1,600 dollars for an average family of four. Now that is a 
lot of money, that is a substantial proportion of what that family 
spends on its private concerns. Even sending a man to the moon 
is thus not a colossal enterprise; it is a significant enterprise, it is 
more, shall 1 say. than a flea-bite, but a perfectly bearable cost. 

1 have been much concerned with what Europe should or could 
he doing in this field, but perhaps it is worth saying why this 
should be government expenditure. After all, when the industry 



16 



As Space only for the Big Ones? 

of the country makes motor cars, then the cost o£ this is not met 
out of taxation, quite the contrary. Why should space be supported 
by the government, when motor car manufacture is not? The 
answer is simply that, in space, some of the gains — the scientific 
ones — are the cultural type that every government supports through 
its support for science, while others are of the industrial type 
(and every government is interested to make its industry as 
modern and competitive as possible). Finally in the straight 
industrial side, for communications for example, again some initial 
pump priming is needed because the returns come through many 
years after the putting in of money, more years than in most 
industrial enterprises. Therefore this is a longer time than banks 
and industry arc normally willing to finance themselves. Hence 
the government is involved and where this leads the European 
countries to I will discuss in the next chapter. 



17 



CHAPTER TWO 



Europe in Space 



When we look at the world today, industrially, then we have in 

the very front rank the United States and the U.S.S.R. Behind 

them is what one might call the second division, including in 

Europe most of the countries of Northern and Western Europe 

and East Germany, Poland and Czechoslovakia. Outside Europe, 

(here is of course Australia itself, and, perhaps leading the whole 

second division, Japan. And. overshadowed by her neighbour, 

there is Canada. There are quite a few countries on the borderline 

of the second division and I will not be concerned with a very 

precise definition here. But this second division has a number 

of characteristics: All the countries concerned are rich in highly 

qualified manpower both in science and technology. They each 

have firms working in many of the most sophisticated fields of 

modern technology. The proportion of their national production 

that lies in advanced fields is very significant, yet they are all 

small in numbers of total population compared with the two 

Super Powers with their 200 million plus population each. Even 

Japan has only half that and West Germany a third. The others 

vary from big countries like Britain or France, to quite small 

ones like Switzerland or the Netherlands. Yet this huge variation 

in size leads to less internal difference in this group in industrial 

capabilities than there exists between them and the United States. 

Even a rather small country like the Netherlands has some of the 

biggest and most successful companies in the world, like "Philips", 

"Shell" or "Unilever". Switzerland is a tiny country, yet there 

are many fields of engineering where it is quite outstanding. 

Nevertheless, the interest that these countries have shown in space 

so far is relatively modest. Even in the country with the highest 

per capita expenditure amongst this group. France, the space 

expenditure per head is only two dollars per year, roughly one- 

18 



Europe in Space 

tenth of the expenditure in the United States. Thus, quite apart 
from the fact that these countries do not have the population 
base of the United States, they spend vastly less per head and this 
is a question of deliberate choice. Of course, it is not poverty. 
These second division countries are amongst the very richest in 
the world, and generally have per capita incomes between half 
and two-thirds of that of the United States. Why are they 
spending so much less on space? What can they achieve with 
such, much lower expenditure? These are real questions of 
public expenditure. That is, they are the very meat of politics. 
And for a number of reasons, some clear, some not so clear, space 
has not caught on in these countries as it has in the United States 
and the Soviet Union. 

I think in the first instance there is a lack of self-confidence; 
a feeling that, because of the smaller size, one couldn't achieve 
anything outstanding like the two Super Powers, and that therefore 
it's not worth doing anything unless there is direct, patent and 
immediate justification. Then why do these countries not join 
together to achieve a base as arge as the United States? Indeed, 
the ten countries of Europe joined in ESRO, the European Space 
Research Organisation, have a combined population distinctly 
larger than that of the United States, and a combined gross national 
product Ot very much smaller than that of the United States. But, 
of course, combining is not very easy. It is essential in our day 
for the not so huge countries to learn to work together; but 
international collaboration is a difficult technology in its own right. 
A technology that has so far been learnt only very partly. A 
technology in which it will take many years before we reach 
perfection. Why is this so difficult? It seems, when one first 
hears about it, that internationally doing something should be 
quite a simple thing. We all put our money together and then 
wc spend it in the best way possible. But this is not how nation 
States are organized. 

The modern State is a very complicated machinery and the 
first rule is that the State is sovereign. It does what it thinks 
best, subject, of course, to such treaties as it may freely have 
entered. Any such treaty which diminishes its sovereignty is a 



19 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



painful and serious matter. Just think, 10 mention a particular 
example, of a financial or economic crisis. The standard cure is 
for the Minister of Finance to look at the budget and to slash 
things here, impose a stand-still order there, and order a reduction 
in a third place. It is very awkward in this kind of operation if 
he comes across a figure that he is not allowed to change because 
it is internationally agreed. And this means that the savings that 
are considered necessary fall that much harder on that which 
remains. At all times he spends the taxpayers' money and he is 
responsible to them for what he does with it. He must spend it 
in the best way and make sure that it is properly used. To spend 
it in the best way, he has to get advisers for the many different 
special fields. To make sure that it is properly used, he must 
have it checked by the Government Audit and order any particular 
investigations when he sees fit. However, if the money is spent 
internationally it is, to some extent, outside his control. Conversely, 
imagine that the Minister of Finance is rich at a particular time, 
and says: "Let us make an advance in this promising field." What 
a pity that it cannot be done because the matter has to be inter- 
nationally settled, and one or two of the other countries concerned 
happened to be in financial straits at that time and arc not willing 
to go further. 

Thus it is natural and reasonable for countries to be very 
careful about undertaking international commitments, and to 
endeavour to safeguard themselves against these commitments not 
being fruitful one way or the other. One safeguard consists of 
insisting, in as many places as possible, on unanimity amongst the 
participating countries, so that nothing can be done against you. 
But, of course, even a unanimous international decision reduces 
sovereignty. Tt cannot be taken back, as a national decision can. 
Another safeguard is not to put all your eggs into the international 
basket. If you do things internationally, then do a little bit of the 
same activity nationally too. Of course, this splits the money 
voted and is bound to lead to a reduction in efficiency. But 
perhaps one of the greatest difficulties lies in the problem of 
advice. The subjects concerned are always difficult, and advice 
is not easy to give. On particular questions, different perfectly 
reasonable people may come to different conclusions, because it 

20 



Europe in Space 

is hard to decide on them. In most such questions, many interests 
are involved and the advice is naturally (eft to a committee on 
which all these interests are represented. The representative of 
one field may have a very forceful personality, and the representa- 
tive of another the opposite. It is, therefore, clear that each 
government will get advice from its own group of advisers different 
from what another government gels, not because they belong to 
different nations, not because one is more competent than the 
other, but simply because they are different people. Different 
governments may. therefore, get contradictory advice. The govern- 
ments are bound to take their advisers' view even if it was reached 
by a decision of 51% to 49%. Governments are paid to take 
decisions and the government must fully represent this view. Two 
governments may, therefore, be in conflict — -and you have an 
international problem. 

I do not wish to sound too pessimistic. On the contrary, I am 
certain that the problems are being overcome and will be overcome 
more fully in future. But St is just a plain fact that there are 
serious problems and it's no use being impatient with them. What, 
then, have we achieved in Europe? There have been appreciable 
national efforts in the four biggest European countries — Germany, 
U.K., France and Italy. France, the leading country in the field, 
has built its own launchers and its own satellites, some of them 
launched by its launchers, some by American launchers. The 
U.K. is working on a launcher and has had several satellites 
launched by the Americans; as has Italy and, most recently, 
Germany. 

It is perhaps important at this stage to put launchers and 
satellites into their relative classes. A launcher is, invariably, an 
expensive device to develop, but when it is developed then you 
can produce it in appreciable numbers at a more reasonable cost 
and use it to put bits into orbit; generally at a cost of a few 
thousand dollars per pound. Scientific satellites are generally not 
repetitive, or only in part repetitive. Each has to be developed, 
tested and built. Enormous reliability has to be ensured because, 
owing to the high launch costs, it has to work first time. This 
"making sure" is immensely expensive in manpower and, therefore, 



21 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

immensely expensive. Roughly speaking, a satellite costs about 
fifty to a hundred times as much as the same weight in gold. 

The stimulus for the international effort in Europe came from 
space science, from European scientists who knew of, or were 
involved in, the American effort, and who from 1960 made strong 
efforts to involve their governments in a joint endeavour; to be 
modelled on the immensely successful high-energy physics joint 
European enterprise of CERN at Geneva. After various initial 
steps, the European Space Research Organization came into being 
in the spring of 1964. We have ten member countries — the four 
big European nations, Germany, U.K., France and Italy, and six 
of the smaller ones, Denmark, Sweden, The Netherlands, Belgium, 
Switzerland and Spain. The joint purpose of these countries 
getting together was to advance in space research and technology. 
That is, they wanted to give opportunities both to their scientists 
to carry out experiments in space, and to their industries to acquire 
space technology. For this purpose, the organization of ESRO 
was set up and given considerable technical strength and manage- 
ment powers. Wc have a large technical centre, ESTEC, at 
Noordwijk in The Netherlands. Nearly 700 people work there 
now. Their main task is the leadership of industry in our projects. 
In a big satellite project, we act as the design authority, but the 
work is carried out in industry under a prime contractor whom 
we select. Moreover, to ensure an equitable distribution of work 
between the member countries, our efforts have led to the formation 
of Europe-wide consortia of great firms co-operating on our major 
projects. In some ways, it is one of ESRO's chief achievements 
to have brought European industry together in this remarkable 
way in which industry has really learned to co-operate in great 
detail and with great success. 

ESRO's activities are not confined to space research by satellite. 
There is also space research by sounding rockets, which carry 
highly complex payloads above the atmosphere for a few minutes 
and either radio their results back or the scientific payload descends 
by parachute and is recovered. ESTEC constructs some of these 
payloads itself but most of them arc made by industry under 
ESTEC leadership. As far as both, satellites and sounding rockets, 

22 




Figure 2-1. General view of ESRO',1 large technical centre, ESTEC at 
Naordwijk in The Netherlands. 

Figure 2-2. ESRO Sounding Racket Range (ESRANCE) in Kiritra. Sweden. 
Main building and antenna arrays. 



I i 



wfnwmx 



Ml'. 



. / 






^ J 







£ 











•fii I 




Figure 2-3. Preparation of « Skylark payload at ESTEC in Holland. 

are concerned, ESTEC is in charge of testing them and of laying 
clown the extremely complex qualification procedures that alone 
can ensure that all the highly complex equipment survives the 
extreme vibrations during launch and functions perfectly in the 
hostile environment of space. A third task of ESTEC is to prepare 
Europe for the more complex projects of the future, by stimulating 
technological research, largely through placing, monitoring and 
devising suitable technological research contracts with industry, 



^L_iZJ* 




Figure 2-4, REDU Station in the Belgian Ardennes, 40 km south-east of 

Dinam. On the left, main building of the station. The smaller buildings 

farther away house the array of the interferometer antennae. 

partly by doing work itself. A fourth task of ESTEC is to keep 
in constant touch with the scientists who build the experiments 
for our spacecraft, and to make sure that during the development, 
during the qualifications and the launch and thereafter, all the 
scientific demands are met as fully as possible, and to eliminate 
any possible conflict between the demands of different experiments, 
Moreover, ESTEC is much concerned, under the leadership of the 
Directorate of Planning and Programmes at my headquarters in 
Paris, to advise on the feasibility of projects, their likely problems 
and cost. 

Next, it is a huge task to get down the information from a 
satellite in orbit. This is so particularly if the satellite is in a 
low orbit because it then passes over any point on the ground at 
irregular intervals for a very short time. To get down, on 
command, the information is a major undertaking. So we also 
have our own world-wide network of telemetry stations in the 



24 



25 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

Falkland Islands, Spitzbcrgcn, in Belgium and Alaska. We also 
co-operate with other similar networks — the huge network of NASA 
and the network of the French organization CNES. This work 
is all directed and controlled from our operations centre at 
Darmstadt in Germany to which all the communication links run, 
and from where our satellites are controlled and where the data 
is evaluated in big computers. It can thus be seen how ESRO 
spreads throughout the world, and I have not yet mentioned our 
sounding-rocket range, at the northernmost point of Sweden, for 
the investigation of the Aurora, nor the fact that we launch rockets 
from other places, notably an Italian range in Sardinia and, when 
our astronomers want to look at southern skies, from Woomera. 
Another support for our space work is a Plasma Research Institute 
in Italy, 

What emerges from all these labours? We have now launched 
more than 100 sounding rockets, and four satellites have been 
launched for us by NASA, three of them in 1968. They are 
modest in size, weighing around 200 lbs. to 250 lbs. each, but 
highly complex for their size. For example, the number of 
commands that can be given to the spacecraft to switch on or 
off different equipment to put it into a different mode to get the 
apparatus on the spacecraft to turn it to face in a different direction, 
varies between 30 and 50 on the three spacecraft. Two of them 
are in low orbit— one has as its chief task the investigation of the 
Aurora, these curious lights on the Northern and Southern Hemi- 
spheres produced at the tail-end of the radiation belts and arising 
through a highly complex interaction between trapped particles, 
that is. particles trapped by the Earth's magnetic field in the 
outermost atmosphere. Another one is essentially devoted to 
the study of the relationship between the Sun and the Earth, in 
particular to the radiation arising from the Sun during solar 
outbursts. A third one (HEOS-1) is a real space probe that 
goes deep into space to a distance more than half-way to the 
Moon to investigate the inter-planetary medium and, in particular, 
the border between where the magnetic field of the Earth is in 
control and the area beyond it which is governed by the solar wind. 
Many of these disturbances arc very insufficiently understood so 
far and indeed the whole structure of the medium out there is not 



26 






Europe in Space 

well known. Sometimes, one can use this medium as a sort of 
laboratory to study how ionized particles behave in the area which 
is more tenuous than the best vacuum can produce on Earth. 
In spring 1969, this spacecraft released some 45,000 miles above 
the Earth a little package that, after it had separated from the 
spacecraft sufficiently to ensure the spacecraft's safety, exploded 
and spread particles that were rapidly ionized by the Sun to make 
a cloud whose movement charted the movement of the inter- 
planetary medium. This radiant cloud was visible from the Earth, 
from observing stations spread throughout North and South 
America, for nearly half an hour and was quite spectacular. 

These three spacecraft function extremely well. They have been in 
orbit now for around two years and almost all the equipment has 
survived far longer than it was planned to. The Auroral investi- 
gation satellite, which was deliberately put into a low orbit for 
this investigation, is now nearing the end of its life by re-entering 
the atmosphere, and burning up. We had a little less good luck 
with a repeat of the Auror.il satellite which was launched late in 
1969, again deliberately into a very low orbit that would give it 
a short life. Accidentally, as it turned out, the orbit was even 
lower than intended and the life even shorter than expected — a 
mere two months. Moreover, one of the most awkward bits of 
equips :nt on it didn't work for very long, namely, the tape- 
recorder which stores information. Thus, with rather infrequent 
interrogation of the satellite, almost all information should still 
have been brought down. Though after this failure only real time 
data were obtained, the satellite produced in its short life much 
of considerable scientific value. This satellite brought us up to 
the real complexities of space work. 

We have five further scientific satellites in various stages of 
development. One is another inter-planetary probe which this 
lime will visit the particularly interesting and totally unexplored 
region where the magnetic fields of inter-planetary space and the 
Earth exactly neutralize. This is likely to lead to hitherto not-at-all 
understood electrical phenomena which our spacecraft, due to be 
launched at the end of 1971, will be the first to explore. A big 
satellite of more than 1,000 lbs. is in preparation for launch into 



27 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

a low orbit in 1972 to investigate ultra-violet and particle radiation 
which cannot be observed on the surface of the Earth. In 
particular, a sky survey will be made — that again will be completely 
novel. Not Jong afterwards, a smaller satellite will be launched 
that, in particular, will investigate the constitution of the uppermost 
atmosphere. Then, in 1974 (complex satellites take long to 
prepare, particularly the experimental part) we will put up a 
satellite that will do astronomy in the cosmic ray area. It will 
be a satellite totally devoted to gamma ray astronomy and will 
study the highly penetrating radiation in its direction of arrival 
and energy distribution, and should give results of the utmost 
interest. We are in the early stages of preparation for a scientific 
satellite at geo-stationary height, again investigating the magnetic 
area surrounding the Earth and, in particular, linking observations 
there to Aurora: observations lower down. 

In recent years, the greatest interest centred on extending Europe 
in space from pure science to applications. We are in the active 
stages of achieving agreement on two different kinds of application 
— telecommunication within Europe, both for telephony and tele- 
vision by satellite, which is likely to be a long programme but 
one of the utmost importance — and we are in contact with the 
Americans on the possibility of controlling the air traffic over the 
Atlantic from satellites to ensure constant location of the aircraft 
on this very busy route, and instant communication with them to 
avoid any and all possibility of collision. A little later, we hope 
to go into problems of meterology. So you see that our ambitions 
are large. Our achievements are already quite real and we are 
well on the way to giving Europe a presence in space — not a 
gigantic presence because the means voted to us are not of that 
magnitude, but something that is useful, interesting, inspiring and 
helps lis all forward. 



28 



CHAPTER THREE 



Newtonian 
Gravitational Theory 



Newton's theory of gravitation is one of the most successful 
scientific theories known. Not only was it the first one and led 
the way to man's whole concept of what a scientific theory should 
be, but after 300 years it is still the standard method of calculating 
orbits in the solar system, with only quite minute corrections to 
be applied in a very few cases owing to the change in the theoretical 
picture that has occurred in this century. 

Newton's theory rests on three basic assumptions (in addition 
to the three laws of dynamics that are used to describe the 
behaviour of matter under any force). 

(i) The principle of Galileo that all bodies fall equally fast, 
(ii) The notion that gravitational forces add linearly. 
(iii) The inverse square law. 

Each of these assumptions merits some discussion. According 
to Newton's second law of dynamics, when a force acts on a body 
it accelerates. Applying the same force (e.g., that of a stretched 
spring) to different bodies, the direction of acceleration is the 
same for all, but the amount is different. Moreover, if the accelera- 
tions of two bodies in response to one and the same force are in 
the ratio R, then their accelerations in response to any other force 
applied equally to both bodies will also be in the ratio R. Thus 
a property can be assigned to bodies called their inertia and 
measured by their inertial mass which characterizes their resistance 
to being accelerated, so that force equals inertial mass times 
acceleration. This quantity is a scalar, i.e., it in no way dis- 
tinguishes between directions in space, since the direction of 
acceleration in response to any one force is the same for all 
bodies. 

29 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

So far great stress has been laid on the same force being applied 
to different bodies resulting in different accelerations. Since all 
bodies, however, fall equally fast, clearly the gravitational force 
acting on different bodies must be different, being strictly pro- 
portional to their inertia! masses. This mass will then cancel on 
the two sides of the equation "force equals mass times acceleration" 
leading to Galileo's principle. How can bodies react so differently 
(i.e., by experiencing a different force) to a field of gravitation? 
Consider a magnetic field. A piece of iron will be strongly affected, 
a piece of glass hardly at all. There is something in the piece 
of iron to which the magnetic field can hook on which is absent 
in the piece of glass. If we call what the gravitational field can 
hook on to in a body its passive gravitational mass, then Galileo's 
principle states that inertia! and passive gravitational masses are 
strictly proportional to each other. Note that they can be measured 
quite independently. Measuring the acceleration in response to a 
stretched spring tells one the inertia! mass of a body, while weighing 
a body with a spring balance measures its passive gravitational 
mass. The universal constancy of this ratio was established with 
great accuracy by Eotvos some 60 years ago and with even 
greater accuracy (one part in 10 u or so) by Dicke in recent years. 

By Newton's third law ("action equals reaction") a body 
attracted by the Earth must also attract the Earth. Not only do 
bodies have their passive gravitational masses responding to 
gravitation, they must also have active gravitational masses 
generating gravitation. By Newton's third law the active and 
passive gravitational masses must be equal. In modern physics 
one insists that quantities are always defined in terms of the way 
they are measured. Active gravitational mass is measured by the 
gravitation producing effect of a body, e.g., the orbit of the Earth 
or any other planet tells us what the active gravitational mass of 
the Sun is. 

Three quite different types of measurement thus yield the three 
masses, inertial, passive and active gravitational. Our current 
theories, based on experiments, tell us that they are all equal (if 
suitable units are used), but it is as well to appreciate that they 
are logically distinct in case yet more accurate experiments or 






Newtonian Gravitational Theory 



novel theoretical considerations suggest that the equality is not 
perfect. 

The linearity of gravitation seems plausible, but linearity is not 
in fact very common. What we mean by it is, e.g., that the 
combined attraction of Sun and Earth on the Moon is equal to 
the sum of that of the Sun, with the Earth absent, and that of the 
Earth, with the Sun absent. In many areas this just is not the 
case. If we put a dam across a river, the forces (and the flow 
pattern of the water!) are not the sum of those obtaining if the 
half of the dam nearer one side of the valley were present, with the 
other half absent, plus those obtaining with the other half present 
and the first half absent. Indeed non-linearity is extremely 
common, but the student sometimes gets the opposite idea since 
the simplicity of linear problems leads to the few occurring in 
nature being selected for teaching purposes. It was of course only 
the assumption of linearity that enabled Newton to calculate 
the attraction of a spherical Earth on the Moon by adding the 
contribution of all the particles of the Earth. 

As regards the inverse law, it is well known how it leads to the 
definition of a gravitational potential V, whose derivatives (the 
gradient) describe the acceleration of particles in the field. This 
field is source-free in empty space, and it is only matter which is 
its origin. Mathematically this is expressed by stating that a certain 
linear combination of the second derivatives of V (the Laplacion) 
is proportional to the density of matter (Poisson's equation). 

Having slated the main principles of Newton's gravitational theory 
it may be helpful to criticize a common interpretation of its applica- 
tions. It is said (as stated above) that its aim is to some extent 
the calculation of the acceleration of particles in the field and thus 
the evaluation' of the gradient of the potential V. But how is 
this acceleration measured? One's natural reaction is to say 
"relative to the solid Earth". But not only do the Earth's rotation 
and revolution introduce serious corrections, but of course a 
universal theory like gravitation must be applicable far from the 
Earth. How can we measure acceleration in empty space, when 
any comparison body accelerates equally fast? Indeed it is now 
common knowledge that in free fall, in an orbiting spaceship, 



30 



31 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

gravity disappears and a condition of weightlessness exists. Only 
the circumstance that we live on an Earth solid and firm enough 
to resist its own gravitational pull produces the feeling of weight 
here. But then is gravity only observable in those very special 
circumstances (rather unusual in the universe) in which we live? 
Would a civilization living entirely in orbiting spaceships be 
unaware of gravity? Clearly not, for they would sec the relative 
motions of the planets, satellites and themselves, vastly differing 
from the relative motions of bodies not under the influence of any 



SPACE SHIP 




Figure 3-1. Tidal forces on spaceship in orhil. 

force since such bodies, by Newton's first law, move in straight 
lines with constant velocity. But then, this would mean that gravity 
was only observable globally and not locally, a possibility conceiv- 
able but not agreeable. However, if we think about the spaceship 
rather more carefully, the local observability of gravitation returns. 
For a spaceship is not a point but a body of finite size. At any 
one moment there will be a side, A, nearest the Earth and a side, B, 
furthest from the Earth. (Figure 3.1.) The acceleration of free 
fall will be greater at A than at B, while the centripetal acceleration 
of the orbit of the whole ship will be a compromise between the 



32 



Newtonian Gravitational Theory 

two. Thus the spaceship is falling too slowly, as seen by a 
particle at A, and too fast, as seen by a particle at B. Hence 
there arc forces trying to elongate the spaceship along the A-B axis, 
and any dust will tend to accumulate at A and at B. A sufficiently 
accurate instrument will measure these forces and so allow the 
astronauts to discern the existence of gravitation locally. What 
they are measuring is the difference in the gravitational acceleration 
at neighbouring points or, to put it mathematically, the local 
variations in the first derivatives of V, and thus they find the 
second derivatives of V. There are six such second derivatives 
which therefore constitute the intrinsic gravitational field. Note 
that it is a linear combination of three of them that, through Poisson's 
equation, is equal to the local density of matter. In a perfectly 
uniform gravitational field these intrinsic quantities vanish but such 
fields are rather special and very rare in nature. 

The forces trying to elongate the spaceship are made use of in 
some artificial satellites to orient the space craft permanently 
towards the Earth through gravity gradient stabilization. The effect 
is enhanced by fitting a long boom to the spacecraft. The forces 
trying to orient this boom along the spacecraft-centre of the Earth 
line lead to pendulum-like oscillations which are gradually reduced 
to zero by dissipating their energy in the sloshing of a viscous 
liquid carried in a closed container on board the spacecraft. 

The forces here described are very familiar on the Earth, which 
is after all in a free falling orbit about the Sun and about the 
Moon. (N.B.: In each case the motion is about the common 
centre of mass of the two bodies concerned, which in the Earth- 
Sun system is well inside the Sun, in the Earth-Moon system just 
inside the Earth.) Thus there will be forces trying to elongate the 
Earth along the Earth-Moon line and along the Earth-Sun line. 
The oceans will flow accordingly, generating the tides. It is clear 
from this argument that there must be two tidal bulges of the 
lunar tide (on the sides of the Earth pointing towards and away 
from the Moon) and similarly two solar tides (on the sides of the 
Earth pointing towards and away from the Sun). The Sun is vastly 
more massive than the Moon but also nearly 400 times as far away. 
Since the tide raising forces are due to the local variation in force, 



33 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



those due to a single body go with the derivative of the inverse square 
law and are thus proportional to the inverse cube of the distance. 
The upshot is that the solar tide-producing forces are a little less 
than half of those due to the Moon. Thus the lunar tides pre- 
dominate, but are powerfully reinforced when the directions of 
the Sun and Moon coincide (spring tides at full Moon and new 
Moon) and greatly weakened when they are at right angles (neap 
tides at first and last quarter). 

The Earth performs its daily rotation in the presence of these 
forces and turns, as it were, under the tidal bulges of the oceans. 
The highly complex shapes of the shoreline lend to an enhancement 
of the tides in some regions (British Isles, Nova Scotia, etc.) and 
to very modest tides generally in low latitudes. Although the 
tides of the ocean are the most spectacular, it is clear that both 
the atmosphere and the solid Earth are subject to the same forces. 
The atmospheric tides lead to just measurable barometric variations, 
and the deformation of the solid Earth is also discernible with 
very sensitive modern equipment. 

The rotation of the Earth under the tidal bulges of air, water 
and solid Earth means that any factional forces in the motion of 
these substances will tend to slow down the rotation of the Earth. 
The angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system must of course 
be maintained through an acceleration of the Moon driving it 
further from the Earth. The mechanism by which this occurs is 
readily understood. The friction pulls the tidal bulges forward 
in the sense of the Earth's rotation, and the gravitational pull of 
these bulges on the Moon results in its acceleration. The friction 
of the atmospheric tides has negligible effect, the friction of the 
oceans, largely occurring in the shallow seas, is of only minor 
importance, but the friction in the solid Earth results in a measur- 
able slowing down of the Earth's rotation. This is friction against 
the process of repeated compression and extension which dissipates 
mechanical energy as heat. The process is familiar from motor 
car tyres where the contraction-expansion cycle of the rubber in 
fast running leads to a very marked heating. It is possible to 
infer from the measured slowing down of the rotation and from 
some other arguments that in its early youth, four billion years ago 



34 



Newtonian Gravitational Theory 

or so, the Earth rotated perhaps three times as fast as now, so that 
the "day" lasted only eight hours. 

Gravitational fields in empty space have a mathematically rather 
beautiful and simple character, since the potential V satisfies 
Laplace's equation. In particular it turns out that outside an 
isolated body V must necessarily consist of a sum of terms, each 
term varying with distance from an origin within the body like a 
negative integral power of r, r " ' as it is normally written. The 
first term, n = 0, gives a potential varying inversely with r and 
therefore a field of force (its derivative) that is the familiar 
inverse square law. This part of the field is the same in all 
directions, and its magnitude is simply proportional to the mass 
of the body. The next term, n = I, must vary with direction 
so that it changes smoothly from maximum in one direction to 
an equal and opposite magnitude in the opposite direction. Its 
coefficient is called the dipole moment which thus has direction 
(that of the maximum field) as well as magnitude. It is most 
familiar from electricity where it is due to a dipole, neighbouring 
equal and opposite charges. In gravitation where we have no 
negative masses, it is most easily imagined as due to a displace- 
ment. Instead of having a mass at point P, we have an equal mass 
at point Q and may regard this as due to the superposition of a 
mass at P and of a dipole having positive mass at Q and a negative 
mass at P just cancelling the mass there. Indeed in a gravitational 
system the dipole moment divided by the mass is simply the 
displacement of the centre of mass from the origin from which r 
is reckoned. By making this origin coincide with the centre of 
mass, the dipole term can always be reduced to zero. 

The next term, n = 2, is however of intrinsic importance. Its 
variation with angle is more complex and is best discussed in the 
axially symmetric case. There is an "equatorial" plane of symmetry. 
The term reaches a maximum at right angles to this plane (equal 
in both directions) and has a minimum of opposite sign and half 
the magnitude of the maximum on this plane. This so-called 
quadrupole term may be imagined as being due to a spheroidal 
structure of the source. If the source is a prolate spheroid rather 
than a sphere, the mass term n = will be accompanied by a 



35 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

positive quadrupole term leading to an enhanced field along the 
axis of the quadrupole and a diminished field in its equatorial 
plane. For an oblate spheroid the opposite will be true. 

The higher terms, n = 3, 4, 5 ... need not concern us in 
detail. To describe the structure of the source with more precision. 
Note that the larger n, the faster the effect diminishes with 
distance. Very far away any source has virtually the same field 
as a sphere of the same mass. As one comes nearer one discerns 
first the location of the centre of mass through the dipole, then 
any spheroidal distortion through the quadrupole moment, etc. 

The identification of the coefficients of the field terms with 
quantities relating to the local structure of the source has a 
particular significance for n = and n = I. The coefficient of 
the n = term is the active gravitational mass, which, through 
its equality with inertial mass, is subject to the same conservation 
law. Thus it cannot change. The dipole term describes the 
location of the centre of mass, the ratio of the dipole term to the 
mass term being the distance of the centre of mass from the origin 
of co-ordinates. By the law of conservalion of momentum, the 
centre of mass of an isolated body can have no acceleration. Thus 
the dipole term can depend, at most, linearly on the time. 

Note that the laws of conservation of mass and momentum 
have their origin not in Newton's gravitational theory, but in his 
dynamics. Nevertheless, when applied to his gravitational theory, 
they give the result that the time variation of the first two terms 
in the expansion of the field of an isolated source is severely 
restricted. By contrast all the remaining terms are completely 
free in their time-dependence. A body can change its shape in 
any way it pleases provided its mass and the velocity of its centre 
of mass remain fixed. For example, a spherical body may change 
its shape to that of an oblate spheroid. This will increase its 
attraction in its equatorial plane and diminish it along its axis 
of symmetry, both changes in force varying like r * At large 
distance where the mass term (n = 0) predominates (since its 
acceleration varies like r 2 ) there is only a negligible change in 
attraction. 

There is thus a certain reciprocity, The only intrinsic part of 
the gravitational field is the tidal force which tends to change a 

36 



r 



Newton/an Gravitational Theory 

sphere into a prolate spheroid and more complex deviations from 
a sphere. Conversely, the only freely variable parts of the field 
are those due to spheroidal and more complex changes of shape. 
The interaction of these effects and their relation to energy may 
be studied by means of an example. 

Consider two celestial bodies far from any others and inhabited 
by engineers of such a level of competence that they can change 
the shapes of their bodies at will but always maintaining an 
equatorial plane of symmetry and sticking to spheroidal shapes 
with axes of symmetry at right angles to the orbital plane. 
The energy required for a change comes on each body from an 
internal electrical storage battery which in turn can be charged if 
the change yields energy. Of course these changes of shape affect 
the mutual attraction of the bodies and therefore their orbits. 
(We assume that the orbital plane is the equatorial plane of both 
bodies.) To avoid this nuisance, the engineers of body A 
("Tweedledum") persuade the engineers of body B ("Tweedledce") 




Figure 3-2. Tweedledum and Tweedledce. 

always to counterbalance this effect. Thus whenever A becomes 
oblate, thereby increasing attraction in its equatorial plane, B 
becomes prolate and diminishes it so that all the time the attraction 
is the same as if both bodies were perfectly spherical. Their 
mutual orbits are therefore Keplerion, and we shall assume them 
to be ellipses of high eccentricity. (Figure 3-2.) Thus there are 



37 






Pioneering in Outer Space 

marked and periodic changes in the distance between the bodies, 
leading, through the r" law, to very large periodic fluctuations in 
the tidal forces they exert on each other. The tidal force would 

like to transform the bodies into prolate spheroids with the axes of 
symmetry pointing at each other and thus in the orbital and hence 
equatorial plane. This is not allowed by the symmetry. The best 
thing that the tidal forces are allowed to do is to make the bodies 
oblate spheroids which will extend them towards each other and 
diminish their polar axes (as the tidal forces try to do) but will 
also extend them in the equatorial plane at right angles to the 
line joining them, instead of contracting them there as the tidal 
forces try. But a gain on two out of three directions is still a gain, as 
one can show by detailed calculation. Now the cunning engineers 
of A allow their body to go oblate when B is near, gaining a 
lot of energy for their battery in the process since the strong tidal 
forces are pulling in this way. When B is far, they go spherical. 
Since the tidal forces are then weak, little energy is used up. The 
poor engineers on B, however, have, by treaty, to use a lot of 
energy to go prolate against the pull of the powerful tidal forces 
when A is near, and gain little in reverting to spherical shape when 
A is far and the tidal forces are weak. Thus in each revolution 
A gains and B loses, showing clearly how pure gravitation transmits 
energy from B to A through the tidal forces and through making 
use of the freedom to change the third (quadrupolc) term in the 
field through changes of shape. 

Next 1 want to touch on the problem of negative mass or: Why 
is gravitation always attractive and never repulsive? 

We have already seen that there are three definitions of mass 
(inertial, passive gravitational, active gravitational). Can any or 
all of them be of the opposite sign to the usual one? 

Negative inertial mass would be curious indeed. Such a body 
would run away if pulled, and approach if pushed. How serious 
this would be is readily seen by the example of electric charge. 
Normally, since like charges repel and unlike attract, accumulations 
of one charge disperse and are neutralised by attracting the opposite 
charge. Thus energy is needed to charge up bodies, and energy 
can be gained by allowing them to discharge. With charge carriers 



38 






Newtonian Gravitational Theory 



of negative inertial mass the opposite would be the case. Huge 
charges would build up and would be constantly increased by 
being joined by like charges carried by negative inertial masses, 
since the repulsion between the charges would make them approach. 
All such evidence as we have is against such spontaneous electric 
charging processes. 

If then we accept that inertial mass is always positive, the 
same must hold for passive gravitational mass unless Galileo's 
principle is wrong, and some bodies fall up. The Eotvos-Dicke 
experiments suggests that there is not the slightest admixture of 
such anomalous material in terrestrial matter, but of course it may 
exist elsewhere in the universe. Such strict separation could only 
be considered likely if there were a separation mechanism at work. 
Suppose then that Newton's third law, equating action and reaction, 
was valid even for such matter. Then active gravitational mass 
would be negative too. The result as regards the interaction of 
positive and negative masses would be exactly the opposite of 
electrical interactions; like masses would attract each other, unlike 
masses would repel. Thus separation would naturally occur. If 
a large region of the universe contained at one time an equal 
mixture of the two types of mass, any accidental excess of one 
type would attract more of its own kind and repel the opposite 
kind which would tend to agglomerate in other regions. Eventually, 
full separation would be achieved. 

In spite of its agreeable features, this theory is not very credible, 
due to a property of gravitation not so far mentioned, its weakness. 
It is true that a strong force holds us to the Earth, but then the 
Earth is a very large body. What force should be compared with 
gravitation? It is perhaps best to go to elementary particles. An 
electron and a proton attract each other electrically, with an inverse 
square-law dependence, and, knowing their masses, we can calculate 
their gravitational attraction- Since this depends on distance in the 
same manner, the ratio is independent of their separation, and turns 
out to be close to the enormous number 10""\ This means thai 
gravitation is very, very much weaker than the forces that hold an 
atom together. The forces between atoms that are responsible for 
chemical bonds and the solidity of matter also originate in the 
electrical character of electrons. Though a little weaker than the 



39 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

forces holding atoms together, they are still enormous compared 
with the gravitational attraction between atoms. Thus if in the 
day of a mixed universe a positive mass hydrogen atom joined a 
negative mass hydrogen atom to form a hydrogen molecule, the 
feeble gravitational repulsion would be totally unable to break the 
bond. It would be even more true that an atom formed of a 
proton of one kind of matter and an electron of the opposite type 
could not possibly be torn apart by the gravitational repulsion. Thus 
the separation mechanism would not be perfect. But we know 
from the Eotvos-Dickc experiment that separation is very complete 
indeed. This strongly suggests that negative mass of the kind 
postulated docs not in fact exist. 

One can imagine other kinds of negative mass according to the 
signs given to each of the three kinds of mass, but no very plausible 
matter seems to emerge. Hence it seems likely that gravitation is 
indeed universal and that Galileo's principle that all bodies fall 
equally fast has no exception. 

The fact that gravitation, in spite of its extreme weakness, is 
observable at all, is due to its addiliviiy, that is, it is always of the 
same sign. A proton on the surface of the Earth is attracted 
gravitationally by all the particles in the Earth, but the enormously 
greater electrical attraction of the electrons of the Earth is so 
perfectly balanced by the electrical repulsion of the protons that no 
electrical effect remains. Thus the very fact that all gravitation has 
the same sign overcomes its extreme weakness. 



40 



CHAPTER FOUR 



General Relativity 



For some 50 years now, another theory of gravitation has 
superseded Newton's theory, namely Einstein's theory, known by 
the rather misleading name of General Relativity. It is a remark- 
able fact that this theory was created for reasons of intellectual 
discontent with Newton's theory rather than because of experimental 
evidence, and today is regarded as our best theory of gravitation, 
mainly on intellectual grounds, the experimental evidence for it, 
while quite satisfactory in so far as it goes, being somewhat thin. 
There are two main facets of this discontent with Newton's 
theory, one that it says nothing (or at least nothing tenable) about 
high velocities and in particular about light, and secondly that it 
takes Galileo's principle as an extraneous fact and thus gives to 
such a fundamental law the status of an accidental coincidence. {A 
third difficulty of Newton's theory will be discussed later.) 

It might be advantageous to put the matter of velocity in a 
historical context. Modern physics started with the work of 
Galileo and of Newton on dynamics. Their most important break 
with their predecessors was to regard acceleration, and not velocity, 
as the basic quantity requiring explanation. In essence they said 
(as for example in Newton's first law of dynamics) that it is silly 
to ask for the force responsible if a body is moving with any 
constant velocity. Only change in velocity, that is acceleration, 
is related to force. Thus all observers moving themselves with 
constant velocity vector will be dynamically equivalent. They are 
called inertia! observers as they find the law of inertia (Newton's 
first law) to be correct when the motion of others is referred to 
themselves. The velocity of an inertial observer, however large, 
is totally irrelevant for its equivalence in dynamical matters with 
any other inertial observer. 



41 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

This picture led to no difficulties until, 200 years after Newton, the 
theory of the propagation of light and electromagnetism was founded 
by Maxwell. Now a basic velocity, the velocity of light entered. 
Could differently moving inertial observers, equivalent dynamically, 
also be equivalent optically? For while the different constant 
velocity vectors of different inertial observers did not matter for 
dynamics where only acceleration is relevant, it was thought that 
it must matter for light, whose velocity is itself of paramount 
importance. This notion of the possible optical non-equivalence 
of inertial observers led to conflict with experiment and to serious 
theoretical worries brilliantly resolved by Einstein with his Special 
Theory of Relativity, which extended the equivalence of Newton's 
inertial observers from dynamics to all of physics. The problem 
of the supposed non-equivalence was resolved by pointing out that 
each inertial observer used his own clock for measuring purposes. 
Time was shown to be not a universal quantity, but since each 
observer measured it with his own clock, each observer had his 
own time. This allowed them all to observe the same velocity of 
light, thus making all inertial observers truly equivalent. 

The discrepancies between calculations based on Newton's 
universal time and those based on the private times of Einstein's 
observers are negligible at velocities small compared with the speed 
of light, but become very significant as this speed is approached. 
As dynamics is normally applied at low speeds (even a jet airliner 
travels at less than one-millionth of the speed of light), these 
discrepancies were not noticed for over 200 years. Nowadays 
when we accelerate elementary particles to enormous speed in big 
accelerators and investigate cosmic radiation containing very fast 
particles, the difference can be very large indeed. (It is even 
appreciable in the paths of the electrons in a television tube.) 
In countless experiments there has been excellent agreement with 
the calculations based on special relativity. 

One of the most important results of special relativity is that 
nothing can be accelerated past the speed of light. Whatever we 
do to speed up a particle originally slower than tight, its speed 
will never attain, let alone exceed, the speed of light. This is 
indeed clear from the fact that at any instant an inertial observer 



42 






General Relativity 

moving momentarily at the speed of the particle will see light 
travelling with the speed of light. While relativity does not wholly 
exclude the possibility of the existence of entities travelling faster 
than light, they would have such strange properties that we must 
count it as fortunate that none have ever been discovered. It 
thus follows that information cannot travel faster than light. 

Another important consequence of relativity is that energy has 
mass. This was shown by Einstein in a beautifully simple ideal 
experiment for the case of radiant energy. First it should be 
pointed out that tight exerts a pressure. This is clear from 
Maxwell's theory. Consider any electro-magnetic wave (such as 
light or ultraviolet or X rays or infra red or, easiest to think about 
for the present example, radio waves). If it hits a sheet of metal, 
i.e., a reflecting surface, the electric and magnetic fields of the 
incident wave generate electric currents in the sheet which them- 
selves generate fresh electro-magnetic waves. In the forward 
direction this secondary wave just cancels the continuation of the 
incident wave creating a shadow, while in the rearward direction 
this secondary wave is the reflected wave. (An absorbing, i.e., 
black surface, similarly has electric currents in it which, however, 
only generate a shadow but no reflected wave.) In cither case a 
force, the radiation pressure, is bound to arise between these 
currents in the surface and the electric and magnetic fields of the 
waves just outside it. Although the radiation pressure is small 
for ordinary intensities of light, it can easily be measured in the 
laboratory. Where light intensity is large, as near the Sun, small 
dust particles are blown away fast by radiation pressure. 

To come now to Einstein's ideal experiment, imagine a long 
hollow box, black on its inside, lying at rest on a smooth horizontal 
table. Near one end is a flashbulb, radiating equally forward and 
backward, and activated by a battery through a switch. When 
the switch is closed, a flash of light is emitted by the bulb. The 
radiation hitting the near end is absorbed there; the radiation 
pressure gives the box a push and sets it in motion, while a similar 
amount of radiation takes time to travel to the far end of the box. 
When it hits this end and is absorbed, the pressure of the radiation 
gives the box an equal and opposite push, bringing it to rest 



43 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

again. To an external observer, the box, originally at rest, moved 
for a short time (the travel time of the light in the box) and then 
came to rest again, without any external force acting on it. By 
the law Of conservation of momentum the whole system can never 
have had any momentum and thus its centre of mass must have 
stayed put. But as the box has shifted, there must have been an 
internal shift of (inertial) mass from the battery end to the far 
end. Indeed after the flash the battery end has less energy, since 
of the energy that left the battery, only part has been absorbed 
(and so turned to heat) at the near end. By contrast, the far end 
has gained energy by the absorption. So this shift of energy has 
implied a shift of mass, proving that energy has mass, whether 
it is in the form of chemical energy in the battery or heat energy 
in the ends of the box, or indeed in any other form. Indeed, in 
any normal material, the energy lacked up in the nuclei is a 
significant fraction (several tenths of one per cent, differing sub- 
stantially between different materials) of the total mass- Thus the 
Eotvos-Diche experiment would readily have discovered if the 
relation between the inertial and passive gravitational mass were 
different for the mass of energy than for any other mass. Thus 
energy responds to gravitation and, by the law of action and 
reaction, must generate gravitation (active gravitational mass). 

Some of the defects of Newtonian theory are now evident. It 
says nothing about any interaction of gravitation and light (which 
after all is a form of energy). It does not allow for the relativistlc 
behaviour of fast particles, etc. But highly unsatisfactory though 
this is intellectually, measurement is difficult. Gravitational 
accelerators are so small that they significantly change appreciable 
velocities only after acting for some time. If, as in a great proton- 
synchroton, protons chase round a circuit a couple of hundred metres 
or more in length at near the speed of light, even a hundred circuits 
take them less than 0.1 milleseconds during which time an internally 
horizontally moving body only falls barely 5 X 10 a cm, far 
less than its deflection by stray electric or magnetic fields. With 
lesser lengths, the effect of gravitation on fast particles is even less 
significant. However, there is one effect of gravitation on radiation 
where measurement has become possible. This is the famous 

44 



General Relativity 

Einstein gravitational shift of spectral lines, first theoretically 
demonstrated by Einstein through one of his great ideal experiments 
about 1910, and first measured in 1960 by Pound and Rcbka. 

In the ideal experiment one imagines a high tower. (Figure 4-1.) 
An endless chain of buckets runs over pulleys at the top and at 
the bottom. Each bucket is filled with the same number of atoms 
of the same element, but all the buckets on the left are filled with 
atoms in the ground state (state of lowest energy), all the buckets 
on the right with atoms that have more energy (they arc said to 
be in an excited state). Atoms can be put from the ground state 
to an excited state by letting them absorb light of a particular 
frequency, and they emit light of the same frequency when they 
change from the excited state to the ground state. Thus the excited 



BUCKETS FILLED WITH 
EXCITED ATOMS 




BUCKETS FILLED 

WITH ATOMS 

IN THE GROUND 

STATE 



Figure 4-1. The gravitational xh iff . 

atoms contain stored energy and, as the energy has mass, they have 
more mass than atoms in the ground state. Accordingly the 
buckets on the right are heavier than the buckets on the left, and 
so the chain will begin to move, the right side descending and left 



45 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

side ascending. Wc now arrange it so that when a bucket from 
the right side reaches the bottom, the atoms in it revert to the 
ground state, emitting light of the characteristic frequency. Wc 
have a system of mirrors to catch this light and concentrate it on 
the buckets just reaching the top of the tower. These contain 
atoms in the ground state which, on absorbing light of the char- 
acteristic frequency, go into the excited state. Thus we ensure 
that the buckets on the right always contain excited atoms and the 
buckets on the left always atoms in the ground state. Thus the 
chain will keep moving and, if a generator is attached to one 
of the pulleys, we will have a power station consuming nothing. 
This is a real perputuum mobile, a way of getting something for 
nothing. This is not possible {law of conservation of energy). 
Thus there must be a mistake in our argument. The only possible 
fault is that, although light from an emitting atom is just of the 
right frequency to be absorbed by an atom of the same kind when 
the two atoms arc side by side, this no longer holds if the emitting 
atom is low and the absorbing atom is high. Thus there must be 
tin effect of gravitation on the frequency of light. Any acceptable 
theory of gravitation must include this effect. To evaluate its 
sign and magnitude, it is first necessary to state that it is well 
known that light of a frequency higher than the characteristic 
one can excite atoms, but light of a lower frequency can never 
do so. Thus the light must arrive red-shifted (of too low a 
frequency). Its frequency can be raised by bouncing it off a 
mirror moving against the beam of light. The light pressure 
implies that work is done in so moving the mirror, proportional 
to the speed of the mirror and thus to the frequency shift. If a 
succession of moving mirrors (e.g., mounted on a shaft) achieves 
the object of raising the frequency of the light arriving at the top 
sufficiently to excite the atoms there, then the power needed to 
drive the mirrors must be exactly equal to that gained from the 
chain since otherwise energy could not be balanced. The shift of 
frequency can be calculated from this equation. It is always small; 
even for a tower 90 m. high, the shift in frequency is only one 
part in 10", but this has been measured. There are much 
larger shifts on astronomical bodies (two parts in a million for 



46 



General Relativity 

the Sun, appreciable for White Dwarf stars), but other effects 
make the measurement of these very difficult. 

To sum up this section: An acceptable gravitational theory must 
be relativistic (i.e., compatible with Special Relativity). This 
will automatically enable it to comprehend the interaction of 
gravitation with fast particles and light, including the Einstein 
gravitational shift of frequency. 

To come to the question of Galileo's principle that all bodies 
fall equally fast, this is not an organic part of Newton's theory 
of gravitation, but only an incidental rule, viz., tnertial mass equals 
passive gravitational mass. Moreover, it is logically virtually incom- 
patible with Newton's law of inertia. For suppose you were 
asked to test this law that a body on which no forces act moves 
in a straight line with constant velocity. You would carefully 
select a non-magnetic body so that it would be unaffected by any 
magnetic field, make sure that it was electrically uncharged to 
avoid the effect of electric fields, make certain that there were no 
ropes pulling it, that it was dense enough and of such a shape 
that accidental air draughts would not affect it, etc. But you 
simply could not exclude the gravitational force on it, since no 
choice of material can avoid it. Thus Newton's law of inertia, 
the foundation of his dynamics, is untestable. This is profoundly 
unsatisfactory. Nor is it any relief to advise this experiment to 
be carried out far away from any gravitating body. For we need 
the law here and not far out in space which furthermore seems to 
contain enough stars and galaxies for it to be impossible to remove 
the experiment arbitrarily far from any matter. 

Einstein's resolution of this difficulty, like several other of his 
contributions, has a fierce simplicity. Instead of regarding incrtial 
and passive gravitational mass as "accidentally" equal, he regards 
them as one ami the same quantity since inertia and gravitation 
are the same phenomenon. This requires a reformulation of the 
law of inertia. Newton's law may be divided into two parts: 
A: There exists a standard motion which matter follows when it 
is not acted upon by a force. B: This standard motion is motion 
in a straight line with constant velocity. 

Since gravitation is the same as inertia it cannot be a force. A 
force is only something whose effect on a body can be switched on 



47 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

or off at will (like an electrostatic pull present if the body is 
charged, absent if it is discharged). Something unavoidable and 
universal like gravitation must be accepted as part of the back- 
ground, as necessarily present. Thus part A of the law of inertia 
can be retained, but the standard motion is now not, as in B, 
particularly simple, but is the set of possible trajectories under 
inertia and gravitation. Thus, at the price of complicating B, 
inertia and gravitation have been unified. The equality of Inertia! 
and passive gravitational mass is no longer a law, it is a tautology. 

But how are these motions to be described? In the previous 
lecture it was shown how the intrinsic gravitational field is described 
by the relative acceleration of neighbouring particles. But we now 
use our chance to go relativistic by describing the relative accelera- 
tion of neighbouring particles whether their relative velocity is 
small (the Newtonian case) or large f speed of light). Of course 
this is a richer situation requiring more specifications. Where 
Newton could do with six quantities (the second derivatives of a 
single potential), 20 quantities (involving the second derivatives 
of 10 potentials) are needed to describe these relative accelerations 
in their dependence on relative position and relative velocity. It 
will be remembered that in Newtonian theory a linear combination 
of some of these six quantities equalled the source of the field, 
the density of matter. In full analogy, 10 linear combinations of 
the 20 quantities equal the sources of the field in relativity. Why 
10 sources? Because now not only the density of matter, but its 
motion also generate gravitational fields. Since matter in motion 
gains passive gravitational mass through its kinetic energy, the 
equality of action and reaction require motion to add also to the 
active gravitational effect of matter. Thus the sources are roughly 
speaking the density and the density multiplied by each of the 
three components of velocity and by their squares and products, 
making 10 sources in all. 

There is a further gain in all this complexity. Whereas in 
Newtonian theory of gravitation the laws of the conservation of 
mass and momentum were extraneous constraints on the source of 
the field, now they are consequence of the field. For the 10 
linear combinations of the field (which equal the 10 sources) are 

48 



r 






General Relativity 

not mathematically independent of each other but satisfy mathe- 
matically four certain identities.* These must be satisfied equally 
by the sources, and these identities are the laws of conservation 
of mass, momentum and energy. 

Thus tremendous physical steps have been achieved. Inertia 
has been unified with gravitation, and the law of gravitation with 
the laws of conservation of matter and momentum. Gravitational 
theory has been made compatible with Special Relativity. AH 
this has admittedly led to awkward mathematical complexity. But 
(he real test of a physical theory is neither its unifying accomplish- 
ments nor its mathematical form, but agreement with experimental 
evidence. What is the score here? 

First it is an astounding result for such a novel theory that for 
slowly moving bodies of no undue size or density the same orbits 
emerge as for Newton's theory. In view of the countless tests of 
Newton's theory in the solar system this is a necessary result for 
the acceptability of. the theory, but for a theory with such a 
different starting attitude it is remarkable. Real discrepancies 
between Newton's theory and Einstein's occur in three circumstances 
only: 

( i ) when relative velocities are high ; 

(ii) when the mass density corresponding to pressure energies 

is comparable with the mass density of matter; 
(iii) when the gravitational potential energy is comparable 

with the mass. 

The first of these follows clearly from the relativistic character of 
Einstein's theory compared with the non-relativistic character of 
Newton's theory. The second cause is of the same kind, for 
pressure arises from the random motion of molecules, and the two 



* To give a trivial example to show what is meant, suppose field 
variables x, y, z are connected with sources w, v, w by the relations 
>' — z — u 

Z X = V 

x — y = H' 
It follows from the structure of these equations that the sources satisfy 
u + v + w = 0. 

49 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

densities become comparable when the velocity of random motions 
becomes comparable to the speed of light. The third one is of a 
slightly different kind. On the surface of any gravitating body 
one can define the velocity of escape, the minimum velocity 
necessary for the ejection of a particle which is not to fall back 
on the body. The third condition is essentially that the velocity 
of escape becomes comparable to the speed of light. 

It is only discrepancies of the first kind that are testable so far. 
One effect, the Einstein shift of frequencies, has already been 
discussed, and indeed the theory gives the right shift. A second 
one also concerns light, in this case the lateral deflection of light 
rays passing close to a massive body. The only such body 
accessible is the Sun, The observations can only be carried out 
during a total eclipse, and the results, at the verge of the measur- 
able, are in reasonable agreement with the theory. Finally, for 
fast moving bodies there should be a small deviation from the 
Newton-Kepler orbits. The difference is best measurable for the 
fastest planet, Mercury, and is in excellent agreement with the 
theory. Thus the experimental evidence, as far as it goes, speaks 
for the gravitational theory of Einstein. 

It is our, no doubt fortunate, fate to live in a part of the universe 
where bodies massive enough to cause appreciable gravitational 
fields do not move fast, do not have enormous pressure, do not 
have colossal velocities of escape. But the theorist is not bound 
in his imagination by what exists in our neighbourhood. He can 
torture the theory by seeing what answers it gives in circumstances 
that are not self-contradictory, but happen not to occur in our 
neighbourhood. Such work certainly tests and illuminates our 
theory. And who knows that such circumstances might not exist 
somewhere in our incredibly complex universe? Thus we are led 
to the problem of gravitational waves. 



50 



CHAPTER FIVE 






Gravitational Waves 



In the Newtonian theory of gravitation, the problem of the speed 
of gravitation does not arise. The link between the source and its 
field is immediate and instantaneous. The gravitational field is 
attached firmly to matter like an aura surrounding it. Wherever 
the source goes and however it moves, its field of gravitational 
attraction goes with it. 

It has already been pointed out that the validity of Newtonian 
theory is limited to cases where relative velocities are small com- 
pared with the speed of light. What happens if this restriction 
does not hold? We evidently have to use Einstein's theory of 
gravitation, as this is a relativistic theory and thus capable of 
dealing with high velocities. However, before one can ask any 
theory to deal with a problem, it is necessary to formulate precise 
and sensible questions. In the case of a theory of the immense 
mathematical complexity of General Relativity, it is moreover 
desirable to consider what the possible answers may look like, so 
that they can be analysed reasonably. 

The first task must be to set up an ideal experiment that would 
test questions concerning the speed of gravitation. We have 
already met ideal experiments in the previous lecture, but perhaps 
an ideal experiment should be defined here as an experiment 
that can be described in a self-consistent way but, for reasons 
of cost or technical difficulties, cannot be performed. (It has 
been said that we do not perform experiments on, say, the 
constitution of the stars by building stars because of the cost.) 
The weakness of the critical faculty of man makes it essential to 
be doubly severe in criticizing any ideal experiment, as the snags 
that a realization would show up have to be found intellectually 
rather than by experience. 



51 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

How, then, would one devise an ideal experiment to discover 
the speed of gravitation? In its most primitive form the question 
could be put in the form: How soon would the Earth leave its 
orbit if the Sun suddenly ceased to exist? Would it happen 
instantaneously or some eight minutes later (when we would see 
the disappearance of Sun, as light takes some eight minutes to 
reach the Earth from the Sun) or at some other time? Since 
the law of conservation of mass is an essential addition to Newton's 
theory and an integral consequence of Einstein's theory, this question 
is seen to be nonsensical. The disappearance of the Sun is 
incompatible with our theories of gravitation. 

A slightly more refined question is: How soon would the Earth 
leave its orbit if the Sun suddenly started to move off at right 
angles to the plane of the Earth's orbit. Again the question is 
nonsensical, since the law of conservation of momentum is linked 
to our theories of gravitation exactly like the law of conservation 
of mass. (It will be recollected that in an earlier lecture it was 
pointed out that the first two coefficients in the expansion of the 
gravitational potential could not be varied at will.) 

A sensible question, however, does result if we ask how soon 
the orbit of the Earth would be affected if the Sun changed its 
shape from spherical to, say, spheroidal and prolate, leaving aside 
whether such a development is compatible with the internal 
constitution of the Sun (a question that has nothing to do with 
the theory of gravitation). The only limitations on this develop- 
ment apparent from our theories are that the mass must be 
unchanged, the position of the centre of mass must be unchanged, 
and the velocity of no particle of the Sun may reach or exceed the 
speed of light. Though this last restriction is not trivial, it is 
none too serious. It simply means that a major change in the 
shape of the Sun must take a few seconds (light can travel a 
distance equal to the Sun's diameter in a bare five seconds). 
Since we arc looking for transmission delays of under eight minutes, 
■a blurring of the signal by a few seconds is unimportant. 

From the ideas of Special Relativity it emerges that information 
cannot travel faster than light. The orbital behaviour of the Earth 



52 



Gravitational Waves 

would reveal changes in the shape of the Sun. Thus a relativistic 
theory would require that the Earth cannot leave its orbit before 
we can see the change in the shape of the Sun. 

Transmission of information, however, opens a whole new 
chapter. It is an essential tenet of modern physics that information 
cannot be transmitted without the transmission of energy. For 
any apparatus receiving the information must abstract some energy 
from what is arriving in order to function. The amount of energy 
involved is not clearly specified, but some energy must be trans- 
mitted. Transmission of energy is well known from electromagnetic 
theory where one distinguishes between two kinds of transmission, 
inductive and radiative. Inductive transfer involves generally the 
near field, but its most essential characteristic is that the transmitter 
only loses energy if there is a receiver to take it up. An electrical 
transformer is a good example. The two coils are close to each 
other, and the primary current experiences a resistive component 
of impedance (other than the, for our purposes irrelevant, Ohmic 
loss) only if the secondary circuit is closed through a resistance. 
If the secondary is open-circuited, no energy is taken from the 
primary. 

Electromagnetic radiative transfer of energy is quite different. 
The load on a radio transmitter is totally independent of how many 
people have switched on their receivers. It radiates energy just as 
perfectly if it is surrounded only by empty space as if there are 
absorbers. How can this occur? Where does the energy go? 
There is a clear link between the finite speed of propagation of 
radiation and radiative loss of energy. In induction there is, for 
all practical purposes, an instantaneous interaction between receiver 
and transmitter. At any moment, the energy is divided between 
transmitter and receiver. Whatever energy is not in the transmitter, 
is in the receiver. There is too little journey time between the 
two for any but a negligible amount of energy to be on the way 
from one to the other. In the radiative case, on the other hand, 
there is a significant time lag between transmission and reception. 
Thus a good deal of energy must be on the way in transit in any 
given time. Thus this energy has left the transmitter. It cannot 
yet "know" that there exists a receiver. If it is in transit for a 



53 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

while, it might be in transit for ever, as far as concerns the 
transmitter, Therefore the loss of energy of the transmitter is 
fixed, whether an absorber exists or not. 

There are some very puzzling features in this. In electro- 
magnetic theory itself, as in most of physics, there is no direction 
of time. It makes no more difference whether, in evaluating the 
equations, we let time advance or go backward than whether we 
let the -t-co-ordinatc increase or decrease. This is just the same 
as in dynamics. If a clockwise orbit is possible for the Earth, so 
is an equal anti -clockwise orbit. If a ball can move from A to B, 
then it can move from B to A. Yet in radiation there is a sense 
of time. The receiver receives after the transmitter radiates. Why 
is there this sudden intrusion of a particular direction of time, 
when up to this point the theory could not care less whether time 
went one way or another? This is an obscure and difficult point 
in our understanding of physics. There seem to be three, and 
only three, points in physics where the direction of time matters, 
namely in radiation theory, in the theory of heat (hot and cold 
water mix by themselves to make lukewarm water, but lukewarm 
water does not of its own accord separate into hot and cold water) 
and in cosmology, where distant objects show a red shift of the 
spectra, not a blue shift. There is good reason to believe that the 
three phenomena are linked. In particular, il can be argued that 
the red shifts mean that all radiation is always absorbed at very 
large distances, if it has not been absorbed nearby. Thus the 
red shifts imply a direction of time which shows itself in radiation 
and, through radiation, in the theory of heat. The connections are 
not too well understood, but the essential point for our purposes 
is that, as soon as one comes to radiation, one must select a 
direction of time such that transmitters emit before receivers absorb. 

If we want to apply the ideas of electromagnetic theory to the 
gravitational case we must first surmount a hurdle, the universal 
character of gravitation. In the electromagnetic description of a 
TV station there is a great deal that can be omitted because it has 
no electric charge or current. The buildings, the announcer or 
actors, the furniture, all this is electrically neutral and irrelevant. 
Where the news comes from that the announcer reads, how the play 



54 









Gravitational Waves 

was written or how the manuscripts were brought to the TV studio, 
what the actors ate, all this can be neglected for sure, since it does 
not produce electromagnetic radiation. Thus there are free 
variables, to put it mathematically, in electromagnetic theory. A 
description of the system can obviously be self-consistent without 
being complete. One can describe all the electronics, TV cameras, 
antennae, etc., of a TV station without this in any way specifying 
the newsreader or the news he reads- Indeed the electric system is 
compatible with any news reader and any news. This is a vital 
aspect of any useful physical theory. It must always have a 
free input, an interface with reasonably arbitrary behaviour. For 
our knowledge can of necessity only be partial. A theory that 
gives a useful answer only if initially everything is known with 
perfect accuracy is a useless theory. There must be room, plenty 
of room, for ignorance. A useful theory can tell us a fair amount 
from partial initial knowledge. 

In gravitational theory the situation is not so clear. Everything 
has mass and thus contributes to the gravitational field. One cannot 
leave anything out of the description and know for sure that it 
could not have affected the situation. To come back to our 
example of the Sun changing suddenly from a sphere to a prolate 
spheroid, the chief question was how long it took the news of this 
change to reach the Earth in its orbit. But was it true news? Was 
the change not necessarily pre-programmed, as it were, in the 
structure of the Sun? Could a sufficiently good computer on the 
Earth not have predicted, from its knowledge of the preceding 
gravitational field of the Sun, when and how this change would 
occur? But if there is no news and thus no fresh information in 
the change of the Sun's shape, the Earth's orbit will not tell us 
about the speed of gravitation. I think that probably this fear is 
unfounded. There could be a lime bomb in the Sun, as powerful 
as you like, triggered by an arbitrarily small watch and hence of 
arbitrarily small gravitational influence, or even by a random event, 
a peak of noise for example. Then nobody, inside or outside the 
Sun, could have forecast when the change of shape would occur. 
Thus there would be true news in the change of shape. Thus the 
rules and regulations of special relativity apply, and the Earth 



55 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

cannot possibly leave its orbit before one can detect by looking 
at the change of shape of the Sun. It might, however, be later. 

Thus the delay, the one-sidedness of time, must be as compatible 
with gravitational theory as with electromagnetic theory. But if 
gravitation conveys information it must transport energy. IE it 
transports energy radiatively, the loss of energy of the transmitter 
is independent of the existence of the receiver. Furthermore, such 
a loss of energy implies a loss of mass, since all energy has mass. 
Thus gravitational radiation must diminish the mass of the trans- 
mitter. This shows how complicated the theory of gravitation must 
be. We started with the Newtonian theory and its linearity. This 
meant that the mass A„, the dipole moment A { , the quadrupole 
moment A 2l and the higher moments A„ were all independent of 
each other. Moreover A a was conserved by conservation of mass, 
while A\ was restricted by conservation of momentum, since an 
isolated body could only move with constant velocity, so that 
dA,/dt had to be constant. A% and the higher moments were 
arbitrary functions of the time. Note, however, that for an 
unchanging body in uniform motion A* varied quadratically with 
the time, so that (PA-Jdt 2 had to be constant. The arbitrariness 
of the time variation of A-. for a body of changing shape would 
reveal itself therefore through tfUg/dr* not vanishing. 

In relativity the situation is far more complex. Let us forget 
for the moment the difficulties of defining mass and moments in 
a truly relativistic (i.e., rapidly changing) situation. Emission of 
radiation will occur if the quadrupole or higher moments change. 
This can only lead to a mass loss, never to a mass gain. Thus the 
derivative oE the mass must depend quadratically (to ensure 
constant sign) on the variations of the moments. Thus the theory 
must be non-linear. The mass must be affected by the other 
moments, and in a uni-dircctional way. Dimensional considerations 
readily lead to an important formula. Using the speed of light 
and the constant of gravitation for conversion, mass, length and 
time may all be expressed in the same units. Thus we try to 
find dAJdt. This is a non-dimensional quantity, since A„ (mass) 
and t (time) have the same dimensions. Restricting ourselves to 
the quadrupole moment we must therefore construct a non- 



56 



Gravitational Waves 

dimensional quantity from At- The only such quantity is 
(PAJdr\ which wc have already seen to be the true measure of 
variation of A>. Thus we are led to (he formula 

dAJdt ■ k(d i A../dt*¥ 

There k is a numerical constant like l/4x The full non-linearity 
is now scJf-evidenl. Moreover the frequency dependence is made 
clear. If A;, oscillates with frequency c», the rate of mass loss and 
therefore the radiated power arc proportional to w'\ (For each 
derivative yields a multiplying factor o>.) 

For low frequencies the radiated power will therefore be extremely 
low, for high ones extremely high. As an example consider the 
solar system looked at from far outside it. Due to the motion 
of the planets (dominated by Jupiter with its large mass), the 
quadrupole and higher moments of [he system as a whole vary, 
with the period of Jupiter's revolution (a little over 10 y, 
most important. If we work out the gravitational ly radiated power. 
it is a mere M kW, a ridiculously low amount for this huge system, 
a mere flea-bite compared with the electromagnetic radiation of the 
Sun whose power is nearly 4 X I0"' ! kW. Is thus gravitational 
radiation something totally unimportant in our universe? Perhaps 
not. It would be parochial to think that the ponderous motion 
of Jupiter round the Sun is characteristic of all regions of the 
universe. Arc there anywhere massive systems in faster motion? 
In the relatively near regions of our galaxy wc know many p;iirs 
of stars revolving round each other almost in contact. A pair ;>f 
stars like our Sun in contact would revolve round each other in a 
few hours. Their gravitational radiation would then be vastly 
increased by the sixth power of the frequency, compared with 
the Jupiter case. Allowing for the differences in separation and 
mass, one arrives at a gravitational radiation power a few percent 
of the electromagnetically radiated power. No longer a flea-bite, 
but not perhaps very impressive. If we could only get the stars 
still closer together, they would revolve faster and the effect would 
be greater. To get them closer, their radii must be smaller, i.e., 
I hey must be denser. Wc know very dense stars, the White 
Dwarfs. Their masses are close to that of our Sun, but their 
radii are smaller by a Eactor near 100. We do not know of a 



57 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



pair of White Dwarfs revolving round each other. But let us 
imagine such a pair in near contact. We know nothing that makes 
this impossible, except that the gravitationally radiated power 
would be so huge (millions of millions of times the electro- 
magnetically radiated power) that this loss of energy would make 
the system collapse in an astronomically very short period (100,000 
years or less). Thus stars as we know them could be enormously 
powerful radiators of gravitational waves. Moreover, our part of 
the galaxy is certainly very peaceful compared with the region 
near its centre. We know little about it, but we know for sure 
that very violent processes go on there. 

To sum up then: while we cannot positively identify any stellar 
system as a powerful gravitational radiator, it seems more probable 
than not that such radiators exist, particularly in the central region 
of our galaxy. 

So far we have only spoken of the transmission of these waves. 
How could they be received? What would they do? Do they 
travel with the speed of light or more slowly? On this last point 
the theory shows, not unexpectedly, that the bulk of the wave 
travels with the speed of light. The wave, like any gravitational 
influence, must express itself as a relative acceleration of neigh- 
bouring particles. The wave is completely transverse, i.e., the 
effect is at right angles to the direction of propagation. A simple 
wave travelling along the z axis might at one moment tend to 
drive apart test particles in the .r direction while making them 
approach each other in the y direction. A little later this might 
be reversed. Such a simple wave is called polarized. There exists 
another polarization in which the stretch-compress directions are 
;it 45 " to those of the wave mentioned. A theoretically simple 
detector might consist of a freely falling rough stick on which 
two massive spheres can slide, but are constrained in their motion 
by springs. An incident wave would make the spheres change 
their distance apart. The friction of this motion would lead to 
a heating that might be measured. A practical detector has been 
built in recent years by J. Weber of the University of Maryland. 
By an extreme refinement of measurement technique, he has made 
apparatus that can measure changes in the length of cylinders 



Gravitational Waves 

about 1 m, long when these changes are only about 10 -14 cm.! 
Even with the best insulation, such changes will be produced by 
local traffic, effect of wind on the ground, etc. He has therefore 
two identical such systems placed nearly a thousand miles apart. 
Any changes in length detected that are different for the two are 
ascribed to local perturbations but he has also detected changes 
occurring simultaneously on the two. These he ascribes to gravita- 
tional waves. Moreover, there is some evidence that the effects 
occur most when the apparatus is aligned by the Earth's rotation 
to be sensitive to disturbances originating in the centre of our 
galaxy. 

The evidence is perhaps still near the margin of error but it 
is highly suggestive. It is more likely than not that 1969 will go 
down in the history of science as the year when gravitational 
radiation was detected. The new subject of gravitational wave 
astronomy will join optical astronomy, radio astronomy, X-ray 
astronomy, etc. 

It would be wrong to end this chapter without referring to the 
real difficulties that still exist in our theoretical understanding, 
due largely to the extreme mathematical complexity. As has been 
stressed, under certain assumptions, general relativity reduces to 
Newtonian theory. For our purposes where extremely high potentials 
and pressures need not be considered, this similarity essentially 
relates to static (or slowly moving) state of the system. Radiation, 
on the other hand, occurs when the system is in a dynamic state 
with rapid internal motions. The Newtonian case we understand 
well. In particular we know how to relate the characteristic 
features of the field at large distance (expansion in r ') such as 
A n , A\, A* ... to the structure of the source, in particular to 
the distribution of mass. We can do this because we can carry 
our mathematical analysis from far regions to near ones and in 
fact cover all space. In the relativistic dynamic case we are 
prevented by mathematical complexity from looking at the situation 
except from far away. It is likely that the impossibility of inferring 
some characteristics of the structure of the source from the far 
field is due not only to mathematical obstacles but to the fact 
that the complexity of the far field is due to the whole history 
not only of the source, but of the whole field. 



59 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



In any case the physical identification of the characteristic 
parameters of the distant field is clear only in the static case. The 
ideal way to investigate the dynamics of the field and to link it 
to the known static situation is to suppose that an isolated source 
has been static for ail time past, then goes through various changes 
of shape, and finally settles down in a static state again. Such a 
"sandwich" of dynamic meat between static bread is indeed desir- 
able, but not attainable. It is rather easy to devise theoretically a 
static situation and to describe its transition into a dynamic state. 
It has not so far been possible to get the system back into a 
static state. For some time it was thought that the difficulty was 
purely technical, but then Newman and Penrose discovered a 
curious relation which throws some light on this matter. They 
found that certain combinations of the coefficients describing the 
far field are necessarily constant, irrespective of whether the 
situation is static or dynamic. In the simple case of axial symmetry 
and equatorial symmetry (quite sufficient for our purposes) this 
combination equals, in the static case only, the product A„A». 
Thus if, e.g., the system is initially spherically symmetrical so that 
A n A-j mm 0, this must apply at all times. But it is physically clear 
that an initially spherical body may, after some time, settle down 
to a prolate or oblate state. If this is so, but A^A* vanishes in 
the static state because of the constancy of A„A- 2 , then the only 
possibility of reconciling these statements is that the field can never 
become static again. How could this be explained? It is a fact 
that it is the rule rather than the exception for waves not to be 
confined to the wave front. Thus, normally there is a "tail" of 
disturbance following the front. It is true that this is absent in the 
propagation of light waves or sound waves in three dimensions in 
a homogeneous medium (Huygens' principle) but in many other 
cases its presence is well known (dispersive media, cylindrical 
waves, etc.). Thus for example if we set off an explosion along 
a line in the air we would hear not just a bang, but a bang 
followed by a rumble. However, in all cases known in physics 
so far, this rumble eventually dies out. It seems as if in gravitational 
waves the rumble goes on permanently, Thus, after a dynamic 
phase of wave emission, the field apparently never returns to a 
truly static situation, but keeps "ringing" in some way. If the 



60 



Gravitational Waves 

field is never static we can never again identify the Ncwman- 
Pcnrose parameters at large distance with the mass distribution of 
the source, and the difficulty of reconciling the shape of the source 
with the constancy of this parameter disappears. 

I hope I have made it clear that this is very much an unfinished 
subject. A lot more work is needed theoretically to help our 
understanding, and experimentally to extend Weber's observations. 
But I also hope to have shown you that it is a fascinating subject. 



61 



U.S. Space Flight 



by 

G. Hage 
L. B. James 
G. E. Mueller 




Mr. G. Huge, 

Vice-President for Development, 
Boeing Company. Seattle, Washington. 



Colonel L. ft. James, 
Director of Lunar Operations, 
George C. Marshall Space Flight Centre. 
Hun is vllte , A la hama . 





Dr. G. E. Mueller, 

Vice-President, 

General Dynamics Corporation, 

Washington, D.C. 






CHAPTER ONE 



Origins and Building 
Blocks of Manned 
Space Flight 



by G. Haye 



From about July 16 to July 24, 1969, the Sydney Australia Sun, 
Daily Mirror, Sunday Telegraph and Morning Herald, along 
with the rest of the world Press, headlined one of the greatest 
news stories of all time (Figure /-/). Two men from planet Earth, 
members of the Apollo II astronaut crew, had set foot on the 
Moon for the first time in the history of mankind. This was a 
colossal achievement, not only for America but for all of the 
free world people, who because of their participation shared in 
the afterglow of this once-in-a-lifetime success story, Australia 
made its important contribution to the success of Apollo 1 1 by 
furnishing facilities that helped provide the all-important com- 
munications link-up between the Apollo 1 1 crew and Earth, via 
radio and TV. 

But space fusts were not always this jubilant for the free world. 
On October 4, 1957, Soviet Russia scored the then most important 
first in space science: Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite ever to 
be placed in orbit by man. Sputnik I was soon followed by space 
feats of even greater magnitude. It was then that the Iron Curtain 
countries enjoyed the glory of great space accomplishments, and 
revelled in the world-wide publicity that ensued. In America, a 
cloud of gloom settled over the land. Practically everyone felt 
frustrated and mortified at having been bested by a rival nation. 
For years, America and Russia had been pitted against each other 
in the post-World War II "cold war". By moving ahead of the 
United Slates in what became known as the space race, the 
Soviet Union gained invaluable and unassailable prestige. Even 



65 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



No. W.527 




MONDAY, JULY 21, 1949 



Fr* t CMPt 






SUN 



ON THE 



Tifijini lOU. tan IM. Halnr. Umn » *» »t, O.P.O. Jjfcn. »l. 



• CITY: Cl<l.r kHn, • tomriw: Mi. J«k|»t 303, E. P; SjhcI.I 1773, T- 31 • FlMMt, f. M • TV, F. 37 




MAN'S ceatiriei-old draw ci*e trie todtv ftrty seceadt liter 6.17 a.w. (Svdiey tine) whet 
the B.S. ittroeiiU ImttrME and RMrii dodged i hip enter ltd bided their liur sate* 
vehicle geatty M the rock-itidded ■<»■ ii i cloud of iuar diit. Fill report pages Z, 3, 4, 5 aid 6. 

FIRST STEP FIVE HRS. EARL Y 



A 5 T fiOHA LP T H*4t Araaifawtp aptnmd tht w c* fl* f r» few yfe „ T 

^* moJufe rot or***- newt fSr^rvrr fan**! t«daj~and »«» ^ ^ ■ ■ a 

felJ I0f< "woy iWrti r>»* fecrfdW* mp*w*fiJ tpVm •**■ Mrrf ^^ wjawr.fr tfrjj 
iris foot on (N* *«m>*. ^ 



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gJffcfeJp (a fel tjWni frvfJn (** Meterfe j*kwi 
h*v'l **tti*f thmn pJ ff r»n*rf. 



] 



Figure /-J. History Is ukk/i-. 






Origins of Manned Space Flight 

more dismaying was the realization that if- Russia had developed 
rockets powerful enough to orbit artificial satellites, the time would 
soon come when she would have the capability to deliver rockets 
containing deadly nuclear warheads to all parts of the world. 

Now, I am not going to suggest that Sputnik I and Russia's 
follow-up space probes were wholly responsible for America's 
Apollo programme. But it would be hypocritical not to admit that 
the Soviet space effort and achievements provided one of the 
most important motivations behind America's concentrated space 
effort that ultimately led to the Apollo I I lunar landing mission. 

Prior lo Sputnik 1, America, to be sure, did have a space 
programme. But it little resembled the one that followed shortly 
afterward. That is what I am going to talk about today — the 
U.S. pre-Spulnik space effort and the stepped up, concentrated 
space programme that followed on the heels of Sputnik I, up to, 
but not including, the Apollo programme. The Apollo and post- 
Apollo programmes will be covered in subsequent talks by me, 
by Lee James, and by the man who headed NASA's manned space 
flight programme during the Gemini and Apollo periods, through 
to Apollo 12, Dr. George Mueller. 

1 1 is not without good reason that discussions on early rocket 
technology pay tribute to Konstanlin Tsiolkovsky of Russia, Herman 
Oberth of Rumania and Germany, and Robert Goddard of America. 
Years before Sputnik I was even contemplated, all three of these 
rocket pioneers had significantly contributed to the development 
of the rocket that, at a later day, was destined to liberate man from 
the grip of Earth's gravitational pull. 

In America, as early as 1914, Dr. Robert Goddard was granted 
two patents for his ideas of a multi-stage rocket and liquid pro- 
pellanls. In static laboratory tests, he proved the theory that a 
rocket can perform in a vacuum and is therefore capable of 
operating in outer space. 

Dr. Goddard worked in rocketry unceasingly from 1917 until 
his death in 1945. In 1920, he experimented with liquid-fuel 
propulsion, trying out an idea for a hydrogen and oxygen fuel 
supply he had conceived as early as 1909. In March, 1926, 
he accomplished the first liquid-fuel rocket flight in history. 

67 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

During the 1930s, Dr. Goddard flew numerous rocket flight 
tests in the state of New Mexico, as he continued to develop the 
science of rocketry. Testimony to his lifetime of successful efforts 
in this field are over 200 patents in his name, covering all of the 
fundamentals of successful rocket night, from fuels, multi-stage 
design, and guidance and control, to payloads. 

But even as recently as World War II, Goddard's work went 
virtually unnoticed in the United States. In Germany, however, 
liquid-fuel rocket study had proceeded during the 1930s and, by 
1944, the German V-2 ballistic rockets were being launched from 
Germany against Britain. In basic design, the supersonic V-2, with 
its 200-mile range, was almost identical to Dr. Goddard's much 
smaller liquid-fuel rocket. 

The potential of large rockets demonstrated by the German 
V-2 fostered post-war aspirations for the exploration of space with 
instrumented, and eventually manned, rocket vehicles. The U.S. 
armed services pursued several rocket projects in the post-war 
period, exploiting captured V-2 components and adaptations of the 
V-2 engines, as well as other engine developments. One such 
V-2 experiment, launched from White Sands, New Mexico, in 
1946, rose 55 miles high to acquire the first ultra-violet spectrum of 
the Sun above the density of Earth's atmosphere, where ultra-violet 
rays, for the most part, are absorbed. By 1949, the Navy had 
developed the more powerful Viking rocket, for high altitude 
atmospheric probes. By 1952 the National Advisory Committee 
for Aeronautics (NACA) was studying the prospects of future 
manned space flight. That same year, NACA and the U.S. Air 
Force jointly began the X-15 rocket-powered airplane research 
project {Figure 1-2). The U.S. intercontinental ballistic missile 
programme commenced in 1954, leading to the development of a 
new generation of multi-stage rocket systems endowed with 
sufficient thrust to transport military payloads. 

In 1956, Project Vanguard, the first United States Earth satellite 
programme, was initiated under the management of the Naval 
Research Laboratory. Project Vanguard aimed at developing a 
satellite-launching vehicle and tracking system, and at placing at 
least one satellite in orbit with an experimental payload during the 
International Geophysical Year which began on July 1, 1957. 




Figure 1-2. X-15 airplane dropping away from a B-52 in flight 



But before a Vanguard rocket and satellite payload could get off 
the launch pad, Sputnik I was in orbit. And to further depress the 
sagging morale of the American people, a bigger and heavier 
Sputnik II, carrying the dog Laika, was orbited the following 
month, on November 3. 

But the United States immediately began to move into action- 
in the field of space science. An earlier proposal, which authorized 
the U.S. Army Ballistic Missile Agency to provide a backup 
rocket/satellite system, named Explorer, for the Vanguard, was 
resurrected. 

The launch of the first Vanguard rocket with potential orbit 
capabilities was attempted on December 6, 1957. The first stage 
engine lost thrust two seconds after ignition; and the vehicle burned 
up on the pad. The launch of the first U.S. satellite, Explorer I, 



68 



69 




Figure 1-3. A hipiter-C rocket 



was accomplished by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency on 
January 31, 1958 (Figure 1-3). Explorer I delected a belt of 
radiation about 500 miles above the equator thai was subsequently 
confirmed by Explorer III, launched on March 26, 1958, and 
named the Van Allen radiation bell. Meanwhile, after a second 
unsuccessful Vanguard launch attempt in February of 1958, the 
first successful Vanguard satellite was launched into orbit on 
March 17, 1958. Analysis of the orbit of Vanguard I revealed 
that the Earth is pear shaped, rather than bulging slightly at the 
equatcr and being somewhat Battened at the poles, as previously 
believed (Figure 1-4). 

Following Russia's success in orbiting Sputnik, President Eisen- 
hower and the U.S. Congress carefully reviewed the national* 
competence and potential in America's missile and space develop- 
ment. 



70 



» 



Figure f'S. Mariner IV sen of} on 
its Mars pro he. 

Early in 1958, the President's Advisory Committee on Govern- 
ment Organization recommended, and the President approved, that 
a civilian space agency be established, patterned after the successful 
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), and 
responsible for all non-military space activities in an integrated pro- 
gramme. The President's Science Advisory Committee also urged 
national action to develop space technology. A space agency bill 
was soon forwarded by the President to the Congress for considera- 
tion. The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1*958, which 
evolved from the bill, was passed by Congress and signed by the 
President on July 29, 1958, creating the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration (NASA). 

In addition, the Space Act of 1958 spelled out the national 
objectives in space as follows: 

( I ) the expansion of human knowledge; 

I 2 > improvement of aeronautical and space vehicles; 

(3) development and operation of space vehicle-: 



71 






Pioneering in Outer Space 

(4) long-range studies for peaceful and scientific use of aero- 
nautics and space; 

(5) international co-operation; 

(6) effective utilization of resources. 

The new space agency was formed around a nucleus of former 
NACA personnel. Eight thousand NACA employees, including 
scientists, engineers, and technicians, were transferred to NASA. 
NASA also absorbed NACA research facilities — the Langlcy, Ames, 
Lewis, and Edwards Research Centres — with their 40-year legacy 
of NACA aeronautical, rocket propulsion and missile research. 

Army, Air Force, Navy and Department of Defence non-military 
space projects were also transferred to NASA, including their space 
probes, satellites and rocket engine programmes. Among the projects 
and personnel acquired were the Project Vanguard scientific satellite 
programme and 200 highly qualified scientific and technical 
personnel from the Naval Research Laboratory. 

By the end of 1958, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the 
California Institute of Technology, previously under contract to the 
Army, was brought under NASA direction. At the same time, 
the Army Ballistic Missile Agency al Huntsvillc, Alabama, was 
made responsive to NASA requirements, as well as the large 
liquid-fuelled Saturn rocket programme at Huntsville, initiated in 
1958 under Department of Defence auspices. Then, in mid- 1 960, 
a group of rocket experts of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency's 
Development Operations Division, and their facilities, were trans- 
ferred to NASA. With this transfer, the George C. Marshall Space 
Flight Centre was established in Huntsville to provide large booster 
support for advanced manned flights. 

The NASA Launch Operations Centre at Cape Canaveral, 
Florida, was established in 1960 and became a NASA Centre in 
July, 1962. It was renamed the John F. Kennedy Space Centre in 
November, 1963, concurrent with the rcdesignalion of Cape 
Canaveral as Cape Kennedy. 

Specific capabilities for both manned and unmanned non- 
military space flights were created by this organizational realignment. 
Efforts previously fragmented were brought together under the 



72 



Origins of Manned Space Flight 

new space agency, each contributing to the total national pro- 
gramme. Key personnel from the Langley Research Laboratory, 
comprising the nucleus of the Project Mercury team, were transferred 
to the Manned Spacecraft Centre at Houston, Texas. The Project 
Vanguard team formed the nucleus of the new Goddard Space 
Flight Centre in Greenbelt, Maryland, which concentrated on 
unmanned satellites and spacecraft, and created the basis for the 
world-wide Goddard tracking and communications network. This 
network was later expanded and refined to support both unmanned 
and manned space flights. 

At this point I would like to stress that an intimate inter- 
relationship exists between the NASA unmanned and manned 
programmes. Later, I shall focus attention on manned flights, 
particularly those precursors of the Apollo programme. Projects 
Mercury and Gemini. But it is important to keep in mind the 
complementary role of the unmanned missions. The unmanned 
scientific investigations of the Earth, Moon, Sun, planets, stars, 
galaxies and outer space invariably support advances in the manned 
programmes. Indeed, some unmanned probes were essentially 
forerunners of specific manned flights. The unmanned probes that 
I will next discuss were conducted concurrently with the manned 
flights to be discussed later. 

Much of the emphasis of NASA's unmanned satellite programme 
has been on learning in detail about the Earth and its relationship 
with the Sun, on exploring the Moon, Venus and Mars, together 
with interplanetary space, and on providing practical applications. 

Study of the Earth focuses on the atmosphere, the ionosphere 
and the magnetosphere. To learn about the Sun, instruments 
were pointed directly at the Sun to observe its corona, chromo- 
sphere and centre, with particular attention devoted to flares, solar 
storms and sunspots. 

In the exploration of the solar system, NASA conducted flights 
past the two planets nearest to Earth, Venus and Mars, as well as 
several flights through interplanetary space. . In 1962, after a 
journey of 109 days, Mariner II passed within 21,500 miles of 
Venus, transmitting data about that planet from 36 million miles 
away. The most important finding about Venus was that its 



73 




Figure 1-6. 



The Tiros IV went her 
satellite. 



Figure 1-7. The Nimbus B 
spaceertift. 



atmosphere was hotter than previously believed. Temperatures 
were recorded as high as 600 degrees Fahrenheit. 

In 1965, Mariner IV travelled 228 days and passed within 
7400 miles of Mars. Over a distance of 134 million miles, 
Mariner IV transmitted to Earth 21 clear photographs, indicating 
that the surface of Mars, like that of the Moon, is cratercd. Radio 
signals sent when Mariner passed behind Mars demonstrated that 
[he planet's atmosphere is thinner than expected. The data 
transmitted failed to supply evidence of a dust belt, a magnetic 
held or radiation belts (Figure 1-5}, 

Spacecraft in the Pioneer scries have measured particles and 
fields in interplanetary space up to distances of more than 50 
million miles. 

Closer to home, unmanned spacecraft orbiting the Earth have 
demonstrated practical applications of space technology to Earth 
sciences, particularly weather, communications and navigation. 

In meteorology, there have been two unmanned spacecraft pro- 
grammes. TIROS and NIMBUS. The TIROS scries consisted of 
10 satellites, orbited between I960 and 1965, which photographed 



74 



Origins of Manned Space Flight . 

cloud cover, obtained infra-red measurements and transmitted the 
results to Earth. Since most weather originates over the live- 
sixths of the Earth's surface covered by water — where weather 
stations, for the most part, are non-existent — satellite photographs 
of a developing storm system or typhoon are especially valuable for 
providing warnings that save lives and property. In addition, the 
infra-red readings enable scientists to understand the Earth's energy 
balance. Since 1967, the U.S. Department of Commerce has 
operated a system of weather satellites similar to those in the TIROS 
series (Figure 1-6). 

But TIROS suffers from two limitations. Since its orientation 
in space is constant, it points toward Earth during only half of 
Earth's orbit. In addition, TIROS satellites do not pass over the 
polar regions where some of the most interesting weather is found. 
To compensate for this, we are now flying the larger NIMBUS 
satellites, which are placed into near-polar orbits and point 
constantly toward the Earth (Figure 1-7). 

As many of you may know, a station exists at the University 
of Melbourne to receive TIROS and NIMBUS photographs, which 
should make a very real contribution to the advance of meteor- 
ology here in Australia. Two other stations have been constructed 
at Darwin and Perth. 

In communications, a number of experiments have been carried 
out successfully, beginning in I960 with the Echo balloon satellite, 
and later with Tclstar, Relay and Syncom satellites. In principle, 
a communications satellite acts as a tall antenna tower, which 
enables us to transmit to distances beyond the horizon as seen 
from the Earth's surface. The Syncom (synchronous communica- 
tions) satellite demonstrated that it is possible to station a trans- 
mitting antenna at an altitude of 22,300 miles. At this altitude. 
the spacecraft maintains its position relative to a fixed point on the 
equator. 

A synchronous orbit is also used by the Early Bird satellites 
of the Communications Satellite Corporation, the first commercial 
venture in space, which is now supplying telephone and television 
communications between the United States and Europe. 



75 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

A third application of space technology now in operation is 
navigation by satellite. The U.S. Navy Transit satellites supply 
all-weather navigation services to units of the fleet. 

Now I will discuss at length the first two NASA manned space 
flight projects— Mercury and Gemini. 

The recommendation to place a man in orbit around Earth 
and recover him was approved by the NASA Administrator on 
October 7, 1958, and Project Mercury was immediately set in 
motion. The basic objectives of Project Mercury were to orbit 
a man around Earth, observe his physical and mental reactions in 
the space environment, and recover the man and spacecraft; thus, 
a closely integrated relationship between government agencies, 
contractors, and the scientific community was essential. 

The NASA Space Task Group was organized to oversee integra- 
tion and control of the Mercury Programme. Beginning late in 
1958, aeromedical personnel from the Army, Navy and Air Force 
were assigned to the Space Task Group to work with NASA 
personnel and a special committee on life sciences. This group 
established an astronaut selection procedure, set up qualifications 
and requirements, and selected a group of I 10 potential astronauts. 
By April, 1959, seven experienced jet aircraft pilots had been 
chosen to be the first astronauts (Figure f-8). Their two-year 
group training programme included astronautical science, systems 
integration, spacecraft control, environmental familiarization, and 
egress and survival. 

In designing the hardware for Project Mercury, the following four 
basic guidelines were established: (I) employ existing technology 
and equipment where possible; (2) adopt the simplest and most 
reliable approach to system design; (3) utilize an existing rocket 
launch vehicle for the orbital mission; and (4) conduct a pro- 
gressive and logical test programme. Since man's capabilities in 
space were at that time unknown, automatic operation was 
provided for all critical systems of the Mercury spacecraft. 
Redundant systems were also included to give maximum reliability 
for safety and assurance of mission success. 

The bell-shaped spacecraft that was developed was protected 
from re-entry heating by a heat shield covering the blunt end 
(Figure f-9). In case of a launch vehicle failure on the pad, a 




Figure 1-8. Astronauts Hiking lligtti training- Left to right: Malcolm ScoO 
Carpenter, Leroy Gordo,, Cooper, Jr.. John Berxhel Glenn. Jr., Virgii turn 
Crbsom, Walter Marty Svhirra, Jr.. Alan Barth-M Shepard. Jr.. and Donald 

Kent Slay ton. 

solid-propcllant rocket mounted on top of the escape tower would 
propel the spacecraft clear of danger. In a normal mission, the 
escape tower was jettisoned after shut-down of the booster stage. 

Inside the Mercury spacecraft, a form-fitting contour couch 
distributed the high-acceleration loads to which the astronaut was 
subjected. At all critical phases of the mission, the spacecraft was 
so oriented that the direction of acceleration forces was the same. 
from back to front. Thus, the spacecraft was pointed nose up at 
launch and heat shield forward upon re-entry. 

The life support system protected the pilot from the hard vacuum 
of space as well as the extreme temperature variations associated 
with the orbital flight profile. It supplied oxygen, purified the air 
(by removing carbon dioxide and other foreign matter), and 



7fi 



77 




Figure 1-9. Artist's concept of the 
Mercury - Redstone -IV spacecraft 
" Liberty Hell 7" that Astronaut 
Virgil t, Grtssom used on It is stth- 
orbital flight. July 21.1961. 



Figure 1-iO. Astronaut Alan B. 

Shepard. Jr., after the first Project 

Mercury xittmrhitul space flivttf. 



controlled [he temperature and air flow inside the astronaut's 
Pull pressure space suit. It also provided for food, drinking water, 
and waste management. 

Systems development and production for the Mercury programme 
— from man-rating the rocket boosters to creation of the spacecraft 
subsystems — were characterized by extensive ground testing of 
each component, then of assembled components. Ail major aspects 
of the project were concurrently developed and tested. Thus, while 
l he astronauts were being selected and trained, the world-wide 
tracking network was planned and built, and research and develop- 
ment of the flight hardware were accomplished. Only three years 
and four months elapsed between project initiation and the first 
manned orbital Might. The entire programme of six manned flights 
was completed in four years, seven months. 

Of 25 major launches between August, 1959, and May, 1963, 
six were manned: two of them were sub-orbital ballistic profiles 



Origins of Manned Space Flight 

and the other four were Earth orbiting. In spite of launch failures 
and lest anomalies, no astronaut injuries were suffered. 

The first launches in the Mercury programme used the Redstone 
missile previously developed by the Army's Ballistic Missile Agency. 
The Redstone's thrust sufficed to place the Mercury spacecraft 
into a sub-orbital trajectory with an apex about equal to the 
planned orbital altitude, producing weightlessness for one-third 
of the fiight. This was particularly important, since the biological 
effects of weightlessness upon man were yet unknown, save for 
limited data acquired through aircraft experiments where zero-g 
conditions could be simulated for only a few seconds at a time. 

To test the spacecraft-booster combination, three Mercury- 
Redstone flights were accomplished: a systems test with an empty 
spacecraft; a second test with a chimpanzee as passenger; and a 
third flight to check improvements in booster accuracy. The 
fourth flight, on May 5, 1961, was the first United States manned 
space flight (Figure 1-10). During his 15-minutc flight over a 
ballistic trajectory, Alan Shepard experienced about five minutes 
of weightlessness and reached a maximum altitude of 116 statute 
miles. A slightly modified spacecraft, with a window added, was 
piloted by Virgil Grissom on a similar flight in July, 1961. 

For Project Mercury orbital flights, the Atlas intercontinental 
ballistic missile was used. In the "man-rating" process, pilot 
safety during countdown and launch was the primary consideration. 
An abort system was developed that shut down the engines and 
initiated spacecraft escape when trouble arose. From September, 
1959, to May, 1963, 10 Mercury-Alias launches were accomplished. 
Six unmanned flights tested the performance of booster and space- 
craft before the first manned orbital flight was attempted. 

On February 20, 1962, Astronaut John Glenn, Jr., piloted the 
lirst U.S. manned orbital flight for three orbits. No adverse effects 
were noted from weightlessness. Glenn controlled the attitude of 
the spacecraft manually for a large part of the mission and performed 
well under stress. Attainment of the basic Mercury programme 
objectives on this first orbital mission made it possible to extend 
the aims of the programme and conduct expanded space exploration 
and experimentation on subsequent missions. A second three- 



78 



79 



ir 




Figure l-li. Astronaut L. 



Gordon Cooper on the deck of the U.S.S. 
Keanarge. 



orbit flight was completed in May, 1962, with Scott Carpenter as 
pilot, followed in October by a six-orbit flight piloted by Waiter 
Schirra, Jr. The Schirra flight provided information on extended 
exposure to the space environment, additional operational experience, 
and an opportunity to conduct a series of experiments and 
measurements in space. 

The last Mercury flight was the 22-orbit, 34-hour and 20-minute 
flight by Astronaut Gordon Cooper, Jr., in May, 1963 (Figure 
/-//). Effects of extended weightlessness were found not to be 
detrimental to the human body. Although Cooper had lost seven 
pounds due to temporary dehydration, he was in excellent condition 
upon recovery in the Pacific Ocean. During this same mission, 
several scientific experiments were conducted, including aeromedical 
studies, radiation measurements, photographic studies, and visibility 
and communications tests. 



Origins of Manned Space Flight 

Mercury programme objectives had thus gradually expanded 
from the original goals of placing a man in orbit, recovering hirn 
safely and evaluating the data acquired, to a successful 34-hour 
orbital mission. 

Many were the gains from Project Mercury. We learned to 
design, build and test manned spacecraft; to prepare launch vehicles 
for safe and reliable manned flight; and to operate a world-wide 
network of radio and radar tracking and communications with 
the spacecraft and pilot. We also learned to recover the spacecraft 
and pilot, select and train astronauts, and develop and operate 
life support and biomedical instrumentation systems. In addition, 
we acquired valuable experience in large-scale management and 
systems engineering; we gained important scientific knowledge about 
the space environment; and we made technological advances 
necessary for further progress in space exploration. 

During Project Mercury, NASA's planning pointed to manned 
exploration of the Moon and the nearby planets as a goal for 
the indefinite future beyond 1970. In July, 1960. following a 
Congressional committee recommendation for a high priority 
manned lunar landing programme, NASA announced that the 
successor to Project Mercury would be Project Apollo. At that 
time, the goal of Project Apollo was to carry three astronauts in 
sustained Earth-orbital or circumlunar flight. Plans for an eventual 
manned lunar landing were to be studied. 

Then, in May, 1961, President Kennedy recommended to 
Congress an expanded national space programme with the major 
accelerated goal of "landing a man on the Moon and returning him 
safely to Earth, during this decade". Congress subsequently 
endorsed the plan for expanding and accelerating Apollo including 
the development of spacecraft, large rocket boosters, and unmanned 
explorations to support the Apollo objectives. 

Meanwhile, in December, 1961, the decision was made to extend 
the manned space flight effort beyond Mercury, to provide 
experience in space operations that would benefit the Apollo lunar 
landing programme. The Mercury follow -on programme, named 
Gemini, was designed to subject two men to long-duration Earth- 
orbital flights in order to obtain the experience and knowledge 



80 



81 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

essential for trips to the Moon. Since the rendezvous and docking 
of two space vehicles comprise a key element of the Apollo lunar 
landing approach, one important objective of the Gemini project was 
to achieve a rendezvous and docking in Earth orbit between the 
spacecraft and another orbiting vehicle. Moreover, experiments 
were planned for the astronauts to perform mechanical and other 
tasks outside the spacecraft while in orbit. This extravehicular 
activity was another technique projected for use in more advanced 
missions, such as assembling structures and repairing equipment 
in space, and functioning outside the Apollo spacecraft on the 
lunar surface. Perfecting methods of controlled re-entry and 
landing at pre-selccted sites was still another objective of the 
Gemini programme. This would be necessary for return from 
the lunar landing mission of Apollo. The information and experi- 
ence gained from Gemini on the effects of weightlessness and the 
physiological reactions of crew members during long-duration 
missions would materially help in planning Apollo missions to 
the Moon. 

There were several important changes and design advancements 
from Mercury to Gemini. Whereas the Mercury spacecraft had 
been designed for complete automatic control from the ground 
with a redundant capability for control by the single-astronaut 
crew, the Gemini spacecraft was designed to be controlled in 
flight by a two-astronaut crew, with ground control acting as the 
back-up. In Mercury, an impending launch vehicle failure was 
automatically sensed and the escape system was accordingly 
activated; in a Gemini launch, however, vehicle malfunction 
activated warning lights and gauges on the instrument panel, 
leaving it up to the astronauts to decide whether or not the situation 
was serious enough to abort the mission. In the Mercury space- 
craft, almost all systems were stacked in layers in the pilot's cabin, 
which often made it necessary to disturb several systems in order 
to get at a particular problem area. In the Gemini spacecraft 
many of the systems were positioned outside the cabin area and 
arranged in modular packages, so that any system could be removed 
without disturbing others. Spare packages could be completely 
checked out and kept in reserve for replacement purposes. 









Origins of Manned Space Flight 

When completed, the Gemini spacecraft comprised two major 
units: (1) the adaptor module, consisting of the retrograde and 
equipment sections; and (2) the re-entry module, consisting of 
the rendezvous and recovery section, the re-entry control system, 
and the cabin section. The heat shield was attached to the cabin 
section, in the manner of the Mercury capsule. The re-entry 
module was the only portion of the spacecraft recovered from orbit. 

In the event of a mission abort, provisions for crew safety on 
Gemini were significantly different from those on Mercury and 
Apollo. Mercury had a tower atop the spacecraft with a tractor 
rocket to pull the entire spacecraft away from the danger area 
if needed; Apollo's design is similar. Gemini spacecraft, however, 
were equipped with crew ejection seals similar to those used in 
high performance aircraft, and parachutes for softening the return 
to earth. The use of ejection seats was possible because the 
Gemini launch vehicle fuel burned on contact with the oxidizer, 
minimizing the explosion hazard present in the Mercury launch 
sequence. An additional benefit of the ejection seat method was 
that it could be used during the re-entry phase, at low altitudes, 
in the event of trouble during the terminal portion of the mission. 

The Gemini launch vehicle was 90 feet long by 10 feet in 
diameter, with a first stage engine that developed 430,000 pounds 
of thrust and a second stage engine that produced 100,000 pound-, 
at the ignition altitude of approximately 200,000 feet (Figure 
I -1 2). As noted above, the Titan II employed storable propellants 
which ignited on contact, providing the precision necessary fur 
Gemini rendezvous and docking missions. 

To attain the reliability and safety required for manned launches, 
a series of modifications were made in the basic missile. Redundant 
hydraulic systems and additional instrumentation were installed: 
and a malfunction detection system was added, which sensed critical 
problems in the rocket and warned the crew of them. 

The target vehicle for Gemini rendezvous and docking missions 
was a specially modified Air Force Agena, with a docking collar 
and certain instrumentation peculiar to Gemini missions. An 
Atlas launch vehicle boosted the Agena to near orbital speed, at 
which point the Agena propulsion system took over to place the 
vehicle in orbit. Development and modification of the Gemini 



82 



83 







Figure I-J2. 

The launching of 
Gemini /Titan I. 




Figure }-l3. Astronaut Edward H. 

White IS during the third orbit of 

the Gemini /Titan IV flight. 



launch vehicle and the Atlas-Agena combination were Air Force 
responsibilities in response to NASA requirements. 

Beginning with Gemini III in March. 1965. eight manned 
missions were flown in less than 16 months. 

The programme objective of investigating iong-duralion flight 
was achieved in three missions of 4, 8, and 14 days' duration. 
These were the flights of Gemini IV, Gemini V and Gemini VII 
in June, August and December, 1965, respectively. The second 
of these, the Gemini V mission in August, established a new 
manned space flight record of 190 hours, 55 minutes, surpassing 
the previously held Russian record. Post-flight medical evaluations 
of the crews revealed that no adverse effects resulted from lengthy 
exposure to weightlessness; and a definite pattern of aircrew adaption 
to weightlessness was detected as blood pressure and heart rates 
followed a levelling trend after the first several days. This in- 
formation was of great significance, since eight days was the 
length of time planned for the first Apollo lunar landing mission, 
while other flights — both lunar and Earth -orbital — would last for 
periods of 14 days and more. 

84 



Origins of Manned Space Flight 

In the first long-duration mission, Gemini IV, pilot Edward 
White, employing a 25-foot tether and attached oxygen umbilical 
hose, demonstrated the feasibility of conducting activity outside 
the spacecraft (Figure I -1 3). 

This was the first U.S. extravehicular activity, during which 
White remained outside the spacecraft for 23 minutes, manoeuvring 
himself about the spacecraft, taking pictures and making observations 
of equipment. During the early portion of the manoeuvre, he 
used a hand-held manoeuvring unit which provided propulsion by 
emitting jets of oxygen. A chest pack contained an emergency 
supply of oxygen and maintained pressure in his special protective 
suit. 

In June, 1966, an expanded extravehicular mission was included 
in I he Gemini IX flight, during which Astronaut Eugene Cernan 
worked outside the spacecraft for over two hours. 

On the Gemini X flight in July, 1966, pilot Michael Collins 
performed two extravehicular assignments. During his first exposure 
io space outside the cabin, Collins stood up in the open hatch of 
the spacecraft for nearly 45 minutes and performed picture-taking 
and other assignments. Later in the flight, during rendezvous 
with the Agena used in the Gemini VIII mission, he egrcssed 
from the cabin and manoeuvred in space for 55 minutes with a 
hand-held manoeuvring unit. Using a 50-foot tether and umbilical 
hose, Collins manoeuvred to the Agena and retrieved a micro- 
mcteoroid collection experiment. 

The in-flighl manoeuvring capability necessary for spacecraft 
rendezvous and docking was first demonstrated during Gemini J II, 
when orbital altitude and orbital phase were changed. The Gemini 
VI mission in December, 1965. accomplished the first successful 
space rendezvous, as well as demonstrating the high degree of 
launch and prefiight operational capability needed to carry out the 
rendezvous. The lift-off of the Gemini VI space vehicle occurred 
within 1 1 days of the Gemini VII launch from the same pad, and 
within one-tenth of a second of the scheduled lift-off time. Four 
orbits later, command pilot Walter Schirra manoeuvred Gemini 
VI to within 120 feet of Gemini VII to accomplish rendezvous of 
the two manned spacecraft. Later, the Gemini VI spacecraft was 



85 




Figure 1-14. The Agena Target 

Docking Vehicle from the Gemini 

VIII spacecraft. 



Figure 1-15. The Augmented Target 
Docking Adaptor I the Angry Alli- 
gator) us seen from Gemini IX. 



manoeuvred to within less than one foot of Gemini VII, following 
station-keeping and fly-around manoeuvres. 

But rendezvous and docking with an Agena Target Vehicle was 
actually achieved for the first time during the Gemini VIII flight 
in March, 1966. The mission was successfully terminated shortly 
after the docking, however, because of a spacecraft malfunction 
(Figure 1-14). 

Three other types of rendezvous manoeuvres were performed 
during the Gemini IX flight. In place of the Agena Target Vehicle, 
an "augmented target docking adaptor" was used. Docking could 
not be performed, however, because the target vehicle shroud failed 
to jettison (Figure 7-/5). 

One of the most significant rendezvous manoeuvres carried out 
on the Gemini IX mission was a simulation of a rendezvous of a 
Lunar Module with an Apollo spacecraft in lunar orbit. The 
manoeuvre successfully performed by Gemini IX would be required 
during an Apollo lunar mission if a decision were made not to 
continue with a lunar landing after the Lunar Module had descended 
to the 50,000 foot level. 



86 



Origins of Manned Space Flight 

The third portion of the rendezvous and docking objective — 
manoeuvring while docked by using the Agena's primary 
propulsion system — was accomplished on the Gemini X flight. 
This was a dual rendezvous mission, with the first rendezvous made 
with an Agena X Target Vehicle launched one orbit earlier. After 
docking with the Agena X, the combined Gemini/ Agena vehicle 
was manoeuvred to a higher orbit, with an apogee of 476 miles 
— the highest man had yet ventured in space. 

This orbital change was the first of a scries of orbital manoeuvres 
using the Agena X propulsion system, in preparation for rendezvous 
with another orbiting 'target. The second rendezvous target was 
the Agena vehicle which had remained in orbit since the Gemini 
VIII mission four months earlier. Terminal rendezvous of Gemini 
X with Agena VIII was successfully accomplished after the space- 
craft had separated from Agena X. 

Guided re-entry of the spacecraft to a particular target was 
included in all of the Gemini flights. With the aid of an on-board 
computer, the pilots were able to use the aerodynamic lift of the 
spacecraft as it re-entered the atmosphere to guide it toward a 
pre-selected landing area. The most accurate demonstrations of 
this capability were provided by Gemini IX and Gemini X, both 
of which "splashed down" within three miles of the intended target 
point. 

Advances in Gemini operational techniques and equipment 
enabled a sizeable number of scientific and technological experi- 
ments to be conducted during Gemini flights. A total of 49 separate 
experiments were scheduled in the programme, many of which 
were repeated on several flights. These experiments ranged from 
specific physiological measurements of the crew to technological 
developments proving out new equipment and techniques. 

One particularly interesting experiment concerned synoptic 
terrain photography, that is, successive colour pictures of geographic 
and geological points of interest from orbital altitude. Geologists, 
geographers and oceanographers obtained valuable new information 
from these colour photographs. For example, new geological 
knowledge was gained as a result of photographs taken during 
Gemini IV, which revealed new characteristics of a volcanic field 
in Mexico and a previously unknown fault in the lower California 

87 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



peninsula. Since the pictures were taken by men rather than 
pre-programmed equipment, cloud-free photographs were obtained. 

Similarly, synoptic weather photography produced colour 
photographs of storm patterns and cloud cover from relatively low 
orbital altitudes. These pictures were helpful as additional data 
to assist in interpreting unmanned meteorological satellite results. 

Another example of new knowledge gained from Gemini 
experiments were Professor E. P. Ney's zodiacal light photography 
experiments. Begun on Gordon Cooper's 34-hour Mercury flight 
jn 1963, and continued into the Gemini programme, these 
experiments comprised photographs of the zodiacal light in the 
night sky — the visible manifestation of dust grains in orbit about 
the Sun. Taken from orbital altitudes according to directions 
provided by the experimenter, the photographs by Cooper confirmed 
theories about the zodiacal light which had not been subject to 
proof by earlier means. 

On the Gemini V flight, in August, 1965, photographs of the 
gegenschein phenomenon were obtained. This first photographic 
evidence indicated that the gegenschein — a glow in a direction 
opposite the Sun from the Earth — is probably produced by 
back-scattering of sunlight through dust. Further astronomical 
advances are anticipated in the future through orbital photography 
and observations with telescopes in orbit. 

Scientific achievements in the Mercury and Gemini programmes 
can be summarized under three interrelated categories. We have 
acquired a significant body of knowledge concerning both men and 
machines in relation to and in interaction with the space environ- 
ment; we have gained invaluable experience in space operations; 
and we have demonstrated the value of manned spacecraft as 
vehicles for scientific experimentation and observation. 

Since the early days of Project Mercury, when highly respected 
medical opinion warned against the unknown effects of weightless- 
ness and rapid heart rates, great advances have been made. We 
now know that trained astronauts can function well for many days 
in space, supported by environmental control systems based on 
contemporary technology. We know, too, that these trained 
crewmen can also withstand the stresses of launch operations and 
re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere. We have learned that the 



88 



Origins of Manned Space Flight 

radiation hazard in near-Earth orbit is acceptably small. Wc have 
developed and utilized biosensors to relay critical physiological data 
from spacecraft to Earth stations by means of telemetry. We 
have demonstrated that a crewman can perform useful work outside 
his spacecraft. We have gained experience in producing large 
rocket boosters with sufficient reliability of performance to be 
•"man-rated". A world-wide tracking and communications network, 
lied into an advanced Mission Control Centre, enables us to execute 
positive mission control in real time. Crewmen have performed 
as experimenters, conducting a wide variety of scientific and 
technological investigations. 

During the brief period of manned space flight, we have 
accumulated hundreds of man-hours of operating experience. The 
valuable knowledge gained from Mercury and Gemini included 
how to select and train crew members for space flight, and how to 
control and recover men and machines through missions of 
increasing length and complexity. Since our first hesitant steps 
into space in 1961, we have increased from five minutes to two 
weeks the lime during which crewmen experienced weightlessness. 
We have developed and exercised techniques for manoeuvring 
in space and controlling re-entry llighi paths to accurate landings 
in planned recovery areas on the Earth's surface. Our operations 
progressed from flight over a ballistic trajectory to dual and triple 
rendezvous manoeuvres with other spacecraft, manned and 
unmanned. We have joined spacecraft in space and exploited a 
rocket propulsion unit "stored" in orbit to propel the linked 
configuration through new manoeuvres, opening the door to future 
assembly, crew transfer, and re-supply operations in space 

Man's exploration of the space environment is accelerating at a 
rapid rate. The size and complexity of the spacecraft and launch 
vehicles have increased with each major programme and the 
missions to be accomplished become ever more complex. Mercury 
;ind Gemini established the basic knowledge of the space environ- 
ment in combination with men and machines, and the operational 
techniques necessary for the next giant steps by Apollo astronauts 
in this great new age of exploration. 



CHAPTER TWO 



Development of the 
Saturn Launch 

V e n I C I e By G. E. Mueller 

INTRODUCTION 

Even before ihe United States launched its first artificial satellite, 
weighing 30.8 pounds, in January, 1958, its scientists were making 
plans that envisioned launch vehicles having pay loads of 6,000 to 
12,000 pounds for Earth escape missions and 20,000 to 40,000 
pounds for orbital missions. 

By early 1957, designers had become convinced that it was 
possible to build a clustered-engine booster that would generate 
1.5 million pounds of thrust and lift multi-ton payloads. In 
December of that year the von Braun group, then working for the 
Army, submitted to the Department of Defence a "Proposal for 
a National Integrated Programme" which called for the development 
of such a booster. Subsequent studies concluded that the develop- 
ment was feasible, and in August, 1958. the Army received formal 
approval to initiate a booster research and development project. 
In October of that year the programme objectives were expanded 
to include a multi-stage carrier vehicle capable of performing 
advanced space missions. 

The vehicle was tentatively identified as Juno V. The initial 
objective of the research and development programme was to prove 
that large amounts of thrust could be produced by clustering several 
engines. To speed booster development, it was decided to use 
propellant tanks and components designed for the Army's Redstone 
and Jupiter programmes. Most of the hardware could be built with 
existing tools, using established fabrication and inspection pro- 
cedures. It was also determined that the Thor-Jupiler engine 
could be modified and used for the booster. The approach was 
to be initially demonstrated by building and testing a single non- 
flight stage. 

90 



Development of the Saturn Launch Vehicle 



Early in 1959 the Juno V designation was changed to Saturn, 
a name suggested by the comparable positions oT the Jupiter and 
Saturn programmes and the two planets in the solar system. Late 
that year, two policy decisions of far-reaching significance were 
made: 

1. The Department of Defence decided that it had no immediate 
use for a large rocket and, in view of the emerging national space 
programme, turned the Saturn Project over to the newly formed 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The 
Marshall Space Flight Centre, in Huntsville, Alabama, was the 
NASA segment given responsibility for the development. 

2. NASA formed the Saturn Vehicle Evaluation Committee, 
composed of NASA and Department of Defence officials. The 
committee decided that all upper stages of the Saturn should be 
powered by the high energy propellant combination of hydrogen 
and oxygen, and that a new hydrogen engine would be developed 

Based on the committee's decisions, NASA outlined a building 
block approach to launch vehicle development that would lead to 
a scries of successively larger vehicles, beginning with the 1.5 
million pound thrust capability. 

An urgent need for an even more powerful vehicle was created 
in late 1961, when the late President Kennedy challenged the 
nation to place men on the Moon before the end of the decade. 
Plans were subsequently completed for the design, manufacture, 
and operation of the Saturn family of vehicles with three con- 
figurations (Figure 2-1 ): Saturn I would be used to place unmanned 
Apollo Command and Service Modules into Earth orbit; Saturn IB 
would launch these two modules plus the lunar landing craft — 
the Lunar Module — into Earth orbit for astronaut training and 
rendezvous practice; and the Saturn V would be used for the lunar 
landing. The IB configuration, a combination of Saturn I and 
Saturn V stages, was not in the original plans for the space 
programme; however, it was realized that development of an 
intermediate vehicle capable of carrying the final spacecraft con- 
figuration would make the goal much easier to meet. Manned 
Earth-orbital rendezvous flights began a year earlier without the 
expense of a completely new programme. 

91 



APOLLO SATURN 
VEHICLES 



APOLLO 
SPACECRAFT 



SECOND STAGE 
RUOA-3 ENGINE 



"M 



APOLLO 
SPACECRAFT 



Hh 

SECOND STAGE 



FIRST STACE 



mn 



H-1 ENGINE V 



J-2 ENGINE 

FIRST STAGE 

nil) 

H-1 ENGINE' 



APOLLO 

SPACECRAFT 



THIRD STAGE 

IS-KI) 

J-2 ENGINE 
SECOND STAGE 



J-2 ENGINE 



224 FT. 



FIRST STAGE 

n-iti 



363 FT. 



_'*. 



SATURN I 



SATURN IB 



F -I ENGINE A AiA\ 



SATURN V 



Figure 2' I. Apollo Saturn Vehicles. 



SATURN I LAUNCH VEHICLE 

Design studies showed thai a booster built around a single high 
thrust engine was technically practical, but such an engine could 
not be developed and tested in time to meet flight schedules: 
development of a new engine would almost certainly be complicated 
by unpredictable technical problems. The approach selected was 
to secure the needed thrust by grouping eight engines of the Thor- 
Jupiter type. This engine, thoroughly tested and of proven 
reliability, was quickly simplified and uprated in thrust, and 
designated the H-I (Figure 2-2), 

The other aspects of development of the Saturn I first stage, 
designated S-l. were solved in parallel. The S-l used the pmpellant 
tanks and components designed for the Redstone and Jupiter 
missiles, and was built using existing tools and established fabrication 
and inspection procedures. (Figure 2-3.) 



92 



ENGINE 






VEHICLE EFFECTIVTr 


jams smaaouM 


THRUST SEA LEVEL) 


2Q0,0O0LB 205,000 


THRUST DURATION 


155 SEC 155SEC 


SPECIFIC IMPULSE 




(LB-SEC/LB 


260.5 MIN 261.0 M 


ENGINE WT DRY 




INBD 


1,830 LB 2,100 LB 


OUTBD 


2,100 LB 2,100 LB 


ENGINE WT BURNOUT 




(INBD) 


2,2001b 2,200 L 


(OUTBD) 


2,200LB 2,200 1 


EXIT-TO-THROAT 




AREA RATIO 


8T01 8T0 


PROPELLANTS 


L0X&RP-1 LGK&R 


MIXTURE RATIO 


2.23*21 2.23*2 



CONTRACTOR: NAA/ROCKETDYNE 

VEHICLE APPLICATION 

SATURN IB/S-IB STAGE (EIGHT ENGIN 



Figure 2-2. H-l Engine. 



Many design problems had to be solved in the development of 
a reliable booster. To use the maximum amount of propellant--. 
a special propellant utilization system was devised. Special sliding 
joints were designed for the booster structure to compensate for 
shrinkage of the tanks when filled. To protect sensitive connections 
above the engines from the exhaust gases of 5,000" F, special 
insulation materials were developed. Tail shroud enclosures were 
designed for the rear of the booster to relieve in-flight aerodynamic 
pressures on the engines. 

In the interest of advancing development as efficiently and rapidly 
as possible, NASA enlisted many private companies, universities, 
and other government agencies. From these in-house and out-of- 
house efforts came first designs and then hardware, with both 
being proved by thousands of tests. Several successful static firings 
of the S-I stage (Figure 2-4), conducted in the spring of 1960, 



93 




Figure 2-3. Sal urn ! Vehicle First Stage (S-l). 

verified the clustered engine technique and established the basis 
for still larger vehicles. 

During 1960, NASA awarded a contract for the second stage 
of the Saturn 1 (Figure 2-5), known as the S-1V, which was to 
be powered by six RL-10 engines (Figure 2-6). The S-IV stage 
would use the more potent and harder to handle combination of 
liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, which was relatively new fuel 
for propulsion: it had been applied only to the Atlas-Centaur 
vehicle, and in many areas the technology was still being defined. 
NASA working groups were formed with contractor participation; 
the design was reviewed and the proposed mating method defined" 
to assure second stage systems' compatibility with the booster and 
to determine interface and interstage requirements. 

The Saturn I was initially planned to be a three-stage vehicle; 

94 



Figure 2-4. S-l Stage Sialic Firing. 



however, the added thrust obtained by use of LH- in the S-IV 
stage precluded the need, at that time, for a third stage. The 
two-stage vehicle with spacecraft was about 190 feet tall and 
weighed approximately 1,112,000 pounds at liftoff. 

On October 27, 1961, the first Saturn I booster was flight-tested 
successfully from the Kennedy Space Centre in Florida (Figure 2-7). 
This vehicle, comprising the first stage booster with its dummy 
upper stage, was designrted SA-1. Three successful flights followed, 
the SA-2, SA-3 and SA-4, each carrying dummy second stages. 

The SA-5 vehicle, a combination of the S-I and S-IV stages, 
was successfully launched on January 29, 1964, with both stages 
live and functioning perfectly to place a 37,000-pound pay load into 
Earth orbit (Figure 2-8). The SA-6 and the SA-7, launched in 
May and September, 1964, placed unmanned boilerplate configura- 
tions of the early Apollo spacecraft into Earth orbit. The SA-5, 



9? 



rr 



I 



FORWARD INTERSTAGE-, 



AFT SKIRT 



/ ULLAGE ROCKETS (4) 



LH 2 TANK 
INSULATOR 



SEPARATION PLANE 
LH, FEED LINE 

AFT INTERSTAGE 

UHj CHILL DOWN 

DUCT (3) 



BLOWOUT 
PANELS (8) 



COMMON BULKHEAD 



COLD HELIUM SPHERES 



THRUST STRUCTURE 



RL IOA-3 

ENGINE 

(6) 



BASE HEAT SHIELD 



SATURN I 



LOX TANK 
SLOSH BAFFLES 



Figure 2-5. Saturn t Second Stage (S-IVB). 





wmiiiiiiiNnmimiiu^. 
wmmuiimiiiimgMBE 



THRUST 15,000 LB ALTITUDE 
THRUST DURATION- 470 SEC 
SPECIFIC IMPULSE 427 SEC 
ENCINE WT DRY 295 LB 
EXIT TO THROAT AREA RATIO 

40 TO 1 
PROPELLANTS LOX & LH ; 
PROPELLANT FLOW RATE- 

35 LB/SEC 



CONTRACTOR 

PRATT & WHITNEY 

SYSTEM SAT I S IV 6 ENGINES 

CENTAUR 2 ENGINES 



figure 2-7. First Saturn i Launch. 






Figure 2-8. Saturn I SA-5 Launch, 



-6, and -7, were the first Saturn vehicles to fly an Instrument Unit, 
which constitutes the "brain" or "nerve centre" originating the 
commands for engine gimbaling, inflight operations of engine pro- 
pulsion system, and staging operations. The components of these 
first units were available items not specifically designed for Saturn, 
and required pressurization and environmental control systems for 
their protection. The guidance computer was adapted from one 
developed for use in the Air Force's Titan missile. 

The final three vehicles, SA-8, SA-9, and SA-10 were launched 
during 1965 with the assigned mission of orbiting Pegasus satellites 
(Figure 2-9). Each Pegasus, a 3,200-pound instrumented satellite, 
unfolded its wings to a total span of 96 feet after entering Earth 
orbit. This large exposed surface provided the means for gathering 
valuable meteoroid data, which the satellite's instruments transmitted 
back to Earth for evaluation of the meteoroid hazard in near Earth 
orbit. For these later Saturn Is an unpressurized version of the 
vehicle Instrument Unit had been developed, more compact in size 
and with a greatly improved inertia] platform and control computer. 

97 



-i ■ i.i in 



PROJECT PEGASUS 

1ETEOROID MEASUREMENT CAPSULE 
DEPLOYMENT SEQUENCE 



. ' CtOSEB 

FORWARD 
SOLAR PANELS 
UIERIL i. 

SOLAR FAHEL 

PEGASUS _,,, 
CAPSULE 



PARTIALLY EXTENDED 



DETECTOR P»h 

SEPARATION 
PLANE 



SERVICE MOD 
ADAPTER 

. Hi STAGE 



EXTENDED 



CONTRACTOR' FAIRCHILD KILLER 




RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FLIGHTS 
U I 1 ttUHtWO <KI }). l»„l 

i uir.c norwwoii intw utiuutoif 

u-i i inmcH»*r» 8 N»l 

? f«oiif.i hm-«*»h« iiiuus n*x -Ul » ; !«lt) l«W 

it) i uuwHit>«t'» u '»*: 

1 1MD rKtJi rtOI HKHW11II 

1 run rtoPHintr toudK 
u t i i*u»cm» mi :i mi 

; UBMt OVt UFtUIHr DUKMimitS 

U.I i n ItUKW ilk ?! HM 

7 mil i<«< i m iui.i iw mtituamr unit 

US I LlliKlHM «1» 11 l»H 

i .'.tan 

incur trout) lomvun no ill 
i. iwiii our iunmimf»i 



OPERATIONAL FLIGHTS 



I HUMOHS-SIPI II. KM 

3 (winter *< nm jr i:i ouimiki 

I UIMCHIB lit t» mi 

'litllil ■illOIOID ItCMOlOCT iitllU'li OBTTB 

i niu wmtHtwiu imnuatm am 

I IHMtM».MT JS t«J 

> onmn ir.com> neiius unuiir 

I ItUHUtlO HHf JO.IW. 

I otittw ram mumis urmin 
]. (OMFtnn utimm r kkiu 



Figure 2~10. Saturn 1 Launch Summary. 



Figure 2-9, Project Pegaitu. 

The Saturn 1 test and launch programme, completed with the 
launch of SA-10 on July 30, 1965, had an unprecedented record of 
J 00% success (Figure 2-tO), and all agencies concerned were 
confident that equal reliability could be developed in larger, more 
powerful launch vehicles. 

SATURN IB LAUNCH VEHICLE 

The technological advances realized during the Saturn I pro- 
gramme made it possible to basically improve the design and 
efficiency of an already near-perfect vehicle. Original plans had 
not included any major vehicle development between Saturn I 
and Saturn V; however, the challenge of landing a man on the 
Moon by 1970 made it highly desirable to take immediate 
advantage of the added technology and insert a new vehicle 
configuration in the development schedule. In July, 1962, NASA 
announced that a new two-stage vehicle, to be known as the 



98 



RACTERISTICS 



LENGTH 
m. AT LIFTOFF 

" D (APPROX) 
QUIT 



224 
..1,297,000 ■ 



1 ORBIT 40,000 

TAGES 

FUST (Htf 21.5 x 80 

ENGINE (LOXARP-l) 8 U- 

THRUST (201 THRU 205) 1.600K LBS. 
(206 AND SUB)l,640K LBS 

SECOND(«ViL 22x59FT. 

ENGINE (LOX t LH IJ-2 

TUST(201 THRU 203) 200K LBS. 
(204 THRU 207) 225K LBS 
(208 AND SUB) 230K BS 

NStWKENT UNIT 22 i3 



. JED MISSIONS 

LO SPACECRAFT DEVEU 
l AND ORBITAL 
EUVERS 

LO CREW TRAINING IK 
ENDEZVOUS AND 



iNCE LARGE BOOSTER 
NOLOGY 

T LARGE SCIENTIFIC 



CABLE TUNNEL 



^ 



INSTRUMENT \ 
COMPARTMENT 
CTVPICAL F-l & F-2}-^ V 

ANTI-SLOSH BAFFLES \ 
C8-70" D»A- TANKS) 

(1-IOS" DIA. LOX TANK) 
FIREWALL 




\ 



BHI 
ENGINE 



HEAT SHIELD 



SATURN IB 



HYDROGEN 



3D INSULATION 



FORWARD BULKHEAD 



FORWARD 
SKIRT "\ 



CABLE TUNNEL 



GOLD HELIUM 
SPHERES 

COMMON 

BULKHEAD / 

LIQUID OXYGEN } 

TANK ULLAOE^ / 

MOTORS (3) 

SEPARATION PLANE 




AUXILIARY PROPULSION 
SYSTEM MODULE (2) 



AFT SKIRT 

„AFT 
/INTERSTAGE 



J 2 ENGIN 



. ATURN IB 



THRUST STRUCTURE ^TORS (4) 



Figure 2-13. Saturn IB Second Stage (S-IVB). 






figure 2-12. Saturn IB First Stage (S-IB). 



Saturn IB (Figure 2-11), would be developed for manned Earth- 
orbital missions with lull-scale Apollo spacecraft. With the 
Saturn IV, the Saturn-Apollo interface problems and re-entry heat 
shielding requirements could be studied in flight, thereby markedly 
shortening spacecraft development time by obtaining design 
information during actual flight and re-entry. 

The Saturn IB consisted of the S-IB stage (Ftgure 2-12), which 
was a modified version of the S-I stage; and the S-IVB second 
stage. First stage weight was reduced by approximately 20,000 
pounds to increase payload capacity. The reduction was accom- 
plished by incorporating a new fin design, removing the hydrogen 
vent pipes and brackets unnecessary to the new design, resizing 
machined parts in the tail section assembly, redesigning the spider 
beam, and modifying the propellant tanks. The H-l engine was 
uprated to 200,000 pounds of thrust, compared with 188,000 



100 



Figure 2-14. J-2 Engine- 




VEHICLE EFFECTS 



THRUST (ALTITUDE) 

THRUST DURATION 500 SEC 50 

SPECIFIC IMPULSE 
(LB-SEC/LB) 418MIN 4K 

ENGINE WEIGHT DRY 3,480 LB 341 

ENGINE WEIGHT 

BURNOUT 3.609LB 3,6 

EXIT TO THROAT AREA 

RATIO 27.5 TOl 27 

PROPELLANTS LOX&LH 2 LO) 

MIXTURE RATIO 5.00t2X 5.5 

CONTRACTOR: NAA/ROCKETDYNE 

VEHICLE APPLICATION: 

SAT IB/S-IVB STAGE (ONE ENGINE) 
SAT V/S-ll STAGE (FIVE ENGINES) 
SAT V/S-IVB STAGE (ONE ENGINE) 



SA-201 
THRU 
5A-203 


SA-204 THRU 

SM07 4 SA-SOl 

THRU 5 A- 503 






2QO,0Q0LB 
500 SEC 


225,000LB : 
500 SEC 


418MIN 


419MIN 


3,480 LB 


3480LB 


3 r 609LB 


3,609LB 


27.5 TOl 
LOX&LH 2 


27 5 TOl 

LOX&LHj 


S.OOtll 


5.50*27. 



SA-208 A 
SUBSEQUENT: 
AND5A-504& 
SUBSt QU|NT 



421 MIN 
3492LB 

3,621LB 



SATURN I B 



INSTRUMENT UNI 




Figure 2-15. Saturn IB Instrument Unit 



pounds of ihrust for each engine in the Saturn I. The S-1VB 
second stage (Figure 2-1 J) was originally designed for the future, 
larger launch vehicles. Its accelerated development was made 
possible by technology gained during the S-IV development. 
Power for the S-1VB stage was supplied by a single J-2 engine 
(Figure 2-14), a hydrogen-fueled type with a 200,000-pound thrust. 
Development of this engine had begun in 1960 and was near 
completion. 

The design of the Saturn IB Instrument Unit (Figure 2-15) was 
based on that used in the Saturn I, but considerably modified, 
improved, and decreased in size. The early units used hardware 
that had been developed to meet military requirements, where the 
primary interest lay in automatic control systems for accurate 
delivery of inanimate payloads after a relatively short period of 
powered flight. The addition of man as an extremely important 
consideration meant that new systems had to be developed to 
respond to the longer duration flights, varied objectives, and an 
overriding concern for the safety of human passengers. The 

102 



Figure 2-16. First Saturn lit Launch. 



Figure 2-17. 
with LH, 



Saturn IB Launch 
Kxpi Him ill. 






guidance computer used in the Saturn IB was of a completely 
new dentin that provided the increased flexibility necessary to carry 
out the programme's missions. 

The Saturn IB, with the Apollo spacecraft, is approximately 
224 feet tall and 22 feet in diameter. Empty, its weight is about 
85 tons; when fully fuelled the liftoff weight is around 650 tons. 

The first Saturn IB (Figure 2-16) was launched on February 
26, 1966, and was the first "all up" or "live stages" launch 
of the new vehicle. The primary purpose was to flight test the 
launch vehicle and the Command and Service Modules of the 
spacecraft. In mid- 1 966 a second Saturn IB (AS-203) was 
launched with an LIT, experiment as the pr'mc objective (Figure 
2-17). On-board television cameras recorded the behaviour and 
control of liquid hydrogen in the orbiting S-IVB stage. A third 
Saturn IB (AS-202) was launched in August, 1966, to further flight 
test the launch vehicle and develop fhe Command and Service 
Modules. 



103 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

Following the tragic spacecraft incident in early 1967, Saturn 
vehicle launches were at a standstill for approximately a year. 
Flights were resumed in January, 1968, when an unmanned lunar 
module, a major stage of the Apollo spacecraft, was placed in orbit 
by the fourth Saturn IB for development flight testing. Nine 
months later a fifth vehicle was launched; its payload was the 
first manned Apollo spacecraft, and it was placed in Earth orbit. 
In brief, the accomplishments of the five Saturn IB flights were: 
I. Proved "all up" concept. 

Verified engines and launch vehicle for manned flight. 

Demonstrated mission support capability. 

Demonstrated semi-automatic prc-launch checkout. 

Provided flight experience with S-IVB stage, Instrument 

Unit, and Ground Support Equipment in support of larger 

Saturn vehicles. 

Flight tested Lunar Module of Apollo spacecraft. 

Placed first manned Apollo spacecraft into Earth orbit. 



2. 

3. 
4. 
5. 



6. 

7, 



SATURN V LAUNCH VEHICLE 

Introduction 

The questions facing national space planners in 1961 and 1962 
were complex. The United States had undertaken a manned lunar 
landing effort as the focal point for a broad new space programme, 
and there was no vehicle available that even approached the 
needed capability. Theoretically it was possible to use the Saturn I 
vehicle for a manned lunar landing, but it would have been 
extremely difficult. About six Saturn I launches would have been 
required to place the spacecraft components into Earth orbit, to 
be assembled there preparatory to the lunar trip. At that lime 
no rendezvous and docking operations had taken place and the 
techniques still had to be perfected. 

Following intensive concept studies, NASA announced in 
January, 1962, that a new rocket, much larger than any previously 
produced, would be developed to carry out the lunar landing. 
The new rocket, to be known as the Saturn V launch vehicle 
(Figure 2-18), would be composed of a small Instrument Unit 
containing guidance and control, and three propulsive stages. 



104 



CHARACTERISTICS 



TOTAL LENGTH 
WT. AT LIFTOFF 



363 FT 



6,400,000 LBS 
PAYLOAD APPROXfc 
ESCAPE 100,000 LBS 

EARTH ORBIT 285,000 LBS 

STAGES 

FIRST STAGE S-IC 33 X 138 FT 

ENGINES LOX&RP-l 5 F-l 

THRUST 501 THRU 503: 7500K LBS 

;504ANDSUBi 7,610K LBS 

SECOND STAGE S-II 33X81 FT 

ENGINES LOX&LH2I 5J-2 

THRUST 501 THRU 503! 1,125 K LBS 

504 AND SUBi 1.150K LBS 

THIRD STAGE S-IVB 22 X 59 FT 

ENGINE LOX& LH 2 1 J-2 

THRUST 501 THRU 5031 225K LBS 

504 AND SUBi 230 K LBS 

INSTRUMENT UNIT 22 X 3 FT 




• ! 

PROPOSED MISSIOh 

EARTH ESCAPE: 

■APOLLO MANNED LUNAR 
LANDING 

■CIRCUMLUNAR FLIGHT 

•LUNAR LOGISTICS 

■PLANETARY PROBES 

EARTH ORBITAL: 

• MANNED SPACE STATION! 

• MULTI-MISSION, UNMANNE 
SCIENTIFIC SATELLITES 

•EQUATORIAL ORBITS 

•SYNCHRONOUS ORBITS 

•POLAR ORBITS 



Figure 2-18. Saturn V Launch Vehicle. 



The first stage, which would generate 4i times the force of 
Earth gravity, would boost the entire vehicle to an altitude of 
about 38 miles and a speed of 6,000 miles per hour before separating 
from the upper stages. At a velocity of 15,300 miles per hour 
and an altitude of 115 miles, the second stage would shut down 
and be discarded. The third stage would ignite and burn briefly 
to boost the spacecraft to orbital velocity, about 17,500 miles per 
hour. The third stage would remain with the spacecraft, and its 
engine fired again to accelerate the spacecraft From its Earth- 
orbital speed of 17,500 miles per hour to about 24,500 miles 
per hour in a trajectory for a lunar trip. The spacecraft would 
then turn around, dock with the Lunar Module, pull the Lunar 
Module from the forward end of the third stage which is then 
abandoned. The launch vehicle's work would be completed at 
this point in the mission. Earth-orbital missions could be performed 
through the use of just tbe first two stages, but all three would be 



105 








vehicle EFEcnvrry 



IA-50I1W 



THRUST (SEA LEVEL) 1,500,000 LB 

THRUST DURATION 150 SK 165 SEC 

SPECIFIC IMPULSE 

(LB-SECAB) 260 SEC MM 263M1N 
ENGINE WEIGHT 

DRY 18,416 LB 18, 500 LB 
ENGINE WEIGHT 

BURNOUT 20,096 LB 20, 180 LB 
EXIT-TO-THROAT 

AREA RATIO -16TO! 16T01 

PROPEILANTS LOX & RP 1 LOXA RP 

MIXTURE RATIO 2.27*2% 2.27t27c 



CONTRACTOR: NAA/ROCKETDYNE 
VEHICLE APPLICATION: 

SATURN V/S-IC STAGE (FIVE ENGINES) 



IES) 



Development of the Saturn Launch Vehicle 



OX TANK 



USER 



"ELIUM CYLINDERS (*) 



CABLE TUNNEL 



-MEAT SHIELD 



FUEL VENT 

LOX SUCTION 
LINES (6) 



RP-1 TANK 



RETRO ROCKETS 



— F-l ENGINE 



I' iliure 2-19. F-I Engine. 

required for lunar and planetary expeditions. The first stage would 
use the F-i engine (Figure 2-19), which had been in development 
since 1958, and the second and third stages would use the hydrogen- 
fuelled 1-2. 

Saturn V Description 

From these plans, aided by the early vehicle technology and 
given impetus by President Kennedy's challenge that "this' nation 
lake a clearly leading role in space achievement", the Saturn V 
evolved and is even today the United Slates' most powerful rocket. 
Completely assembled, with its three basic stages and the Apollo 
spacecraft, the Saturn V is 363 feet tall and weighs over 6 million 
pounds when fully loaded. 

First Stage. The first stage of the Saturn V, designated S-IC 
'Figure 2-20), comprises six components in a vertical arrangement. 
At the bottom is a cluster of five F-I engines. Upward from the 
engines, forming a cylindrical configuration, are the thrust structure, 

106 



SATURN V 



Figure 2-20. Sunt™ V I'irst Sutge (S-IC). 

fuel tank, intcrtank structure, liquid oxygen (LOX) lank, and a 
forward skirt that connects the first and second stages. A 75- 
squarc-foot fin is mounted at each outboard engine position to 
provide stability during flight. 

The S-IC is 33 feel in diameter (less the fins) and 138 feet long, 
and weighs 303,000 pounds without fuel and 4,881.000 pounds 
when loaded. In a firing, approximately 209,000 gallons of RP-1 
(refined kerosene) and 334.500 gallons of liquid oxygen are 
consumed in about 2.i minutes. (Propellant consumption varies 
with cut-off times tailored for different missions.) It contains 
its own instrumentation and safety systems, but receives guidance 
and control commands from the Instrument Unit. 

Second Stage. The Saturn V second stage, the S-ll ( Figure 2-2/ J, 
measuring 81 feet in length and 33 feet in diameter, is powered 
by live J-2 engines, providing a total stage thrust of 1,000,000 
pounds. It has a dry weight of 72,000 pounds and can carry 

107 



r- 



LHj TANK 
PRESSURE LIN 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



MANHOLE COVER 



CABLE TUNNEL 



LIQUID HYDROGEN 
TANK 



LH-, VENT 



3D INSULATION 

AUXILIARY PROPULSION 
SYSTEM MODULE 



OAS DISTRIBUTOR 



WORK 

PLATFORM 



FUEL LEVEL SENSOR 




RING SLOSH BAFFLE 



lh 2 suction line- 



LOX VENT LINE 



SECOND 

SEPARATION 
. PLANE 



■•2 ENGINE 



HEAT SHIELD 



LOX SUMP 



ULLAGE ROCKET 



FORWARD 
SKIRT 



FUEL LEVEL 
SENSORS 



CABLE TUNNEL- 



COLD HELIUM 
SPHERES 




AFT SKIRT 
\ HELIUM SPHERES 

/ /AFT INTERS! 



COMMON'' 
BULKHEAD .. ' 

LIQUID OXYGEN TANK 



ULLAGE MOTORSC2) 



SATURN V 



SEPARATION' / 

PLANE / 

THRUST 
STRUCTURE 



Figure 2-21 . Saturn V Second Stage (S-ll), 

930,000 pounds of propellant. It burns approximately 275,000 
gallons of LH-j and 84,750 gallons of LOX during a typical six- 
minute flight. The major structures of the S-II are the forward 
skirt, liquid hydrogen tank, LOX tank, aft skirt, and thrust structure, 
and the interstage. It contains its own measuring, signal con- 
ditioning, telemetry, and electrical power systems; the engine 
servoaclualors execute guidance command generated by the 
Instrument Unit. 

Third Stage. Saturn V's third stage, the S-IVB (Figure 2-22), 
is approximately 22 feet tn diameter and 59 feet long, and consists 
of one large tank with a bulkhead separating the fuel and oxidizer 
compartments. An interstage adaptor connects the targcr diameter 
second stage to the smaller third stage. The power source is a 
single J-2 engine with a thrust of 230,000 pounds at altitude. 
Empty, the stage weighs 33,600 pounds; the fuelled weight is 
265.600 pounds. Its LOX and LH a propellant capacity is 230,000 

lot! 



Figure 2-22. Saturn V Third Stage (S-IVB), 

pounds. Measuring, signal conditioning, telemetry, and electrical 
power systems are internally contained. 

The S-IVB stage is basically the same as that of the Saturn IB 
except that the Saturn V version has orbital restart capability 
required for the lunar mission. After the J-2 engine has placed 
the stage and spacecraft into an Earth orbit, the engine shuts down 
and all systems are checked out. When the spacecraft is properly 
oriented, the engine restarts and propels the spacecraft into a 
translunar trajectory. Typical burn times of the S-IVB are 2.5 
minutes for the first burn to Earth orbit, and 5.5 minutes for the 
second burn to a translunar injection. 

Instrument Unit The Instrument Unit (Figure 2-23), located 
above the S-IVB stage, has a diameter of 21 feel 8 inches, a 
3-foot height, and an average weight of 4,500 pounds. It is a 
highly flexible system that can provide guidance and control for a 



109 



SATURN V 



INSTRUMENT UNIT 



ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYS. 




T6LEM SYS 



PLATFORM 
AIR SUPPLY 






DIGITAL 
COMPUTBUl 



it. pwr.svs. £■=*♦"» 

RADAR /7*fcff ADAPTER 

ST-124-M PLATFORM SV 



7^k 



TCLEM1TRV SYS. SWITCH SELECTOR 





OMMAI 
SYS. 



TELEMETRY SYS 



MEASURING SYS 



CONTROL COMPUTER SYS. 



ELECT. PWR. SYS 



Figure 2-23, Satttrti V Instrumen: Unit. 

variety of vehicle configurations and flight paths. In addition to 
the bask; functions, the Saturn V Instrument Unit has the following 
additional capabilities: 

• Automatic checkout of the S-IVB and Instrument Unit systems 
prior to lunar injection. 

• Guidance during injection of the S-IVB, Instrument Unit. 
and spacecraft into lunar transfer trajectory. 

• Stabilization of the S-IVB, Instrument Unit, and Lunar Module 
during turn-around of the Command and Service Modules. 

• Execution of manoeuvres to remove the S-IVB and Instrument 
Unit from the spacecraft orbital plane. 

Lunar Landing Mode. As the project to accomplish the lunar 
landing goal was studied, it was determined that one huge rocket 
would not be built for a direct flight from the Earth and a soft 
landing of the entire spacecraft on the Moon. Instead, two orbital 
rendezvous approaches were considered: 

• Bring together two Saturn V payloads in Earth orbit to form 
a Moonship, and then proceed to the Moon. 



no 






. LAUNCH INTO EARTH ORBIT 
I EARTH ORBITAL CHECKOUT 

3. S-IVB 2nd BURN-TRANSLUNAR 
TRAJECTORY 

4. DE-BOOST INTO LUNAR ORBIT 

5. LM DESCENT TO LUNAR SURFACE 

6. CSM CONTINUE IN LUNAR ORBIT 



7. LM ASCENT 

8. CSM/LM RENDEZVOUS AND DOCK 

9. SM BURN -CSM IN TRANSEARTH 
TRAJECTORY 

10. SEPARATE CM/SM-CM ENTER 
ATMOSPHERE AND LAND 



Figure 2-24. Apollo Lunar Landing Profile. 



• Launch a single Saturn payload into lunar orbit, dispatch a 

small landing craft to the lunar surface, and later rendezvous 

the landing craft with the mother ship in lunar orbit for the 

return to Earth. 

In July, 1962, it was announced that the lunar orbit rendezvous 

method (Figure 2-24) was favoured on the basis of cost, safety, 

and lime. With all the experience to be gained from the Saturn I 

and IB programmes, it was clearly realized that the task ahead 

was still a momentous one. 

Efforts in all aspects of the programme were broadened and 
intensified. Research continued with metals, insulations, processes 
and techniques. Design of advanced ground support equipment 
and launch support equipment extended proven design concepts 
to meet the increased needs of the larger more powerful vehicle. 
Tooling was adapted to the size and weight of the new, larger 
stages, and fabrication methods were improved and developed 



ill 







for handling new and sometimes exotic materials. New assembly 
methods were devised — assembly in the vertical position to prevent 
the stages from deforming through their own weight. Checkout 
procedures also had to be revised. 

To assure that development progressed quickly and precisely, 
the facility design, construction and instrumentation were correlated 
with vehicle and ground support equipment programmes. As firm 
requirements were being set for static and dynamic test stands, 
techniques for handling, transporting and assembling the large 
stages at the launch site were also being determined. Because of 
their bulk, the new vehicles presented numerous problems: 
additional safety procedures had to be developed, telemetry stations 
had to be expanded, and improved methods of protecting and 
servicing the vehicle after assembly had to be devised. 

By May 26, 1966, the first Saturn V vehicle, in the Facilities 
Checkout configuration, had been assembled and transported to 



Figure 2-26. Launch Vehicle C round Support Equipment, 



the launch pad on a crawler {Figure 2-25). There it was used 
for a non-launch checkout of the launch facilities. 

Launch Vehicle Ground Support Equipment 

The third element of the system, following the vehicle and the 
Apollo spacecraft, is the Ground Support Equipment. The vehicle 
is totally dependent upon its Ground Support Equipment (GSE) 
— the electrical power sources, hydraulic pressure units, and the 
checkout equipment that probes the vehicle's well-being after 
assembly, and during countdown and launch. Development of 
the Ground Support Equipment (Figure 2-26) was intimately 
associated with development of the vehicle, and the schedules 
established for its design, fabrication and testing had to parallel 
those for the vehicle. 

The complexity of the Ground Support Equipment programme 
can be illustrated bv the more than 60,000 events monitored 



1 1: 



\ 



n? 




during the development and manufacture of the mechanical and 
electrical Ground Support Equipment, as opposed to a total of 
40,000 events for the Saturn V's three stages and Instrument 
Unit. 

Problems were encountered in the GSE of the same major 
magnitude as those experienced in the development and operation 
of test and flight hardware. One typical example of GSE anomalies 
is the parity errors — discrepancies in computer input and output 
—which occurred in the ground control computers during prelaunch 
operations for the first Saturn IB Slight. When finally isolated, 
the problem was determined to be cracks in circuit board solder 
joints (Figure 2-27), of which there are thousands. Thermal 
cycling of the con formal coated boards was established as the 
cause. A reliable fix was determined and the 64,000 boards 
involved were corrected with minimum impact to the programme. 

A valuable accessory devised for the GSE development was 
the Systems Development Facility, more commonly referred to as 



114 



Figure 2-28. Saturn V Systems Development Facility. 

the "Breadboard"" {Figure 2-28). This facility is a simulation 
of the launch vehicle automatic chcckouL GSE at the launch pad, 
plus components simulating a completely assembled Saturn vehicle. 
Its primary purpose is two-fold: first, verification of vehicle and 
GSE compatibility and, secondly, development and verification of 
checkout tapes for actual (Tight missions. In addition, the facility 
permitted early identification and solving of problems that otherwise 
would have been encountered later at the launch pad and caused 
a delay in the launch. 

LAUNCH VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY 

Many problems were encountered early in the programme that 
required advancing the state-of-the-art in widely diverse areas. 
Some of the major difficulties, and the unique solutions that had 
to be devised, are described in the succeeding paragraphs. 

115 






Pioneering in Outer Space 

Manufacturing/ Welding 

(n manufacturing terms, the Saturn launch vehicle can be 
described as a large, lightweight, thin-skinned, cryogenic, high 
pressure vessel that requires extremely close manufacturing toler- 
ances (±0.013 inch on 33 foot diameter). Because of the sheer 
physical size and the extremely lightweight structure, the manu- 
facturing process demanded high-strength materials and miles of 
precision welding. The capability and reliability of the existing 
welding equipment were inadequate. The weld length in one pass 
for a 33-foot diameter tank was 100 feet, and the weld had to be 
perfect: one weak spot could have resulted in destruction of the 
entire vehicle. 

The solution was an automatic weld machine that moved along 
a precision track, joining the aluminium sections of the tanks with 
a perfect or near perfect weld (Figure 2-29). Each weld was 
thoroughly inspected by X-ray, dye penetrant, and ultrasonic 
methods. When weld flaws were detected, repairs were made by 
hand-held equipment. 

An interesting problem encountered was the tendency of the 
torch head to wander off the weld searii. It was discovered that 
the segments were too smoothly machined for (he weld torch 
tracking system, which was based on detecting the discontinuity 
of induced eddy currents at the seam. The individual segments 
had been formed with such precision and size that the joint 
between the two segments offered no reasonable level of electrical 
discontinuity to the instrument. The solution was to scarf the 
segments and redesign the tracking mechanism for a much higher 
gain. 

Insulation 

S-IVB Stage. Early in the 1960s efficient insulation for large 
quantities of LH t was unknown. Even when properly insulated 
and filled to capacity, an S-IVB stage will lose some of the LH t 
by boil-off during the countdown procedure and must be replen- 
ished, at LH, flow rates up to 300 gpm. Numerous insulation 
materials for the LH t tanks were tested without success. Balsa 
wood was considered as a liner, but was not available in the 
size and quantity required for the 22-by-40-foot tanks. Another 



16 







Figure 2-29, Automatic Weld Machine. 

material considered was foam-filled fibrcglass honeycomb, which 
proved unacceptable; the foam tended to shrink away from the 
sides of the honeycomb, allowing hydrogen to penetrate through 
to the wall. Attempts were made to force- press the fibrcglass 
honeycomb a fraction of the distance through the foam, but this 
resulted in a shear plane located at the interface between the 
honeycomb and the foam, causing horizontal cracking. 

The most successful material was a three-dimensional lattice 
of fibrcglass threads filled with poly u ret hane fnam. The threads 
were spaced approximately 3/16ths inch apart in all three planes 
to form a lattice work, and the foam was allowed to rise during the 
foaming process. Tests of this material were highly successful, but 
its fabrication presented a problem. Building a framework of 
threads in two dimensions (X and Y) is rather simple; however, 
ingenuity was required to design a machine that could weave the 
final thread in the Z plane. 

117 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



FIBERGLASS 
THREADS 
FROM 
SPOOLS 



THREADS 



FRAME 




Figure 2- JO. X-Y Thread Wrapping. 




FIBERGLAS 
THREADS 



FRAME 



Figure 2-31. X-Y From* 
118 



Development of the Saturn Launch Vehicle 




Figure 2-32. X-Y Frame Assembly. 

■THREAD RETAINING RODS 




Figure 2-33. Vertical (Z) Thread Reluming Rails. 



Pioneering in Outer Space 




Figure 2-34. Assembly oj 
Frames and Threads. 



12 1/2 IN. SQ 
APPROX. 



8 IN. APPROX. 



< 



Figure 2-35. Rough 
Trimmed Foam Block. 




■ 




T 




Figure 2-36. Installation of I mutation tile in LH^ Tank. 

The X-Y machine on which threads are wound on special frames 
is shown in Figure 2-30. The frames are stacked alternately at 
right angles to each other (Figures 2-31 and 2-32), which arranges 
the threads in two of the three axes. The frames with A' and Y 
threads are placed on the Z machine (Figure 2-33), where special 
needles weave the fibreglass as threads in the Z axis. After the 
frames are threaded they are placed in a mould (Figure 2-34) and 
polyurethanc foam is poured over the threads. Once the foam 
is air-curved, the "cones" arc removed (Figure 2-35). sawed into 
blocks, and machined into tiles with concave or convex contours 
as needed for lining the tank walls. This insulation is relatively 
lightweight and provides the necessary thermal characteristics 
(Figure 2-36). It is sufficiently free from maintenance problems, 
sensitivity to handling, storage, repeated thermal shock and trans- 
portation. 



121 



Pioneering in Outer Space 




«1«IA HC1KWW 

Figure 2-37. S-II Stags Insulation. 



S-II Stage. For the Saturn V second stage, an external insula- 
tion was chosen (Figures 2-37 and 2-38) to take advantage of 
the gain in strength imparted to the aluminium alloy tank skin 
by the propellant at cryogenic temperature (-423 FJ. To fullll 
its purpose, the insulation had to limit the amount of hear leak to 
the i.H, to meet the net positive suction head requirements of the 
feed pumps and to limit the ground hold boil-off of LH t ; remain 
structurally intact through all ground operations at the test site; 
and withstand flight environments of aerodynamic heating and 
shear. Certain environmental requirements were established, 
including the capability to remain thermally and structurally 
adequate when exposed to the natural environment for a minimum 
of three years, under minimum cold day conditions of 28 F. when 
tanked with LHj under flight conditions with temperatures up to 
650°F., and when subjected to the sinusoidal and random vibration 
levels as experienced during static firing and launch conditions. 
The insulation also had to be flame rctardant to reduce the fire 



122 








Figure 2-38. Spray Faum Insulation. 



Figure 2-39. Application aj 
Foam liiiiilaiion. 



hazards associated with the use of LH d and LOX. Highly desirable 
was an insulation that eould be applied by spray techniques, which 
would simplify application and reduce stage weight. 

From the many considered and tested, the insulation selected was 
a foam-filled phenolic honeycomb core purged with helium (Tables 
I and II). Helium provides an inert atmosphere and, to preclude 
ingestion of condensable gases, also allows for the practical fabrica- 
tion of an insulation composite with less than a perfect external 
surface seal. The foam is sprayed onto the outside of the structure 
and allowed to cure. It is then machined to the required thickness 
and coated with a vinyl/polyurcthane for protection against possible 
subsequent damage (Figure 2-39). 

Inflight Control of Liquid Hydrogen II H I 

The "super cold" LH. propellant selected for the early Saturn 
vehicles' upper stages and the Saturn V second and third stages 
was almost an unknown with respect to its behaviour under near 
weightless conditions and its effect on engine restart and vehicle 



123 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



Fro party 


Requirement 


ASTH 


Density, lb/ft* 


*-°-0.3 


D1622 


Closed cell, percent 


89 minimum 


D1940 


Thermal conductivity, 
Btu-ln/hr-ft2-*F 


0.2 maximum 


C177 Co 
-320F 


Permeability at ambient 
conditions. Sec helium/sec 


-4 

1 x 10 maximum 


No ASTH 


Coefficient of linear 
thermal expansion CRT to 
-150F. perpendicular to 
rise), in. /in. -degree F 


-5 
8.2 x 10 maximum 


MM 

belou room 
temperature 


Coefficient of linear 
thermal expansion (RT 
to -100F. perpendicular 
to rite), 
in, /in. ■ degree F 


6.9 x 10* maximum 


D696 below 
room temperature 


Flsonsbtlity 


Nonburnlng 


M692 



Table I. Physical and Chemical Properties of Cured Foam. 
Tahte 11. Mechanical Properties of Cured Foam. 







Minimum 




Strain 






Test 


Average 


Individual 


In. /in. 






Tempera tura 


Valut 


Value, psl, 


Minimum 




Property 


degrees F, 


pii U> 


Minimum 


Individual 


ASTH 


Compressive 


70 


2S 


20 


0.021 


D1621 


strength 












(parallel to 


-*23 


13 


40 


0.021 


01621 


the rise) 












Tensile strength 


70 


48 


38 




In- house 


(parallel to 










technique 


the rise) 


-423 


SO 


38 


0.012 




Tensile strength 


70 


33 


26 




In-house 


(perpendicular 










technique 


to the rin) 


-423 


a 


20 


0.013 




Shear strength 


70 


25 


20 




C273 


(perpendicular 












to the rise) 


-423 


20 


15 


0.022 


C273 


(1) A minimum of 


four spscimens 


tested. 









control. A single, carefully designed experiment, performed in 
conjunction with the flight of the Saturn IB vehicle, provided most 
of the knowledge necessary to achieve maximum and effective 
use of the propellant. The primary objective of the flight was 
to place the vehicle's second stage into a 100-nautical-mile circular 
orbit with 18,000 pounds of liquid hydrogen aboard. The four 
principal areas of investigation were the hydrogen venting system, 

124 




Figure 2-40. Saturn IB LH {Liquid Hydrogen) Experiment. 



engine chilldown and recirculation system; tank fluid dynamics; 
and heat transfer into the liquid through the tank walls. 

A television system, developed by NASA, enabled real-time 
observation of the liquid hydrogen behaviour throughout the llight. 
Mounted inside the tank of the S-IVB stage were closed-circuit 
TV cameras and lights, positioned so that the side and bottom of 
the tank as well as the hydrogen level could be clearly observed. 
Reference marks were painted on the tank walls to assist engineers 
in studying the action of the liquid during flight {Figure 2-40). 
The television picture was received and recorded by four ground 
receiving stations, one of which was located at Carnarvon, 
Australia. 

At an altitude of approximately 40 nautical mites the first stage 
cut off as planned and separated from the second stage. The 
physical separation of the stages caused the liquid to slosh, and 
this reaction continued as the second stage ignited and accelerated. 



125 



ML TEST FACILITY] REAL lEAOP* 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

Eventually the deflector ring and acceleration forces exerted a 
damping effect, and the fuel began to slow its movement and, 
finally, "settled". 

At second stage cut-off, which occurs at orbital insertion, the 
liquid hydrogen began to rise toward the top and side of the 
tank because of a combination of physical phenomena, primarily 
zero gravity and amplification of the sloshing due to acceleration 
reduction. Heat transfer through the super-insulated tank wall to 
the liquid hydrogen (which boils at — 423' F.) caused the density 
of the fluid near the wall to be reduced, resulting in a buoyancy 
effect with the liquid flowing upward along the tank wall and 
accumulating at the surface. 

Since control of the fuel is essential to restarting the engine (for 
ejection from Earth orbit), a propulsive venting system to resettle 
the liquid propellant was included in the original design. The 
venting system makes use of hydrogen gas generated by heat 
transfer to provide a small thrust to overcome aerodynamic drag. 
In this test it was observed that the device operated as planned: 
when the propulsion venting system was operating, the liquid began 
to resettle to the bottom of the lank once the sloshing energy had 
been dissipated. 

The other major factor tn stage restart is chilling of the engine's 
propellant feed lines, turbopurnp, and thrust chamber to below the 
hydrogen boil-off temperature, to keep the liquid propellant from 
turning into gas. The recirculation system installed for this purpose, 
which keeps the liquid hydrogen flowing through the feed line for 
five minutes before restart, performed satisfactorily. 

An additional experiment made on this flight was to learn how 
rapidly a propellant tank could be vented in orbit without losing 
some of the liquid itself. Vaporized hydrogen was observed moving 
towards the vent exits, behaving in a manner similar tn that of a 
carbonated beverage that had been shaken before being uncapped. 
As the vapour moved forward it carried along globules of liquid 
hydrogen, ranging in size from one to six inches in diameter. This 
showed that at a high vent rate some liquid propellant would be 
lost, but that at lower venting rates the hydrogen vapours condensed 
into liquid and resettled to the tank bottom. 

126' 




Pioneering in Outer Space 

The liquid hydrogen experiments verified the adequacy of the 
propulsive venting system and the engine chill-down and 
recirculation system, in conjunction with the determination of 
tank fluid dynamics and heat transfer, they were major steps toward 
verifying engine restart and vehicle control capabilities. All of 
these data were of. vital importance to the lunar landing programme. 

Saturn Tesl Philosophy 

The first concern in the development testing of any flight 
hardware is determining how many of the components and systems 
can be tested on the ground as opposed to those that must be 
flight-tested. In the early phases of rocket propulsion and launch 
vehicle technology, nearly all of the tests were performed by actual 
flights: not enough was known of space environment effects to 
permit simulation; it was feasible because no lives were involved, 
and the systems were relatively simple and inexpensive and could 
be expended. With the advent of more complex launch vehicles 
and manned spacecraft, this picture changed. It was necessary to 
place the maximum emphasis on ground testing, and the advances 
in technology as well as the increasing knowledge of the space 
environment made it possible. Most of the ground tests for the 
Saturn launch vehicles were nondestructive, and in practically all 
cases the resulting design decisions were verified in the subsequent 
flight tests. 

Structural Tests. To verify their structural integrity, all Saturn 
stages were subjected to simulated flight loads {Figure 2-41 ) and 
the components were tested to optimize and prove the design 
load-carrying capability and to establish a margin of safely beyond 
the maximum expected operational environment. 

Battleship Tests. "Battleship" tests {Figure 2-42) were conducted 
on propulsive stages to investigate overall propulsion system 
compatibilities and to establish system limits. The battleship 
configuration duplicates the flight stage in all respects except for 
the propellant containers, which are of heavier thickness than the 
flight article. During these tests, the engine was repeatedly fired 
to evaluate the engine and stage performance, propellant feed system 
operation, and compatibility of all stage systems with engine 
systems. 

128 




Figure 2-43. Apollo-Saturn I 
Dynamic Test Stand. 



Figure 2-44. S-IVH 
Facility Checkout Stage. 



Dynamic Tests. In the dynamic tests (Figure 2-4 3) the response 
of the complete launch vehicle was monitored under all flight 
conditions such as launch, maximum aerodynamic loading, and 
stage separation. These tests confirmed vehicle flight control system 
design and verified vehicle structure dynamics analysis. The tests 
included evaluation of bending modes, frequencies, interaction 
between engine gimballing motion and vehicle structures, damping 
characteristics, and local modes and frequencies. 

Facility Checkout Tests. Facility checkout tests [Figure 2-44) 
were conducted at each stage test stand and launch complex to 
verify facility/vehicle compatibility. Some of the test objectives 
were to prove Ground Support Equipment capability for handling 
and transporting the vehicle and providing environmental control 
and propellant servicing, to develop test procedures and flow 
sequences, to train operating personnel in the various servicing and 
launch operations, and to develop safety methods and procedures. 

' 129 




Figure 



Presiatk Clicfknui dj S-lii Stag* 



Launch Vehicle Checkout. In addition to the development ground 
testing, a comprehensive programme of launch vehicle checkout 
(Figure 2-45) was developed to determine the readiness of the 
vehicle for launch. The programme included the individual stage 
checkout at the factory, pre- and post-static testing at the lest sites, 
and the prclauneh checkout of the integrated launch vehicle at 
the launch site. Automatic checkout instrumentation was installed 
at factories, test sites, and launch sites (Figure 2-46). As the 
stages and the completely assembled launch vehicles have processed 
through the automatic checkout stations, test engineers have 
analyzed and evaluated the data. From this analysis and evaluation, 
the engineers have been able to detect and isolate malfunctioning 
hardware and perform the maintenance actions that have returned 
the flight hardware to a stale of operational readiness. 

The exhaustive levels of many ground tests were the solid 
foundation of the Saturn flight test programme. The test plan 



Figure 2-46. Stage Checkout Station. 



philosophy was to fly as early as ground tests permitted, but not 
until the vehicle was proven to be completely ready and reliable. 

The Saturn ground test programme has been characterized by 
a heavy reliance on applicable portions of lest history from each 
predecessor vehicle. Relatively few test specimens were required 
in the programme considering the size and complexity of the 
Saturn family of launch vehicles. Some spectacular and well- 
publicized failures have been scattered throughout the ground test 
programme; however, these failures have been fully exploited for 
their learning potential, and the hardware remaining after each 
has been repeatedly used. 

Flight tests were conducted only on those parameters of stages 
and systems that could not be proven by ground tests. These tests 
demonstrated operational capability, provided fur a high degree of 
crew safety, and involved maximum use of the capabilities of each 
type of launch vehicle. More specific objectives included validation 
of all vehicle and spacecraft sub-systems, re-entry and landing 

131 






Pioneering in Outer Space 



APOLLO REVIEW PROCESS 



POR 



COR 



FACI 



OCR 



FRR 



T T T T T 

PRELIMINARY CRITICAL FIRSTARTICLE DESIGN RIGHT 

DESIGN DESIGN CONFIGURATION CERTIFICATION READINESS 

REVIEW REVIEW INSPECTION REVIEW REVIEW 



-DEFINITION 



f" 



DESIGN- 



-MFG. 



-OPERATIONAL- 



1 



APPROVE 

BASIC DESIGN 

APPROACH 



1 



ASSURE 
ARTICLES BUILT 
TO APPROVED 
APPROVE DESIGN CERTIFY 

SPECIFICATIONS ALL RIGHT & GROUND 

& DRAWINGS SYSTEMS FOR 

FOR MANNT.0 FLIGHT 

MANUFACTURE 

Figure 2-47. A polio Review Process. 



1 



DETERMINE 

ALL FLIGHT & GROUND 

SYSTEMS READY 

FOR EACH 

MISSION 



performance, testing of abort procedures, development of full 
operational capabilities of the propulsion system of the launch 
vehicles and spacecraft, perfection of navigation and guidance 
capabilities, rendezvous and docking exercises, and development of 
ground control capabilities. 

Programme Review Process 

The size and complexity of the Saturn programme dictated the 
need for an organized process whereby management could keep a 
finger on the pulse of the overall programme. One very effective 
innovation in this area was the systematic review procedure 
(Figure 2-47) implemented to track the pace and progress of the 
launch vehicle from definition, to design, to manufacture, and 
through the operational phase. 

During the definition phase alternate approaches were studied 
and trade-offs between approaches were made to select the best. 
Once the approach had been determined, detailed performance 

132 



Development of the Saturn Launch Vehicle 

and design requirements were generated. These requirements 
stipulated system performance during checkout, launch, and 
operations throughout the life span of the vehicle. They also 
prescribed features that must be designed into the vehicle so that 
it is reliable, can be inspected to assure quality, is safe lo use and 
operate, and can be tested and maintained. Considered early in 
the design phase and made a part of the requirements were such 
factors as spare parts, software, facilities, and the handling and 
movement of large pieces of hardware from location to location. 

By taking advantage of already developed missile hardware for 
the first configuration, and by devising special management 
procedures, the Saturn development schedule was compressed 
within an unprecedented ly short time. Within a period of five 
years, the Saturn programme proceeded from definition, through 
basic and final design and manufacturing, to the completion of 
the first Saturn V. 

As the Satum hardware moved through these phases, a scries 
of design, acceptance, and certification reviews were conducted. 
For example, the results of the Preliminary Design and Critical 
Design reviews were the basis for approval of the basic design 
approach and the specifications and drawings required for 
manufacture. Any changes or open questions that arose during 
the reviews became action items, which were assigned for resolution 
and monitored by a strict schedule and follow-up system. Changes 
that had to be made were fed back into the design specifications. 
As the programme continued into the next phase, the first completely 
assembled stages were subjected to a strenuous configuration 
inspection (First Article Configuration Inspection) to ensure that 
all details were built according to the approved design. 

The Design Certification Review was primarily a verification 
that all flight and ground systems could support manned flight. 
This portion of the process included the vendors, subcontractors, 
prime contractors, and project and programme managers, each of 
whom in turn had to certify that his hardware was operational and 
sufficiently reliable for manned flight. 

Two to four weeks prior to the actual flight of each vehicle 
a Flight Readiness Review was conducted by key management 
staff members to determine that all flight and ground systems 



133 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

were ready for each of the missions assigned to the particular 
flight. 

Each of these reviews provides a common meeting ground for 
all the technical and management disciplines that impinge on the 
programme. It is at this apex that representatives of all disciplines 
— reliability and quality, safety, test engineering, operations — 
participate as a team to evaluate technical progress from preliminary 
design through flight readiness. 

Saturn Launch Vehicle Payload Growth 

Adjustments in launch vehicle payload capability and spacecraft 
or payload weight arc dictated by such factors as hardware changes, 
individual stage propellant loads, specific mission profile require- 
ments, and specific engine performance as demonstrated by static 
firing. Strict controls were maintained to cope with the frequently 
changing picture of weight versus capability. This demanded the 
continuous attention of both managers and engineers to ensure 
that the payload weight and the launch vehicle capability remained 
compatible and the lunar landing could be achieved within the 
established time frame. 

Over the past several years, as the Apollo spacecraft matured 
and became operational, its weight grew significantly, necessitating 
a corresponding increase in the launch vehicle's performance. The 
first three Saturn Vs were initially committed to an 85,000-pound 
Earth-escape capability; however, a payload capability of 100,000 
pounds became necessary to accomplish the initial lunar landing. 
The succeeding flights required further increases in launch vehicle 
performance to carry additional scientific equipment and experiments 
to the lunar surface. As a result, the launch vehicle Earth-escape 
capability has grown to its present 106.500 pounds. 

To obtain the approximately 21,500 pound increase, the 
vehicle's engines were uprated, stage weights were reduced, and 
optimum utilization was made of the system performance during 
the operational phase. For example, structural changes to the 
Y-ring tank supports in the Saturn V first stage reduced its weight 
by about 7,000 pounds; propellant loads on the first and second 
stages were increased by 293,000 pounds and 40,000 pounds, 
respectively, for longer burns of the engines; the thrust was increased 

134 




Figure 2-48. Internal view of Instrument Unit at Stabilized Platform Location. 

by 15,000 pounds for the F-l and by more than 5,000 pounds for 
the J-2; and the capability of specific vehicles has been matched 
with specific flight mission requirements. These improvements 
realized a corresponding increase in the Saturn Vs Earth-orbital 
payload capability, from 265,000 to 285,000 pounds, which is 
sufficient to launch even heavier payloads than the currently 
planned Sky lab and space stations. 

l-'.\ urn plus of Launch Vehicle Flight Anomalies 

Despite alt the reliability considerations in the design, manu- 
facture, and test of the Saturn vehicles, anomalies of varying 
consequences have occurred during flight tests. Four typical 
instances and their solutions are described below. 

Low Frequency Vibration (30-50 Hz) in the ST-124M3 
Stabilized Platform. The ST-I24M3 Stabilized Platform, located 
in the Instrument Unit (Figure 2-48). is a critical item in the 
Saturn vehicle inertia! guidance system. The guidance system 

135 



SATURN V DYNAMIC TESTING-MSFC 




Figure 2-49. Saturn V Instrument Vtiit Vihui:i<ni Test Article. 



consists of an inertia] subsystem (ST-I24M3) and a computer 
subsystem that provides guidance by (1) determining instantaneous 
vehicle acceleration, velocity, and position in a geometric inertia! 
co-ordinate frame, and (2) determining the required thrust 
direction and thrust leimimition time to reach the trajectory or 
satisfy attitude requirements (steering). 

On a Sulum IB flight, a low frequency vibration, encountered 
during the first five seconds of flight, forced the platform 
acceleromcter pickups to drive against mechanical stops causing 
erroneous velocity pulses to be accumulated. This problem was 
also observed in the ground tests of the ST-I24M3 Stabilized 
Platform which were being used to qualify the system at the higher 
vibration levels of the Saturn V. Since the S-1VB stage and 
Instrument Unit are common to the Saturn IB and Saturn V, it 
was possible to combine and check out these two indications by 
utilizing data developed from the following: (t) The Saturn V 
Instrument Unit vibration test article {Figure 2-49), which was 



136 



Figure 2-50. Saturn V Instrument 
Unit Structural Test Article. 



Figure 2-51. Saturn V 
Dynamic Test Article. 



used to dynamically qualify the Instrument Unit structures, supplied 
the resonant frequencies, the corresponding mode shapes, and the 
driving point impedance; (2) the Saturn V Instrument Unit 
structural test article (Figure 2-50), used to statically qualify the 
same subsystem, supplied verification of driving point impedances 
obtained from the vibration article; (3) the Saturn V dynamic 
test article (Figure 2-51), which was used to dynamically qualify 
and evaluate the entire launch vehicle, provided verification of 
the stress and eflection analysis. 

The analysis indicated a coupling of the rigid body structural 
modes with resonant frequencies of the accelerometer servo loop. 
The resonant frequency of the accelerometer servo loop was 30 
to 50 hertz, and approximately coincides with the natural resonant 
frequency of the Instrument Unit honeycomb structure. 

The alternatives for alleviating the problem were to redesign the 
accelerometer servo loop, which was prohibitive due to schedule 
requirements and cost; or to uncouple and/or reduce the amplitude 

137 



POSITION IV 



i 



? 




Pioneering in Outer Space 

INSULATION- 

-5- 



iau/u 



31 




I.U. STRUCTURE 



ess 



I24M3 






3&00 



CTj*=*«[' 



VI SCO ELASTIC 
DAMPING MATERIAL 



Figure 2-52, instrument Unit Moss Dumping Application. 

of vibration to a level that could be tolerated. Attempts to 
uncouple the rigid body structural modes from the resonant 
frequencies of the accelerometcr servo loop proved unsuccessful. 
However, it was possible to attenuate the amplitude of the vibration 
to an acceptable level by mass damping. The mass damping 
consists of bonding an 0.80-inch layer of damping compound to 
the outer Instrument Unit skin at the ST-124M3 mounting location 
(Figure 2-52). A minor modification was also made in the 
ST-I24M3 servo loop, increasing the mechanical stop range from 
± 3 d to ± 6°. 

Longitudinal Oscillations (POCO). Liquid propellant boosters 
have frequently exhibited longitudinal oscillation in varying degrees 
during their development phase. The phenomenon occurred on 
the Atlas, Thor and Titan vehicles, ft is caused by engine thrust 
oscillations resulting from coupling of vibrations in the structure 
with vibrations in the propellant feed system. These vibrations 
can involve the entire vehicle structure or just local structures. 
The first such occurrence of any significance in the Saturn 
programme was with the second and unmanned Saturn V flight, 
when these oscillations were noted during the first stage (S-IC) 
portion of powered flight. The problem was resolved by lowering 
the resonance of the liquid oxygen lines to uncouple it from that 



138 



Development of the Saturn Launch Vehicle 

1 0.0T C PEAK 



COMMAND MODULE 

CROSSBEAM 
APOLLO « t 



1 1IC PEAK 



~ynm* — r 

* iCID/l 



ASTRONAUT HE PORT 

— ENGINE CUTOFF 




APOLLO B f 
CROSSBEAM 



COMMAND MODULE 



t 9 PEAK 




»JTROHAUT REPORT 



4« MO (Ml 500 SM S« S» 

RANGE TIME (SECONDS) 

Figure 2~53. 5-/1 Oscillation Responses. 

of the structure. A helium gas accumulator system was added to 
the four outboard liquid oxygen (LOX) lines. The solution was 
verified on subsequent flights of the first stage. 

During the third and fourth Saturn V missions the same type 
of condition arose with the second stage. The astronauts reported 
low frequency (18 Hz) longitudinal oscillations (vibration), 
commonly referred to as POGO, late in the stage burn. Figure 
2-53 shows the peak g's experienced in the second stage centre 
engine support structure (crossbeam) of the two vehicles, along 
with the Command Module peak g's during the two flights. 

Although the structure and flight subsystems in the S-II second 
stage aft section were qualified to sustain loads of this magnitude, 
the variations in amplitude sensitivity among vehicles was of 
sufficient concern to require correction on the later vehicles. The 
investigation that followed indicated that the centre engine 
crossbeam support . was sensitive to vibrations in the 1 8-Hz 
frequency, and that the centre engine produced this frequency 
after about 455 seconds of vehicle flight (Figure 2-54). The 



139 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



~i- 



'■> 



■•: 



15 



.FREQUENCY BAND 
0FCR05S3EAMM0DE 



i= MEASURED CHAMBER - - 
PRESSURE FSFOLsNCV 



DYNAMIC TEST VEHICLE DATA 



CALCULATED 



— 



®0 «5 4«l 4ffi 470 475 480 486 «0 495 500 505 510 515 520 
RANGE TIME, SECONDS 
Figure 2-54. $-11 Stage Crossbeam and Centre Engine Chamber Pressure 

Frequency. 





I THRUST 

Figure 2-55. Enginc-Strttaure-Feedtine, Closed-Loop Oscillation. 
fourth flight was simulated by computer, using the simplified 
block diagram of the closed loop system shown in Figure 2-55, 
and the flight data and computer simulation correlation was verified 
(Figure 2-56). 

Review of flight data and static test data from S-II stage firings 
revealed a correlation that was of great value in prescribing and 
verifying a resolution. Static firings exhibited the same kind of 
motion and frequency at the same vehicle LOX levels as was 
experienced in the flight vehicle, although at a much lower 
amplitude due to test stand constraints. Both sets of results 
supported the conclusion that the 18-Hz POGO was primarily due 
to regenerative feedback through the centre engine which occurred 
when the LOX had been consumed down to a particular level, 



140 



Development of the Saturn Launch Vehicle 



CROSSBEAM 
RESPONSES) -Z0 



FREQUENCY {HZ) 




COMPUTER SIMULATION 



FLIGHT 

COMPUTER SIMULATION 



*SJ J77 



*» S37 



Sll BURN TIME (SECONDS) 

Figure 2-56. Flight Data/ Computer Simulation Comparison. 



■a 



M 



5 04 



a! 



S-ll-7 STATIC FISIKG. 



S-II -S STATIC FJKING 



12 IS 50 21 



FREOUEHCY (HI! 

Figure 2-57. Centre Engine Thrust Pad Peak Response at Critical 
Liquid Level. 

HI 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



ivsei rut u-j-o.il i;,ri 



»i»> pi>i tctnati (C >e 




tHt.fi I ) 1 MBU1T PAD LOHC Vltt^llW 



IANC1 TUfl [MCI 

Figure 2 -58, Comparison of Fourth and Fifth S-ll Stages Low Frequency 

Vibration Response. 

The problem was resolved by cutting off the centre engine before 
the liquid oxygen reached the critical level. The efficacy of the 
solution was verified by static firing of a second stage being tested 
for a future flight (Figure 2-57), which indicated that the early 
engine cutoff would reduce the possibility of POGO (Figure 2-58) 
occurring on later Saturn vehicles. Only relatively minor hardware 
and flight programme changes were required, and these were accom- 
plished and verified in a time frame to support the launch schedule. 
This change in engine cutoff time decreased the engine burn time 
by approximately 80 seconds, and reduced the Saturn V Lunar 
Landing Mission pay load capability by 500 pounds; however, the 
loss did not compromise the lunar payload or reduce mission 
flexibility. 

Saturn V Second Stage Engines Failure. During the burn of 
the second stage on the second Saturn V flight, two engines cut off 
prematurely, just one second apart, resulting in a 40% thrust loss. 
The onboard guidance and control systems were programmed to 
compensate for loss of one engine by commanding a longer stage 
burn lime, but this could not be extended to compensate for a 
two-engine loss. As a result, the first burn of the third stage engine 
occurred at an altitude lower than normal, and instead of the 
vehicle achieving the desired circular orbit of 100 nautical miles, it 
went into an elliptical orbit of 92 by 192 nautical miles. The 
source of the problem was very difficult to pinpoint. After an 
exhaustive review of all data, including flight telemetry, it was 
established that the second engine, which had been operating 
perfectly, was cut off by the failing first engine because of a 



142 



Development of the Saturn Launch Vehicle 
AUGMENTED SPARK INJECTOR 



ifcltCTfl" P*flM 




Figure 2-59. Engine Injector and ASi Assembly. 



complicated wiring error. The error had not been detected during 
static and other tests due to an odd combination of several human 
errors. 

S-1VB Stage Engine Failure. One prime mission objective of 
the second Saturn V flight, to restart the third stage engine to take 
the spacecraft out of orbit and into a simulated translunar trajectory, 
was not accomplished because the third stage engine failed to 
reignite. Here again, locating the source of the trouble involved a 
long and exhaustive search on the part of NASA and its contractors. 
A wealth of information was obtained from the flight data, but 
the issue was confused by the presentation of many secondary 
effects. One of these was a slight drop in performance about 
two-thirds of the way through the first burn of the third stage. 
Also, environmental temperatures differed from previous flights. 
In the ensuing investigation, employing intensive flight data analysis, 
computer simulation, and ground testing, all of these discrepancies 
proved to be due to trie same defect. 

The 3-2 engine injector, its LOX dome, and the Augmented 
Spark Igniter (ASI) are shown in Figure 2-59. The ASI is 



143 




Figure 2-60. 
ASt Fuel Line on J-2 Engine. 



Figure 2-61. 
Firm Saturn V Launch. 



basically a redundant spark plug arrangement augmented by 
injection of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen to sustain the pilot 
Baffle for main chamber ignition. To prevent system complexity, 
the flow of oxidizer and fuel is maintained during engine operation. 

Figure 2-60 shows the ASI fuel line with braided sections that 
protect the single-ply flexible metal bellows in the line, Ground 
testing revealed that these bellows failed in the vacuum environ- 
ment of the AS- 502 flight. Failures did not occur during ground 
tests at sea level conditions since liquid air formed on the bellows 
surface, which then reduced the vibration loads induced by the 
critical flow rate of liquid hydrogen through the line. However, 
failures were experienced during tests under vacuum conditions 
because no liquid air formation occurs in the vacuum environment. 
The line failure started with a leak and was followed by complete 
breakage. 

Deterioration in the line structure caused a shift in the ASI 
mixture ratio, which in turn caused ASI assembly erosion, damage 
to the main chamber injector, a drop in engine performance and 



144 



Development of the Saturn Launch Vehicle 

eventually engine cutoff. The failure was repeatedly duplicated 
by ground tests, which confirmed the flight data analysis and 
computer simulations. It was obvious then that the third stage 
failed to restart in orbit because insufficient fuel flow to the ASI 
assembly prevented proper ignition mixture rates. A redesign of 
the assembly was initiated immediately. The modification that 
proved effective, based on extensive component and engine system 
testing, was to substitute hard line sections for the flexible bellows. 
Although Saturn vehicle flights have shown no serious design 
problems, the data from all flights arc subjected to an extensive 
analysis, and all potential problem areas arc kept under close 
surveillance. 

SATURN RELIABILITY 

Reliability is the probability of successful operation of a com- 
ponent or assembly over a given time period under a specified 
operating environment. In major technological undertakings, 
empirical studies" and tests were once an accepted philosophy: the 
V-2 development required several hundred research and develop- 
ment flights; about 50 Redstone missiles were launched as test 
flights; prior to military deployment of the Jupiter missile, 
approximately 30 were test flown. Ten R&D flights were initially 
planned for the far more complicated Saturn I, but after seven 
flights, all of them successful, the vehicle was declared operational. 

The dimensions, complexity, and cost of the later Saturn 
vehicles precluded the use of the trial and error methods, so that 
test flights prior to a manned flight were severely restricted. These 
limitations stressed more than ever before the critical need for 
intensive engineering, compulsive meticulousness in manufacture 
and assembly, quality control, and extensive testing on the ground, 

NASA's reliability programme is based on the fundamental belief 
that a high mission success can be achieved only through a 
continuous sequence of closely controlled actions and events that 
begin with the design phase of individual parts, components, and 
systems. The approach to hardware design has been conservative, 
with emphasis on simplicity and reliance on proven building blocks 
and techniques. Reliability is designed into hardware, then proven 
in test. 



145 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



Development of the Saturn Launch Vehicle 






Reliability considerations have been emphasized so strongly 
in the Saturn programme that they have, in effect, constituted a 
notable design parameter. Throughout the in-house, prime con- 
tractor, subcontractor, and vendor activities, reliability has been 
planned and conducted as a special and controlled effort. For 
example, a 100% in-process inspection is recommended for all 
critical components. Secondly, when final design is initiated, parts 
used in that design must be selected from a NASA Preferred Parts 
List. This standardisation of parts across the entire launch vehicle 
reduced the qualification testing required, and gives assurance that 
only parts with known reliability histories arc used. 

The specific approach, beginning during the design phase, has 
been to reduce the system concept to its simplest functional unit, 
and to analyse that unit to determine all the possible ways it can 
fail; the effect of that failure on the subsystem, stage, vehicle, and 
mission; and how the failure compares in severity with other 
possible failures. The individual analyses are then combined to 
reflect failure effects on the subsystem, stage, and mission. 

When a component fails to meet its goal, it is redesigned until 
the goal is met. In cases where the predicted reliability of a 
system was lower lhan that established, redundancies were 
considered. When prediction figures proved adequate, the system 
was developed using the most reliable parts, and the system was 
subsequently tested to prove that the established reliability goals 
were achieved. Additional changes and redundancies were again 
considered when inadequacies were revealed. Redundant com- 
ponents or subsystems had to be equated against weight constraints 
and the possibility of decreased reliability, plus any added com- 
plexity in certain modes of operation. 

The Instrument Unit provides a good example of redundant 
systems. This unit, the "brains" of the entire launch vehicle, 
contains guidance, control, measuring, telemetry, power, tracking, 
sequencing, and emergency detection equipment. Its guidance 
and control system represents one of the most extensive applications 
of redundancy in flight systems. The various forms of redundance 
applied to critical components and subsystems include: duplex, 
triple-modular, prime reference standby, multiple-parallel-element, 
and quad redundancy. 

146 



Flight experience has proved that maximum reliability and 
quality assurance can be obtained by devoting equal and concurrent 
attention to the most minute part as well as the total system. 

The final proof of success, of course, depended on Che live 
launches. Since the Saturn V launches, their individual missions 
and results, are covered in detail in a separate chapter, only a 
brief summary of the events is included here. 

On November 9, 1967, approximately five years after Saturn V 
development was officially authorized, the first Saturn V was 
launched; all stages performed as programmed (Figure 2-61). In 
addition to flight testing the vehicle for the first time, the launch 
included a simulated flight out to the Moon and back with the 
spacecraft Command and Service Modules. This provided the 
first test of the spacecraft heat shield at lunar re-entry velocities, 
as well as the first rehearsal of all the recovery forces, including 
the aircraft, ships, and tracking network. Although this was the 
first time that all elements of the vehicle and spacecraft had to 
work together in a launch environment, the only problems that 
arose were minor and had no effect on the mission. 

Approximately five months later the second Saturn V was 
launched, with liftoff again occurring exactly on time. More 
significant anomalies were encountered this time requiring corrective 
action. After carefully studying the results of the first two flights, 
NASA announced on May I, 1968, that the next launching would 
be manned. 

The third Saturn V, carrying the Apollo 8 spacecraft, was 
launched on December 21. 1968, with Astronauts Borman, Lovell 
and Anders aboard. Apollo 8 completed 10 revolutions of the 
Moon during the 20 hours and 1 1 minutes spent in lunar orbit. 
Engineering evaluation of the launch vehicle confirmed that all 
test and mission objectives were met. The mission of the fourth 
Saturn V vehicle, launched on March 3, 1969, proceeded just as 
smoothly. Among the primary objectives successfully accomplished 
were astronaut extravehicular activity outside the spacecraft, and 
separation and subsequent rendezvous of the Lunar Module and 



147 



Development of the Saturn Launch Vehicle 




I 






^.*f l 



Figure 2-62, Rendezvous of Lunar Module and Command Module. 

Command Module (Figure 2-62). The fifth successful launch of 
a Saturn V vehicle look place on May 18, 1969, and was the first 
mission in which the complete Apollo spacecraft was orbited around 
the Moon, The manned Lunar Module, previously flight tested 
in Earth orbit only, descended to within eight nautical miles of 
the lunar surface before docking with the lunar orbiting Command 
Module. 

In Us ultimate test, the manned lunar landing, the vehicle's 
performance was again flawless. The sixth Saturn V, launched 
on July 16, 1969, carried the first men to set foot on the Moon's 
surface. Of 15 million parts in the Apollo-Saturn vehicle, only 
one part failed and it was not mission critical. This is a demon- 
strated reliability of .999,999,996. The second lunar landing 
mission — the seventh Saturn V vehicle— was successfully launched 
on November 14, 1969, with all stages performing as planned. 

148 



EARTH 
ORBITAL 



LUNAR 



SATURN V UTILIZATION 

i ■ ' - 



PRESENT 
TRANSPOR- 
TATION 
SYSTEMS £ 



FUTURE 
TRANSPOR- 
TATION 
SYSTEMS 





k ft a 

m m m « 

a i | 8 



hueijAt iHunu 



E PIUECIS 
• TOJTPrnitWITIUTS 






Figure 2-6S. Saturn V Utilization. 
SATURN LAUNCH VEHICLES IN THE 
POST-APOLLO PERIOD 

The early demonstration of Saturn V operational readiness 
resulted in a shift of Apollo missions from the Saturn IB to the 
Saturn V (Figure 2-63). The remaining seven Saturn IB vehicles 
will be utilized for ferrying services in the Skylab programme, which 
is discussed in a later chapter. 

After the first successful lunar landing, the Apollo launch rate 
was reduced from six to two flights per year to permit careful 
scientific analysis of the findings and use of the resulting data in 
plans for future missions. Of the 15 Saturn Vs procured, seven 
have been launched. One is scheduled for launch in April, 1970, 
one in late 1970, two in 1971 and one in early 1972. One Saturn V, 
previously scheduled for an Apollo flight to the Moon, will launch 
the first experimental space station (Skylab) into Earth orbit in 1972. 
Subsequent to the Skylab launch, a two-year hiatus is planned to 
allow the scientific community to develop plans for additional lunar 
missions using the two remaining vehicles. 

The production of Saturn V vehicles for the Apollo programme 
is near completion, and procurement of additional vehicles has 
been indefinitely suspended. 



149 



CHAPTER THREE 



Development of the 
Apollo Spacecraft 

By G. E. Mueller 

INTRODUCTION 

Although the dream of man in space can be traced back to 
antiquity, it is just within the past decade that man has had at 
his command the technology that removed manned space flight 
from the dream of visionaries to the actuality of man travelling, 
living, and exploring in space, and returning safely to Earth, 

The primary block to manned space flight through the centuries 
was lack of a propelling force powerful enough to achieve the 
velocity needed to boost man into space. Not until the late 1950s 
had the requisite power been developed in the form of large liquid 
propcllant rockets. By that time scientists were already convinced 
that man could survive in space, and plans were set in motion Tor 
practical application of the powerful engines. 

The next hurdle was to build a craft adequate to carry man 
into space. This was an even more ambitious undertaking, requiring 
development of technology for which very little basis existed, and 
involving practically every scientific discipline. For the first time, 
man would go beyond the protective layer of the Earth's atmosphere 
and face the unknown hazards of airlessncss, weightlessness, 
temperature extremes, and radiation. The craft to be developed, 
then, not only had to provide a safe, habitable environment and 
protection against the physiological stresses and incidental hazards 
of space flight, but also had to be sufficiently lightweight to be 
lifted with the rocket power available, sufficiently strong to sustain 
the forces of launch, flight and re-entry, and capable of withstanding 
heat, cold, vibration, and radiation. 

As soon as the first steps into space, suborbital and Earth cbilal 
Rights in the single man Mercury spacecraft, approached realization 

150 



Development of the ApoUo Spacecraft 

more ambitious goals began taking shape. The plans for a 
programme named Apollo were first announced in July, 1960, and 
at that time had only one broad objective, to provide the capability 
for manned exploration of space. As envisioned, this advanced 
spacecraft programme would allow man to perform useful functions 
in space. The spacecraft would be capable of manned eircumlunar 
flight as a logical intermediate step toward future goals of landing 
man on the Moon and other planets. The design would be flexible 
enough to permit its use in conducting scientific experiments in 
space. 

During the next several months, NASA continued studies of 
manned spacecraft, particularly for long range, long duration flights. 
Then in May. 1961, the late President John F. Kennedy, in a 
message to Congress, committed the United States to the goal of 
landing men on the Moon and returning them safely to Enrlh 
before 1970. The Apollo programme had the new specific objective 
of lunar landing. At this time the total manned space flight time 
of the United States was represented by a 15-minute suborbital 
flight by Astronaut Alan Shepard in a Mercury spacecraft. This 
meant that much of the technology needed to sustain man in 
Earth orbital flight, to say nothing of a lunar landing, had yet 
to be developed, A new, intermediate programme named (he 
Gemini was immediately inserted in the schedule and designed to 
fill the most critical gaps in spacecraft technology. 

This "building block" philosophy, using the knowledge gained 
in each of the increasingly rigorous and sophisticated programmes 
as the basis for subsequent programmes, was one of the most 
important concepts in achieving, wilhin an exceedingly short time, 
the ultimate goal, the development of a spacecraft capable of 
carrying men to the Moon and back. The rapidity of the achieve- 
ment also depended heavily on the Nation's industrial and technical 
potential and capability, and on devising new management concepts 
for regulating and co-ordinating the numerous and diverse tasks 
involved. 

Because the building block philosophy is integral to United 
States manned spacecraft development, a study of the Apollo 
spacecraft should include a review of the two programmes that 
preceded it, Mercury and Gemini, and their contributions. 



15 ( 



Pioneering in Outer Space 
THE MERCURY SPACECRAFT 

Introduction 

Several years of intensive, largely theoretical, investigation 
directed by the United States Air Force and the National Advisory 
Committee for Aeronautics (forerunner of NASA) culminated in 
1958 with the conviction that manned space flight was possible. 
In September of that year, a committee comprising representatives 
from the Department of Defence and the National Advisory 
Committee for Aeronautics recommended a single-man spacecraft 
programme, designated "Project Mercury", and assigned the pro- 
gramme to the newly organized National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration. Objectives of the Mercury programme were: 
(a) to place a manned spacecraft in orbital flight around the 
Earth; (b) to investigate man's performance capabilities and his 
ability to function in the environment of space; and (c) to safely 
recover both the man and the spacecraft. 

Design and Development 

Providing a habitable environment for humans in space 
presented unprecedented challenges. On Earth, man functions in 
a gaseous environment consisting of about 20% oxygen and 80% 
nitrogen at a pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch at sea level. 
Although man is quite an adaptable mechanism and can function 
in other atmospheres, his range of adaptability does not accom- 
modate survival in the vacuum of space; he must take his atmosphere 
with him. He must also be protected from the physiological effects 
of environmental factors incidental to space flight — noise, vibration, 
acceleration and deceleration, impact, weightlessness, isolation, 
confinement and altered diurnal cycles. Weightlessness was one 
of the most critical unknowns and potentially one of the greatest 
limitations to manned space flight, since a weightless condition 
could be realistically simulated on Earth only for very brief periods 
and little was known of its effects on man. 

To offer some assurance of reasonably rapid development, and 
in effect to counterbalance all these unknowns, the basic guidelines 
agreed upon were to follow the simplest and most reliable approach 

152 






Development of the Apolio Spacecraft 
PROJECT MERCURY 



leniwrnumw 




Figure 3'I. Mercury Spacecraft. 

to systems design; to make maximum use of existing technology 
and off-the-shelf equipment, including use of an existing launch 
vehicle to place the spacecraft into orbit; and to conduct a logical 
and totally effective test programme aimed at both reliability and 
safety for human space flight. 

One of the first design questions was that of shape. There were 
no precedents for spacecraft, and only the generally accepted 
feeling that streamlining was essential. However, streamlining was 
not relevant beyond Earth's atmosphere, and might aggravate the 
problem of re-entry from orbital speed. It was believed that a 
blunt end on the craft pointed in the direction of flight would 
slow the craft on the return trip by utilizing atmospheric drag. 
In addition it would form a shock wave that would dissipate some 
of the tremendous heat of re-entry. Wind tunnel tests supported 
this theory and the spacecraft configuration evolved as a somewhat 
bell-shaped blunt body, protected from re-entry heating by a heat 
shield covering the curved surface of the blunt end (Figure 3-!). 

153 




-I 






Figure 3-1. 
Mercury Spacecraft. 



The main body was 9 feci 7 inches long from the heat shield to 
the tip of the nose, 6 feet 2 inches wide at its widest point, and 
weighed about 3,000 pounds. The tapered portion was of double 
construction. The outer wall was formed of overlapping shingles 
of Rene, a thin refractory metal, corrugated for strength. The 
shingles allowed for thermodynamic expansion and contracting. 
The inner cabin, which was a pressure vessel to maintain the 
astronaut's life support environment, was constructed of two layers 
of thin-gauge titanium. A solid propellant rocket was mounted on 
top of the escape tower to lift the spacecraft clear of danger in 
case of a launch vehicle failure on the pad (Figure 3-2). In a 
normal mission the escape tower would be jettisoned after the 
booster stage had shut down. 

Interior design of the Mercury spacecraft provided a form-iitting 
contour couch designed to distribute the high acceleration loads 
imposed on the man during launch and re-entry. At all critical 
phases of the mission the spacecraft was oriented so that the 

154 






Development of the Apollo Spacecraft 

direction of acceleration force was the same, from back to front, 
Thus, the spacecraft was pointed nose up at launch, and heat shield 
forward on re-entry. 

The life support system inside the pressurized crew compartment 
supplied breathing oxygen, purified the air by removing carbon 
dioxide and other foreign matter, and controlled the temperature 
and air flow inside the astronaut's full pressure suit. Thus the 
pilot was protected from the hard vacuum of space as well as the 
extreme temperature variations associated with the orbital flight 
profile. This system also included provisions for food and drinking 
water, as well as waste management within the weightless environ- 
ment of space. 

Since man's capabilities in the space environment were unknown, 
all critical systems of the spacecraft were operated automatically. 
Redundant systems were included to give maximum reliability for 
safety and assurance of mission success. 

Contributions 

When the Mercury programme was ended in May, 1963, its 25 
major launches, including six manned launches and four Earth 
orbital missions, had established a base of technology and confidence 
for the follow -on Gemini and Apollo programmes. The most 
important contribution was proving the feasibility of the basic 
approaches selected to resolve the problems of placing man in 
orbit and returning him safely to Earth. It verified the selection 
of the blunt shaped body configuration and that man could exist. 
observe, and navigate in a space environment; it proved spacesuit 
and couch design, life support and biomedical instrumentation 
systems, guidance and control systems, communication and tracking 
techniques, and the Earth landing system. It set the pattern for 
quality assurance and reliability programmes and furnished valuable 
experience in systems engineering and large scale programme 
management. 

The successful conclusion of this programme was not reached 
without some difficulties, but fortunately no lives were sacrificed. 
After the completely smooth ride of Alan Shepard, the second 

155 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



Development of the Apollo Spacecraft 



flight brought some anxious moments for its pilot Gus Grissom: 
the explosive mechanism on the escape hatch activated accidentally 
and blew the hatch open, but Grissom was able to swim free. 
During John Glenn's orbital flight, the first by an American 
astronaut, trouble developed with control of the capsule and he 
was forced to take over manual control of the small rockets that 
automatically control altitude. 



THE GEMINI SPACECRAFT 

i 

Introduction 

In December, 1961, the United States decided to extend manned 
space flight beyond the limits inherent in the first spacecraft, 
primarily to support the lunar landing programme. The main 
objectives of the Gemini, as the new programme was named, were 




to develop a two-man spacecraft, improve and advance the manned 
space flight technology developed with the Mercury, and provide 
experience in space operations, such as rendezvous and docking of 
two orbiting vehicles. Information would also be accumulated on 
the effects of weightlessness and the physiological reactions of 
crew members during long duration missions. 

Design and Development 

Gemini design evolved logically from the Mercury spacecraft. 
It consisted of two major modules (Figure 3-3): the adaptor module, 
consisting of the retrograde section and the equipment section; the 
re-entry module containing the rendezvous and recovery section, 
the re-entry control system, and the cabin section. The configura- 
tion of the spacecraft was a blunt body similar to that used in 
Mercury. The heat shield was attached to the cabin section in 
the manner of the Mercury capsule. The re-entry module was the 
only portion of the spacecraft recovered from orbit: the adaptor 
module was allowed to burn up in the Earth's atmosphere. The 
astronauts' capsule, or re-entry module (Figure 3-4), was II feet 




Figure 3-4. Gemini Re-ertiry Module. 
157 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

high and 7i feet wide at the base. Overall dimensions were 10 
by 19 feet, and the spacecraft weighed approximately 7,000 pounds. 

Unlike the Mercury, the Gemini placed emphasis on man by 
designing the spacecraft so it could be controlled by the astronauts 
with ground control as backup, and placed the systems and sub- 
systems outside the cabin area in modular form so any system could 
be repaired or replaced without disturbing the others. Almost 
all the Mercury systems were in the pilot's cabin and stacked in 
layers, making it necessary to disturb a number of other systems 
to gain access to a problem area. This modular design concept 
was to prevent much loss of time in the Gemini and Apollo 
programmes. 

Contributions 

With the twelfth and final Gemini flight, the manned space flight 
programme had logged almost 2,000 hours in space. The Gemini 
programme had accomplished all objectives, contributing heavily 
lo the knowledge and technology vital to the development of the 
Apollo spacecraft programme. Specifically it had demonstrated 
that man can live and work effectively in weightless space flight 
for periods up to 14 days. It had accomplished rendezvous of a 
manned spacecraft with an unmanned target vehicle and docked 
the two together. It had conducted manoeuvres with such a docked 
vehicle, and used the propulsion stage to fly men higher and faster 
than they had ever flown before. It had demonstrated, after more 
than 12 hours of experience, that man could perform useful activity 
outside a spacecraft in a protective suit. It had proved possible 
the control of missions and operation of manned spacecraft 
travelling in orbit at speeds of almost 18,000 miles an hour. It 
had performed precision landings of manned spacecraft (Figure 3-5) 
within sight of the recovery ships. 

Particular missions stand out as historic landmarks in the 
conquest of space. Gemini 3 was the first spacecraft to change 
the plane and size of its orbit, accomplished by a set of- 16 thruster 
rockets. Gemini 4 was the first mission controlled from the 
Manned Spacecraft Centre at Houston, and the effectiveness of 
this control paved the way for spacecraft communications in Apollo. 



158 







Figure 1-5. Gemini Spacecraft Landing. 



Another highlight was the 100.000-miie chase in space, when 
Waller Shirra steered Gemini 6 at a speed of more than 17,000 
miles an hour to catch Gemini 7, and the two craft circled the 
Earth for several hours, sometimes within a foot of each other. 

THE APOLLO SPACECRAFT 

Introduction 

In May, 1961. when the Apollo programme was committed to 
a lunar landing, very little of the necessary technology was available. 
Many assumptions made in the early phases of the Apollo spacecraft 
were dependent on successful completion of the Mercury and 
Gemini programmes. The preliminary studies and research were 
obviously well performed: none of the major or critical assumptions 
made in the early development phases had lo be changed. For 

159 



Pioneering in Outer Space 




Figite 3-6. Apollo Spucvvraft. 

example, it was well known that the Apollo spacecraft could not 
tolerate the weight and size of batteries with the necessary life 
to power it for a lunar mission. Therefore, the design engineers 
selected fuel cells as the power source for the craft, and 
demonstrated the feasibility of their use during the Gemini 
programme. 



160 



Development of the Apollo Spacecraft 

In basic terms, the design requirements of the Apollo spacecraft 
were the same as those for the Mercury and Gemini, that is, a 
structure adequate to withstand the stresses of launch and re-entry 
and protected against space hazards, provisioned for a life 
supporting environment, and systems for navigation, guidance, and 
control. However, the Apollo objectives added numerous 
complicating features and greatly compounded the design and 
construction problems. While Mercury and Gemini operated in 
orbits close to Earth, the Apollo spacecraft had to carry its 
occupants approximately 240,000 miles to the Moon and back. 
The long-distance flight, plus the larger crew, called for greater 
supply of expendables such as oxygen, food, fuel and water. The 
functions of navigation, guidance and control were far more 
complex, and advanced systems of communications were needed. 
The environment of deep space required a superior structure and 
imposed new considerations for protection of the crew. The much 
higher speed of re-entry dictated an entirely new approach to 
descent and landing. Everything added weight and mass, increasing 
the need for propulsive energy. There was one constantly recurring 
theme: everything must be more reliable than any previous 
aerospace equipment, because the vehicle would become, in effect, 
a world in miniature, operating with minimal assistance from Earth. 

The three-man spacecraft designed and developed to meet these 
requirements was divided into three major modules (Figure 3-6): 
the Command Module (CM), to house the astronauts and their 
equipment; the Service Module (SM), to provide support to the 
Command Module in terms of power, environmental control, etc.; 
and the Lunar Module (LM), to provide the means for actual 
descent to the lunar surface, liftoff, and return to the Moon-orbiting 
Command and Service Modules (CSM). The primary purpose of 
this three-module design was to reduce weight to a minimum 
particularly at such critical points as re-entry. For example, 
returning only the Command Module to Earth reduced the amount 
of spacecraft area to be covered with the relatively heavy heat 
shield. The division of the Lunar Module into two stages (Figure 
3-7), with only the ascent stage returning from the lunar surface, 
permits a reduction in the size of the rocket engine and amount 



161 



i-BRNU 31EEKABLC 

ANTENNA 



RENDEZVOUS 
ADAR ANTENNA 



■ BAND INFLIGHT 
ANTENNA (2) 



FORWARD 

NTRANCE HATCH 

NGRES5/EGRESS 
PLATFORM 



* 



FORWARD (+Z) 



DESCENT 
STAGE 





MAIN LANDING 
CHUTE [TYP 

INSTRUMENT 
PANEL 

LH 

EQUIPMENT 

BAY 



VHF ANTENNA (2) 

UPPER DOCKING TUNNI 
DOCKING TARGET 

ASCENT STAC 

AFT EQUIPMENT BA 

RCS THRUSTER 

ASSEMBLY 

RCS NOZZLE 

OVERHEAD 

DOCKING WINDOW 

DOCKING 

LIGHT (4) 

C-BAND 

ANTENNA 

(4) 

LANDING GEA 



Figure 3-7. Lunar Module. 



Figure 3-8. Command Module. 




YAW LEFT REACTION.^ 
CONTROL ENGINES 

AFT COMPARTMENT 



J 



ROLL REACTION 
CONTROL ENGINES 
AFT HEAT SHIELD 



FORWARD HEAT SHIELD 
FORWARD HATCH 
FORWARD COMPARTMENT 



EARTH LANDING 
SEQUENCE CONTROLLERS 

PITCH- DOWN REACTION 
CONTROL ENGINES 



RENDEZVOUS WINDOW 

-. RH EQUIPMENT BAY 

^ COUCH IMPACT 

K ATTENUATION DEVICES 
ACCESS HATCH 
[DOOR REMOVEDI 

ELECTRICAL 
UMBILICAL 
FAIRING 

, PITCH UP REACTION 
CONTROL ENGINES 

EXTERNAL COMPARTMENT 
VENT 



Development of the Apollo Spacecraft 

of propellants needed. Other Apollo spacecraft components include 
the Launch Escape System (LES), the Spacecraft Lunar Module 
Adaptor (SLA), and the spacesuit. 

Command Module 

The Command Module houses the flight crew, the equipment 
necessary to control and monitor the spacecraft systems, and 
equipment and supplies required for the comfort and safety of 
the crew (Figure 3-8). 

The primary structure of the Command Module (the crew 
compartment or pressure vessel) is encompassed by a metal 
structure carrying three heal shields and forming the conical shaped 
exterior. These heat shields are coated with ablative material, 
which protects the spacecraft from aerodynamic heating caused by 
friction when the Command Module re-enters the Earth's 
atmosphere at a velocity of approximately 36.000 ft, /sec. The 
mechanisms by which the ablative heat shields protect the structure 
are: 

1. Heat is absorbed during the thermal decomposition of the outer 
layer of the ablative material, which is then carried away by 
the air stream, exposing new and cold material. 

2. The gases formed by the decomposition are injected into the 
aerodynamic boundary layer to reduce the heat input. 

3. The heat charred outer layer reduces the heat input by 
narrowing the temperature difference between the boundary 
layer air and the surface. 

4. The charred layer also radiates heat away from the surface. 

5. The tmdcconiposed virgin material below the surface acts as 
an insulator to absorb heat and slow down the rate at which 
heat is transferred to the underlying structure {Figure 3-9), 

The conical blunt configuration of the Command Module was 
adapted from the successful Mercury and Gemini designs, which 
verified its superiority in space over the streamlined type. When 
a streamlined re-entry body enters the sensible atmosphere from 
outer space, half of the heat generated by the resulting friction 
is absorbed by the body. However, a blunt body colliding with 
stratospheric pressures at re-entry speeds will produce a strong 
bow shock wave in front of and detached from the body. This 



163 



/ 




* I 



\ 






n 



Figure 3-9. Command Module Heat Shield after Re-entry. 

shock wave, the air itself, absorbs much of the kinetic energy 
transformed into heat as the object enters the atmosphere. With 
less heat affecting the spacecraft, less heat shield material is needed 
to protect the spacecraft and its crew. This in turn decreased 
weight, a necessary goal in every space vehicle programme. 

The Command Module is divided into three sections — forward 
compartment, crew compartment, and aft compartment. The 
forward compartment is an area between the apex of the forward 
heat shield and the upper side of the forward bulkhead. Its centre 
portion is occupied by a forward tunnel which permits crew 
members to transfer to the Lunar Module and return to the crew 
compartment during the performance of lunar mission tasks. The 
perimeter is divided into four 90° segments containing the recovery 
equipment, two reaction control motors, and the mechanism to 



Development of the Apollo Spacecraft 

jettison the heat shield. The major portion of this area houses 
the active components of the Earth Landing System (ELS), 
consisting of three main parachutes, three pilot parachutes, two 
drogue parachutes, and drogue and pilot parachute mortars. Four 
thrustcr-ejectors are installed in the forward compartment to eject 
the heat shield during landing operations. The thrustcrs operate 
in conjunction with the heat shield release mechanism to produce 
a rapid, positive release of the heat shield and prevent parachute 
damage. 

The crew compartment is a pressurized three-man cabin, with 
pressurization maintained by the environmental control system. 
It contains spacecraft controls and displays, including guidance and 
navigation equipment, electrical and electronic equipment, 
observation windows, access hatches, food, water, sanitation and 
survival equipment. The compartment incorporates windows and 
equipment bays as part of the primary structure. 

The aft compartment is encompassed by the lower portion of 
the crew compartment heat shield, aft heat shield and lower 
portion of the primary structure. It contains 10 reaction control 
motors; an impact attenuation structure consisting of four crushablc 
corrugated aluminium ribs and eight struts that connect the crew 
couches to the Command Module structure; instrumentation; 
electrical power; and storage tanks for water, fuel, oxidizer and 
gaseous helium. 

Service Module 

The Service Module, which contains the main spacecraft 
propulsion system and supplies most of the spacecraft's consumables 
(oxygen, water, propcllants, hydrogen, etc.) (Figure .?-/0), is 
attached to the Command Module until just before re-entry into 
the Earth's atmosphere, when it is jettisoned. The structure is a 
cylinder formed by six panels of one-inch aluminium honeycomb, 
with its interior unsymmetrically divided into six sectors by radial 
beams or webs fabricated of milled aluminium alloy plate. The 
equipment contained within these sectors is accessible through 
maintenance doors located around the exterior surface of the 
module. 



164 



165 



HELIUM TANKS 



(EACTION CONTROL 
PROPELLANT TANKS 

FUEL CELLS 
ELECTRICAL POWER 

SUBSYSTEM 




UMBILICAL 
S CONNECTOR 

"^REACTION 
CONTROL ENGIf 

L02 TANKS 

LH2 TANKS 

ECS RADIATC 



SERVICE PROPULSION 
ENGINE 



HIGH GAIN ANTENI 
(OPEN) 



Figure J- 10. Service Module. 



An area between the Service and Command Modules contains 
the system for separating the two modules, which consists of an 
explosive charge attached to each mechanical link The entire 
separation system is enclosed by a fairing 26 inches high and 13 
feet in diameter. 

The major functions of the Service Module propulsion unit, 
which consists of a 20,500-pound thrust engine using nitrogen 
tctroxidc and hydrazine compound as propellants, are to: 

1 . Permit mideourse corrections to the lunar trajectory both going 
to and returning from the Moon. 

2. Reduce the spacecraft's velocity so lunar gravity can pull it 
into a lunar orbit, 

3. Increase spacecraft velocity so it can escape lunar gravity and 
return to Earth. 

4. Provide the velocity changes necessary to change lunar orbits. 

166 



Development of the Apollo Spacecraft 

5. Provide power for abort manoeuvres after the emergency 
escape system has been jettisoned. 

In performing these functions, the system may have to fire as 
many as 15 times during a single launch mission, and is the only 
means the astronauts have for breaking out of the lunar gravity. 
If the engine should fail and could not be repaired by the crew. 
the spacecraft would remain in lunar orbil indeliniiely. 

Every possible means of insuring simplicity and reliability have 
been incorporated into the Service Module engine. \s an example, 
the propellants are fed from the tanks to the engine by helium 
pressure, in contrast to the more complicated pumping systems 
used for the launch vehicle propulsion system. 

The Service Module also carried reaction control systems for 
attitude control and manoeuvring, the fuel cells that are the 
prime energy source for the electrical power subsystem and other 
Systems, and two antenna systems for long-range communications 
between the Earth and the spacecraft. One system is a cluster 
of four 2,000 mierohcrtz high gain antenna dishes; the other system 
is two 2,000 microhertz VHF omni-antennae. The major loads 
transmitted are the voice link and telemetry data 




Figure 3-11. Ascent Singe. 
167 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

Lunar Module 

The descent and ascent stages of the Lunar Module {Figure 3-7) 
mate to form a self-sustaining structure, with provision for separating 
the stages and the umbilicals at lunar launch, or for abort at any 
time during the lunar landing phase of the mission. 

The manned ascent stage (Figure 3-1 f) contains the crew 
compartment, the midsection, the aft equipment bay, and the 
tankage section. Both the crew compartment and the midsection 
can be pressurized at 5 psi, with a 100% oxygen atmosphere, and 
a temperature maintained at about 75'. The astronauts arc 
housed in the crew compartment, and from there control the flight, 
lunar landing, lunar launch and rendezvous and docking with the 
Command and Service Modules, The compartment is also used 
as the operations centre for the astronauts during the lunar stay. 
In addition to the controls and indicators, and items necessary 
for crew comfort and support, this section also contains the forward 
hatch and tunnel. 

Two triangular windows in the front face of the crew 
compartment provide visibility during alt phases of the mission. 
Both windows are canted down and to the side to permit adequate 
lateral and downward visibility. 

The midsection, which is a smaller, cylindrical section directly 
behind the crew compartment, contains the ascent engine hatch, 
top hatch, environmental control system, and stowage for equipment 
that must be accessible to the crew. The ascent engine is also 
located here, at the stage's centre of gravity. 

The upper docking tunnel, at the top centre of the midsection, 
is used for docking the Command Service Module and for passage 
between this module and Lunar Module during the lunar mission. 
To enter and leave the Lunar Module white on the lunar surface, 
the astronauts use the forward tunnel, at the lower front of the 
crew compartment. 

The unpressurized aft equipment bay houses the environmental 
control system and the electrical power subsystem. The propel! ant 
tankage sections arc on either side of the midsection, also outside 
the pressurized area, and contain the tanks for ascent engine 
prooellants, reaction control subsystem propel lants and water 
tanks. 



168 



Development of the Apollo Spacecraft 




*H*C«UL4T 

n '. huh 



k **Bih(rClAn 



Figure J- 12. Descent Stage. 



The descent stage (Figure 3-12) is the unmanned portion of the 
Lunar Module, It holds the equipment needed to land on the 
lunar surface, and serves as a platform for launching the ascent 
stage after completion of the lunar stay. In addition to the descent 
engine and related components, this stage houses the descent control 
instrumentation, which includes scientific equipment and the tanks 
for water, oxygen and hydrogen used by the environmental control 
system and the electrical power subsystem. The landing gear is 
attached externally. 

In a centre compartment formed by the structural beams is the 
descent engine, a throttlable, gimballed type capable of 1,050 to 
y,870 pounds of thrust, which provides the power for the complex 
manoeuvres required to take the Lunar Module from orbit down 
to a soft landing on the Moon. Four main propcllant tanks 
surround the engine. Scientific equipment, helium, hydrogen, 
oxygen and water tanks are adjacent to the propcllant tanks. The 
descent water tank has a capacity of 333 pounds at 0.75 fill ratio. 
and supplies most of the water required until staging occurs: after 
staging water is supplied by the two ascent stage tanks. 



169 



Pioneering in Outer Space 




Figure 3-13. Launch Escape Tower. 



The cantilever-type landing gear consists of four equally spaced 
legs or struts, connected to outriggers that extend from the ends 
of the descent stage structural beams. Each landing gear leg consists 
of a primary strut and footpad, a drive-out mechanism, two 
secondary struts, two downlock mechanisms and a truss. AH 
struts have crushable attenuator inserts to absorb the impact loads 
from landing on the Moon. 



170 



Development of the Apollo Spacecraft 

At launch, the landing gear is stowed in a retracted position 
and remains retracted until shortly after Lunar Module separation 
from the third stage. Next, landing gear locks arc pryrotechnically 
released and springs in the drive-out mechanism extend the landing 
gear. The landing gear is then locked in place by Ihe downlock 
mechanism. With the landing gear in position, the Lunar Module 
is ready for touchdown on the lunar surface. 

The Lunar Module is the first spacecraft to be designed for 
pure space travel, since it operates only near or on the Moon. 
For example, because it never encounters atmospheric pressure, 
the Lunar Module's outer skin is about the thickness of heavy- 
duty aluminium foil and the ladder used to reach the lunar surface 
is so light that, if the astronauts used it on Earth instead of the 
low gravity of the Moon, the ladder would collapse under their 
weight. 

Launch Escape System 

The Launch Escape System (LES) provides a method for 
emergency removal of the Command Module (CM) from the 
rest of the space vehicle should there be a pad abort or suborbital 
flight abort (Figure 3-13). Such a system is mandatory from a 
safety standpoint; if the launch vehicle were to fail structurally, 
the propel lants would combine and form an explosive mixture, and 
the resulting explosion could destroy the spacecraft and its crew. 

The system consists of a nose cone with an angle of attack 
meter (O-ball), a ballast compartment, canard system, three 
rocket motors enclosed within an Inconcl housing, a structural 
skirt, an open-frame tower, and a boost protective cover. The 
structural skirt is secured to the launch escape tower, which 
transmits stress loads between the launch escape motor and the 
Command Module. The boost protective cover, which protects 
the Command Module exterior during the launch and boost, is 
fastened to the lower end of the tower. Four explosive bolts, 
one in each tower leg well, secure the tower to the Command 
Module structure. After a successful launch, or during abort mode 
initiation, explosive squibs fracture the bolts and free the tower 
together with the boost-protective cover. The rocket motors, 
canard, and explosive squibs are activated by electronic sequencing 



171 




r 



Figure 3-14. Spacecraft LM Adaptor. 
devices. The Launch Escape System is jettisoned after first 
stage burnout when the vehicle is above the sensible atmosphere 
and the danger greatly reduced. 
Spacecraft LM Adaptor 

The Spacecraft LM Adaptor (SLA), which is the structural 
interstage between the launch vehicle and the spacecraft, and 
formed of four aluminium panels, houses the service propulsion 
engine expansion nozzle and the Lunar Module (Figure 3-14), At 
the time of SM/SLA separation, the linear-shaped charges installed 
at panel junctions are fired, the explosive force cuts through the 
SLA structure, and the panels fold back to expose the Lunar 
Module. 
The Spacesuif 

By design and function, the spacesuit may be considered a part 
of the spacecraft. The earliest designs were based mainly on 
experience and criteria established for high-performance jet aircraft 
pilots and were originally intended only to maintain a pressurized 
environment for the astronaut in the event of a failure of the 
spacecraft amospheric pressure syscm. This initial design objective 
was later expanded to develop a suit sufficiently complex to permit 
astronauts to breathe and walk and work on the Moon's surface. 



172 



Development of the Apollo Spacecraft 

Mercury Spacesuit. In Project Mercury flights, spacesuits were 
worn primarily to satisfy the requirement for capsule decompression 
protection. The spacesuit was considered a backup system for 
emergency use only. In normal flight it served primarily as a flight 
suit and ventilation garment, although it also provided protection 
for the critical launch phase in the event the capsule pressure 
system failed to stabilize. The spacesuits for Mercury were also 
designed to provide sufficient pressurized mobility to permit the 
astronauts to continue manual flight control of the spacecraft even 
after cabin depressurization. Prior to the manned Mercury (lights, 
tests and training programmes had established a high degree of 
confidence in the astronaut's ability to perform ail required functions 
in a decompressed capsule. 

Gemini Spacesuit. The Gemini spacesuits also performed the 
function of decompression protection during launch and orbital 
phases of the flight, but with the objective of extravehicular 
excursions they became a prime life-support system (Figure 3-15). 
Redundancy had to be added to insure reliability consistent with 
mission objectives; the suit had to permit maximum mobility; 



GEMINI SPACESUIT 



Figure 3-15. Gemini Spacesuit. 




Pioneering in Outer Space 

niicrometeoroid, thermal, and visual protection systems had to be 
incorporated into suit design. Qualification and test programmes 
were made more comprehensive and more rigid. Since the size of 
the Gemini spacecraft did not permit the astronauts to don or doff 
the spacesuit completely in Might, one of the prime suit design 
requirements was long-term comfort. 

All Gemini spacesuit design criteria were met. The first 
powered extravehicular manoeuvre in history was performed by a 
space -suited astronaut, Edward White, whose life support system 
consisted of a small chest pack called the Ventilation Control 
Module, with oxygen supplied through a 25-Foot umbilical hose 
assembly. He wore an extra cover layer for micromeleurite and 
thermal protection, and a special sun visor to protect his vision 
while "walking in space". 

Apollo Spacesuit, The major design objective of the Apollo 
spacesuit programme was to provide an overall system, or "Extra- 
vehicular Mobility Unit", that would permit one or more of the 
Apollo astronauts to explore the lunar surface. A secondary 
objective was to provide a spacesuit compatible with the Command 
Module under both pressurized and unpressurized operations. In 
addition to providing maximum mobility, with thermal, micro- 
meteoroid, and visual protection systems, it had to provide the 
capability of operating on the lunar surface for extended periods. 
Safety, redundancy, reliability, and quality control were of prime 
concern. 

In the basic Apollo spacesuit, a suit, helmet, and a pair of 
pressure gloves form the environmental retaining envelope (Figure 
3-16). A pressurization and ventilation system supplies the astro- 
nauts with a habitable atmosphere within the spacesuit. Ducts 
from the ventilation system distribute the pressurization and 
ventilation gas flow from either of the two inlet gas connectors to 
the helmet and torso. The gas then passes to cither of two exhaust 
gas connectors and is conveyed through hoses to the Environ- 
mental Control System of the spacecraft, or during lunar explorations 
to the Portable Life Support System carried on the astronaut's back. 

For lunar landings, the astronauts don an Integrated Thermal 
Micrometeoroid Protection Garment (ITMG) for protection against 



174 



Figure 3-16. 
A palio Spacesuit. 




LMBESTRAINT SING 



URINE TRANSFER 
CONNECTOR. BIOMEDICAL 
INJECTION FLAP. AND 
DOMING LANYARD 
POCKET 



PRESSURE HELMET 
ASSEMBLY 



HELMET ATTACHING RING 

SHOULDER DISCONNECT 
ACCESS 

PEN LIGHT POCKET 



PRESSURE RELIEF 
VALVE 



JSP 1 - WRIST DISCONNECT 



ENTRANCE SLIDE 
FASTENER FLAP 



PRESSURE GLOVE 
UTILITY POCKET 

DATA LIST POCKET 



SCISSORS POCKET 

CHECKLIST POCKET 

INTEGRATED THERMAL METEOROID 
- '•■' GARMENT BOOT 

NOTE; EXTRAVEHICULAR GLOVES AND LUNAR OVERSHOES NOT SHOWN. 

BACKPACK SUPPORT STRAPS 

EXTRAVEHICULAR VISOR 



OXYGEN PURGE 
SYSTEM 



Figure 3-17. 
Lunar Stir/ace Suit. 

BACKPACK 




OXYGEN PURGE 
SYSTEM UMBILICAL 



LM RESTRAINT RING 

URINE TRANSFER CONN 
BIOMEDICAL INJECTION AREA 
DOSIMETER ACCESS FLAP AND 
DONNING LANYARD POCKET 



INTEGRATED THERMAL 
METEORQIO GARMENT 



REMOTE CONTROL 
UNIT 

OXYGEN PURGE SYSTEM 
ACTUATOR 

PENLIGHT PDCKET 

CONNECTOR COVER 

COMMUNICATION. 
VENTILATION, AND 
■\ LIQUID COOLING 
UMBILICALS 



EXTRAVEHICULAR 
GLOVE 

UTILITY POCKET 



LUNAR BOOT 




«,; 



M 



figure i'lS. 
Porlnhle Lift- Support 
System and Bade/tact 
Commmlcatkm System . 

lunar environment and niicrometcoraid impacts (Figure 3-17). 
Coupled with the Portable Life Support System (Figure 3-18) and a 
backpack communications system, the 1TMG provides ventilation, 
prcssurization, and communications systems that are complete); 
independent of the spacecraft. The communications system permits 
the extravehicular astronaut to communicate with the lunar 
excursion module and the lunar orbiting Command Module, and 
telemeters biomedical data. Electrical power is provided by 
replaceable batteries. 

Developmental and performance testing of the Apollo Extra- 
vehicular Mobility Unit began with the first prototypes delivered. 
These tests included exposure in zero g and £ g ground-based 
simulators, altitude chamber tests, field tests on lunar-like surfaces, 
and thermal and mieromctcorite tests. The final test came with 
Apollo 1 1 and 12 missions, when the Extravehicular Mobility 
Unit performed flawlessly. 

Spacesuit and life support system design improvements are still 
being made and tested. Beginning with Apollo 16, the spaccsuits 
will be modified to provide improved neck, shoulder, hand, waist, 



176 



Development of the Apollo Spacecraft 

and leg mobility, durability of the materials, easier donning and 
doffing, and greater comfort and visibility. The Portable Life 
Support System will also be modified by several improvements, 
and a Secondary Life Support System will be provided. 

Spacesuit use for future missions such as long-term space 
stations, extended lunar base operation, and interplanetary travel 
will require even more advanced approaches to design and opera- 
tion. Spaccsuits cannot be used for long-term intra vehicular 
operation: the crewmen must be provided a true shirt-sleeve 
environment for normal operation. Sections of future spacecraft 
will be designed so that they can be sealed off like a compartment 
within a submarine, and lightweight cmergcncy-typc pressure suits 
will be sufficient to permit the crew to make internal repairs on a 
section of the spacecraft which is decompressed. 

Applications of Spacesuit Technology. The need for fireproof 
materials for Apollo spacecraft demanded a complete testing of 
the flammabilily characlcristics of hundreds of materials. These 
results have been computerized and are available to all of industry 
for use in making safer draperies, upholstery fabrics, mattresses 
and clothing. Fireproof Beta cloth developed in these programmes 
is already being used for firefighter suits in municipal departments 
as well as on board aircraft carriers at sea. 

The spacesuit itself proved very valuable in a medical emergency; 
A pressure suit obtained from NASA's Ames Research Centre was 
used by a California hospital to stop severe and near-fatal 
abdominal hacmorrhaging in a young woman patient, after nine 
operative procedures had failed to halt the bleeding. We can 
expect even more such benefits from future developments in 
spacesuits. 

Apollo Communications 

In each Apollo mission, the world-wide Manned Space Flight 
Network (MSFN) provides continuous reliable, and instantaneous 
communications with the astronauts, the launch vehicle, and the 
spacecraft, from liftoff to splashdown (Figure 3-19). Following 
the flight, the network continues to support the link between Earth 
and the Apollo experiments left on the lunar surface by the crew. 



177 




Figure 3-19. Manned Space Ftijiltt Network. 



The centre of the Apollo Manned Space Flight network is at 
Mission Control in Houston, Texas (Figure 3-20). With this globe- 
spanning network and data refinement assistance from the Goddard 
Space Flight Centre, located in Maryland, this control centre 
maintains constant voice and tracking contact with the spacecraft. 
If for any reason the Mission Control in Texas becomes seriously 
impaired for nn extended time, the Goddard Centre can act as a 
mission control centre and maintain voice and tracking contact with 
the spacecraft on an emergency basis. 

The communications between the ground and the spaceship can 
be divided into three general categories. The first category involves 
monitoring the condition of launch vehicle, the spacecraft, and the 
crew, and requires voice communication between the astronauts 
and the ground. Since the astronauts cannot be expected to 
personally take and report the thousands of data readings needed 
lei monitor spacecraft performance, these measurements must be 
made and relayed to the ground automatically. This process, 
which amounts to remote metering, is called "telemetry" and uses 
its own equipment and transmission channels. 

The second category covers trajectory measurements for both 
the launch vehicle and the spacecraft, obtained from a network 

178 







Figure 3-20. MSC Mission Control Room 



of stations by a "tracking" process. The network is linked 

together by the NASA Communications Network (NASCOM), 
and all tracking information flows to and from Mission Control 
(Houston) and the Apollo spacecraft over this communications 
system. The NASCOM consists of almost ihrce million circuit 
miles of diversely routed communications channels. It uses satellites, 
submarine cables, land lines, microwave systems, and high frequency 
radio facilities for access links. NASCOM control centre is located 
at Goddard, with regional communication switching centres in 
London, Madrid, Canberra, Honolulu and Guam. 

The third category includes all other information transmitted 
from the ground to the spacecraft, Since the transmissions in 
most cases involve remote control commands, this channel is 
called the "command uplink". It allows ground controllers to 
do with the spacecraft what the crew cannot, cither because they 
have not the time, the capability, the equipment, or, in extreme 
cases, are incapacitated. The command uplink system is compar- 
able in coverage to both the voice and the telemetry systems. 



179 




The second category, tracking, is the most complicated com- 
munications area. Three basic systems are used for tracking: 
one is based on optical equipment and two on electronic equipment, 
with the choice at any moment depending on the space vehicle 
distance. During the early phases of boosl-to-orbit. while the 
space vehicle is visible from ground, high-precision optical instru- 
ments track and determine the vehicle's position and velocity in 
space. Around the launch pad at Cape Kennedy arc several 
dozen engineering cameras, including an intercept ground optical 
recorder. This is a heavy 18-inch-apcrturc reflecting telescope 
with a 35- or 70-mm. camera attached to its ocular. It is manually 
controlled in azimuth and elevation, has automatic focus and 
exposure control, and variable focal length up to 500 inches. 

Distances beyond visual range require electronic gear, which 
basically use cither pulsed radio signals or continuous radio waves 
to track the spacecraft (Figure 3-21). The pulse radar emits 



180 



Development of the Apollo Spacecraft 

short radio pulses which are reflected back either from the vehicle's 
metal skin (called "skin tracking") or by a transponder, located 
inside the vehicle and connected through an antenna to its outside, 
that strengthens signal intensity ("beacon tracking"). Receiving 
the returning pulses, the ground station can determine not only the 
vehicle range, but also its azimuth and elevation above the horizon. 
The continuous wave radar system determines (he vehicle velocity 
and its position in space by measuring the phase shift of the radio 
beam caused by the Doppler effect. This is possible since a well- 
stabilized frequency signal reaching to and returning from a 
moving vehicle appears to shift in frequency. 

The conventional radar distance-measuring technique, success- 
fully employed for orbital distances, will not suffice over the lunar 
distance. Therefore, NASA developed a new ranging system 
based on pseudorandom codes. Instead of using pulses, this 
ranging system transmits a long code which is repeated by the 
vehicle, allowing accurate range measurement. Because the system 
requires a wide bandwidth, the S-Band was selected both for 
ranging systems and communication systems. This Unified S-Band 
(USB) system handles all communications between the ground 
and the spacecraft, requiring only one amplifier and one antenna 
on board the Apollo spacecraft with identical antennae and support 
equipment at various ground stations, for the entire mission, from 
liftoff to landing. The simplicity of this single-band system con- 
tributes to reliability; multifrequency communications would require 
more radio systems and more antennae, each one increasing the 
opportunity for failure. 

Most of the Unified S-Band ground stations are clustered around 
the North Atlantic Ocean, where the launch and insertion into 
parking orbit occurs. The stations with 30-foot antennae arc 
used for distances up to about 12,000 nautical miles. To provide 
tracking and communication at lunar distances, NASA added a 
Deep Space Network, consisting of three stations with 85-foot dish 
S-Band antennae. These stations are located 120* apart in longi- 
tude: one is located at Canberra, Australia; one at Goldstone, 
California; and the third is at Madrid, Spain (Figure 3-22). At 
least one of these three stations will always keep the spacecraft in 



181 






Pioneering in Outer Space 

Its antenna beam, which at the Moon covers an area about 1,400 
miles in diameter. The land stations arc supplemented by an ocean- 
going ship and a fleet of converted jet cargo aircraft (C-135A) 
to compensate for any gap that may occur in land-based coverage 
due to shifts in the spacecraft's Earth orbital angle to the equator. 
All of the data to and from this complex network of stations 
around the world arc brought into ihc Communications Centre 
at Goddard Space Flight Centre, where it is sorted, somewhat 
condensed, and relayed to the Mission Control Centre at Houston. 
Outbound communications follow the reverse route. 

Facilities 

Although Apollo facilities arc scattered throughout the world. 
the management agency for the spacecraft programme is located 
at the Manned Spacecraft Centre in Houston (Figure 3-23} . Here 
are the management offices, test facilities, and Mission Control, 

Figure 3-22. Deep Space Network Antemt/i. 




Figure 3-23. Manned Spacecraft Centre. 



7— 

it- 




the heart of Apollo during mission periods. One of the largest 
computer complexes in the world supports this operation. Major 
research, development and manufacturing facilities for the Com- 
mand and Service Modules are at Downey, California. Major 
research, development and manufacturing facilities for the Lunar 
Module are located at Bcthpagc, New York. 

The numerous test facilities include, for example, one of the 
largest centrifuges in the world for g-lcvel testing and two vacuum 
chambers capable of duplicating every condition of outer space 
except zero g. These facilities arc used to test spacecraft, space- 
suits and simulators, and can duplicate, under controlled conditions, 
any event or emergency that could occur during an actual flight 
mission. The test facilities at White Sands, New Mexico, include 
engine test stands. The Kennedy Space Centre has a spacecraft 
simulator for the final astronaut mission training. 



183 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



Development of the Apollo Spacecraft 



Systems Engineering and Development 

The concept of "systems engineering" for complex research 
and development programmes evolved in the United States over 
the last two decades. Although the term has been applied to 
many variants of technical management, systems engineering is 
basically an approach in which the interaction between each unit 
or suhunit is considered in the design of the whole. The systems 
engineering role in the manned space (light programme was to 
provide programme-wide technical analysis for management lo 
ensure that functional and performance requirements placed on 
all elements of a system were within the present or projected 
state of the art and could be developed within the scope of the 
project. 

In the Apollo programme, the task being undertaken was so 
complex that the system had lo be designed lo maximize the 
probability of success and safety. This meant conlinuing to 
examine all possible ways of performing a particular function, 
and selecting the way that provided the highest degree in function- 
ally matching the systems in the three major modules of the 
spacecraft. 

Specific examples of application of the systems engineering 
approach were the following; 

(a) To assure the astronauts' safety during the first seconds of 
flight, the design engineers had to develop a system to detect 
malfunctions, determine if these endangered the astronauts, and 
activate the launch escape system that would pull the spacecraft 
clear of the problem. The design of this sensing system provided 
the design engineers with many evenings of interesting work. 

(b) Myriad considerations and problems were involved in 
integrating the interfaces between the space vehicle (spacecraft 
plus launch vehicle) and the launch facilities. For example: 

1. The high pressure gas lines, the fuel loading lines, and the 
electrical lines carried by the swing arms on the service tower 
had lo fit exactly the corresponding umbilical connectors on the 
vehicle and be able to pull clear at the first motion of the space 
vehicle at launch. At the end of the highest swing arm, which 
provides a bridge for reaching the spacecraft, is the clean room 



184 






that precludes atmospheric contamination of the spacecraft while 
it is being prepared for launch. The design of this room had to 
be carefully worked out to assure contamination control while 
providing easy access to the spacecraft. 

2. To accomplish the prcflight checkout in the desired lime, the 
input and output of the computers on board the space vehicle 
had to match exactly the output and input of the launch complex 
computers. 

3. The design and shaping of optimum space vehicle trajectories 
involved a multitude of considerations, such as wind profiles and 
wind statistics during the month of the year, dynamic characteristics 
of the vehicle combination, minimum propellant consumption, 
optimum vehicle performance, guidance modes, minimum 
structural loads, and stage cutoff characteristics. 

4. During the launch vehicle power phase of the flight, the 
spacecraft is subjected to an environment that has to be considered 
in establishing design criteria. The environmental conditions 
involved include: (a) acceleration loads; (b) vibration loads and 
patterns; (c) dynamic loads during the period of high aerodynamic 
pressure; (d) general dynamic behaviour of the space vehicle; 
(e) bending modes; and (f) acoustic noise. The level of each 
of these conditions is determined by vehicle dynamic tests, static 
firings of both the engines and the complete stages, computer 
theoretical analyses, and unmanned flight tests. 

The total systems engineering task required continual monitoring 
of the interplay between the spacecraft and the launch vehicle 
systems throughout the design and development process. For this 
purpose, a number of interface panels were formed, organized 
generally according to scientific discipline. Each panel had repre- 
sentatives from both the Marshall Space Flight Centre, which had 
responsibility for the launch vehicle design, and the Manned 
Spacecraft Centre, which was responsible for the spacecraft design. 
These panels met on a regular basis lo report progress being 
made by their respective centres and lo exchange information on 
their systems' characteristics to preclude any incompatibilities. Most 
importantly, these meetings brought the best minds in each 
organization to bear jointly on the problems that arose in designing 
the launch vehicle, the spacecraft and the mission. 

185 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



Development Testing 

The development testing approach was strongly influenced by 
systems engineering as well as being based on a philosophy relatively 
new to the aerospace discipline. In the early years the testing 
procedure was to design, launch, fix and then launch again to verify 
the fix. As technical knowledge was gained, the number of launches 
needed was reduced. However, with the advent of manned space- 
craft, which involved human lives and complex equipment that 
took months or years to perfect, design feasibility had to be 
thoroughly proven on the ground. The flight lest was just the final 
vet ideation. 

I he development tests were conducted on a step-by-step basis, 
beginning with the smallest units. For example, the recirculating 
blower for the Command Module was first thoroughly tested as a 
component. Next it was integrated into the environmental control 
system where it went through a series of further tests. It was then 
assembled into the Command Module for additional testing, and 
finally into the space vehicle for a completely integrated test. 

The early development tests of the Command and Service 
Modules, prior to the qualification of (light-type hardware, used 
boilerplate spacecraft, a module simulating spacecraft in weight, 
shape, and centre of gravity. However, the later and major portion 
of the testing was conducted on flight-type spacecraft. Wherever 
necessary, both types of hardware were tested in two phases, 
designated Block I and Block II. 

The Block 1 test hardware was configured and tested to verify 
the Command and Service Module design for the early Earth orbital 
flights, when it was not yet necessary to verify the Service/ Lunar 
Module interface design. The Block II spacecraft incorporated 
the necessary features for Lunar Module docking and was used 
for the Earth orbital rendezvous (lights, and lunar mission simulation. 
This block method of development permitted testing to begin 
almost immediately after the programme started. It also allowed 
a reduction in the number of intermediate spacecraft configurations 
by accumulating early design changes and incorporating them into 
the Block II configuration. 

186 



Development of the Apollo Spacecraft 

The Lunar Module development tests followed the same general 
pattern. Preceding the major tests was a broad-based programme 
that included early feasibility tests of materials and components, 
leading to qualification of components and complete subsystems. 
System and vehicle development testing followed this series. A 
large amount of hardware was required to support the develop- 
ment test programme for the Lunar Module — mockups, engineering 
test models, propulsion test rigs, and LM lest articles. With 
these hardware items it was possible to perform a number of 
significant tests independently, yet overlapping limewisc. This 
provided flexibility to absorb change, and shorten the failure, 
diagnostic, correction and verification cycle in subsystems develop- 
ment and vehicle ground testing. 

With all the precautions taken and the intensive testing performed, 
American spacecraft development was not a story of uninterrupted 
progress and success. The most serious setback occurred in 
January, (967, when a fire in a spacecraft undergoing ground 
tests took the lives of three astronauts. This caused a two-year 
delay in manned flights and seriously impaired confidence in the 
programme. In the thorough and painstaking investigation that 
followed, 1,500 technical experts examined every aspect of design, 
manufacture and operation. Besides correcting the causes of the 
fire, a myriad of improvements were made in components and 
systems that up to then had seemed perfected. Only then did the 
programme proceed, with even greater caution than before. 

Conclusion 

The final proof of the achievement of programme objectives was 
the manned lunar landings and safe returns. Some particular 
aspects of the first two lunar landing missions that illustrated the 
success of the Apollo spacecraft design and development are 
briefly recounted here: 

1. In spite of the fact that a lightning discharge passed through 
the vehicle immediately after launch, the Apollo 12 successfully 
completed its mission. Spacecraft systems and astronauts continued 
on to a pinpoint landing, about 600 feet from the Surveyor 
spacecraft that had landed on the lunar surface several years 
previously. 



187 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



2. Only two or three of the seven planned midcourse corrections 
were necessary in each of the lunar missions. 

3. None of the "single point'" flight critical items has failed 
during a mission. A single point Hem is one for which there is 
no redundancy or backup, and it must function if the mission is 
to succeed. An example is the Service Module engine, 

4. Although the mission profile, including specific event time, 
is prepared months in advance of the mission, the reliability and 
capability of the Apollo hardware is such that in the lunar landing 
missions all actual times have been within seconds of planned times. 

5. The extra safety and reliability built into the spacesuit and 
Portable Life Support System permitted the astronauts to stay on 
the lunar surface for longer periods than originally planned. 

6. The capabilities of the communications system are such that 
during the Apollo 12 mission geologists in Mission Control discus- 
sed the results of the first lunar exploration period with the 
astronauts and outlined new goals for the second period of 
extravehicular activity. 

Now that the Apollo spacecraft has met the first objectives of 
placing man on the moon and safely returning him to Earth, the 
future uses of the spacecraft will be to meet the remaining objective, 
to provide a vehicle that can be used to explore space, both for 
the advancement of scientific knowledge and the benefit of man- 
kind. During the next few years it will be used to conduct extensive 
scientific investigations of the moon, and the spacecraft is already 
being modified for this purpose. The carrying space is being 
increased to accommodate experiments, exploration aids such as 
the Lunar Rover Vehicle, and larger supplies of consumables, and 
the Portable Life Support System is being modified to support 
longer stay time on the lunar surface. 

Another future use for the Apollo spacecraft will be to provide 
a transportation system for the crews manning the Skylab. The 
basic modifications that will be needed for the Skylab programme 
involve two areas. One is the removal of systems not needed 
because the Apollo will be primarily carrying the crews to a 
relatively low orbit and returning them to Earth. Items that can 
be deleted are one of the fuel cells, and some of the propel lant 



I xx 



Development of the Apollo Spacecraft 

tanks for the Service Module engine. The other area is, of course, 
adding those systems necessary for the mission. Additional propel- 
lant tanks will be needed for the reaction control system to help 
maintain the Skylab in the correct attitude, and the spacecraft's 
thermal control system will require more heaters since the craft 
will be in the shadow of the Apollo Telescope Mount solar panels 
most of the time. 

With the Apollo, the United States has developed a spacecraft 
that is capable of exploring space anywhere in a zone extending 
at least a quarter-million miles from Earth. What it represents is 
even more important: the Apollo spacecraft is but one element of 
a resource of incalculable and enduring value, the ability to explore 
and use space. With this capability, it will be possible to carry 
out a wide variety of missions of practical and scientific value. 
Future manned space missions can be conducted in Earth orbit, 
in lunar orbit, on the surface, and beyond. 

The Mercury and Gemini were the initial building blocks in 
manned spacecraft development, and Apollo must be considered 
only an intermediate block. Other blocks will be added as 
spacecraft are evolved for exploration beyond the moon, for 
shuttling back and forth to supply manned space stations and 
rotating personnel, for missions not yet dreamed of and actualities 
unimagincd. 



189 



CHAPTER FOUR 



Astronaut Selection 
and Training *,<?«*** 



Apollo 13, planned as the most challenging lunar landing mission 
to date, became instead the most crucial test in America's manned 
space flight programme. On the third day of the mission, some 
200,000 miles from Earth, loss of the main liquid oxygen supply 
aboard (he spacecraft caused the scheduled lunar landing in the 
hilly Fran Mauro formation to be cancelled. The return [rip to 
Earth of the damaged spacecraft required the ability and ingenuity 
of the Apollo 13 astronauts, the ground controllers, and the 
trained minds of hundreds of engineers and technicians throughout 
the country to effectively carry out the established back-up plans 
of the Apollo programme for survival in space. 

Apollo 13 was the United Slates' fifth flight to the Moon and 
the twenty-third space flight by American astronauts. The crew 
for the mission was commanded by veteran astronaut Jim Lovell, 
with his vast experience gained in three previous space missions 
including the first journey to orbit the Moon. The other members 
of the original prime crew, both assigned to their first space mission, 
were Ken Matlingly, the Command Module pilot, and Fred Haisc, 
the Lunar Module pilot (Figure 4-1), However, during the final 
countdown of the Apollo-Saturn V space vehicle, Command 
Module pilot Mattingly was replaced when medical results indicated 
•a possible infection of measles. His back-up pilot Jack Swigert 
had only two days to review and rehearse final mission plans. In 
the spacecraft simulator, Swigert demonstrated that he could 
function with unquestioned teamwork with the other two members 
of the prime crew as well as perform all of the manoeuvres 
required for the Command Module during the mission. 




Fifty-four hours after lift-off and well on their way to the Moon, 
the Apollo 13 crew entered the Lunar Module for the first lime 
and checked all systems. At the completion of ihe checkout, the 
crew transmitted colour television of their activities to Earth. A 
few minutes after the completion of the television broadcast, the crew 
had the first indication of trouble aboard their spacecraft when 
Commander Lovell calmly relayed, "Houston, we've had a problem. 
We've had a main B bus interval . . . and we had a pretty large 
bang associated with the caution and warning there ... it looks 
to me looking out the hatch that we arc venting something. Wc 
arc venting something out into space." Pressure in the number 
two super cold oxygen tank aboard the Service Module had dropped 
to zero, and fuel cells number one and three failed. The remaining 
uxygen tank began to lose its pressure at a slow rate and the 
decision was made to cancel the intended lunar landing mission. 



I 'JO 



191 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

Ground control carefully checked each of the three fuel cell 
systems in an attempt to locate the oxygen leak. In the existing 
configuration, all oxygen and electric power supplied by the Service 
Module to the Command Module would be expended within three 
hours and the Command Module would become virtually useless, 
except for its re-entry capability. The increased load on the 
remaining fuel cell in generating essential electrical power and 
manufacturing water, plus the diminishing pressure in the remaining 
oxygen tank led to the decision to activate the Lunar Module, 
turn off all equipment in the Command Module to conserve power, 
and use the systems of the Lunar Module for life support. 

Two of the crew transferred to the Lunar Module and prepared 
the vehicle for an alternate procedure known as the "lifeboat" 
mode. The Lunar Module would now supply all of the oxygen, 
water, and power to operate Apollo 13 until the Command 
Module could enter the Earth's atmosphere. 

A simitar abort procedure calling for the Lunar Module to help 
return a crew to Earth had been worked out early in the pro- 
gramme, in 1964, and was practised on the Apollo 9 mission, a 
10-day Earth orbital flight. The Apollo 9 mission commander, 
Jim McDivitt, was at Mission Control in Houston and helped direct 
activation of the "lifeboat" mode aboard the Lunar Module. 

The possibility of returning directly to Earth was quickly 
eliminated because the required 6000-foot per second burn of the 
service propulsion engine could not be made. It was decided that 
the crew would move their spacecraft back into a free-return 
trajectory, fly around the back side of the Moon, and return to 
Earth. At sixty-one and a half hours into the mission, the Lunar 
Module engine was ignited. This was the first lime that an engine 
built to land men on the Moon had been used to propel an entire 
spacecraft cluster and to place the spacecraft on a safer path to 
Earth. 

Many of the systems aboard the Lunar Module were turned off 
to conserve electrical power and the water used to cool the electronic 
components. Until Earth entry, two of the astronauts worked and 
slept in the Lunar Module while the other crew member remained 



192 






Astronaut Selection and Training 

in the darkened and cold Command Module. A 1 0-foot long 
hose, taken from one of the lunar space suits, was used to supply 
oxygen to the Command Module. 

As Apollo 13 emerged from behind the Moon, preparations 
were made to burn the Lunar Module descent engine again to 
speed the return to Earth. The successful four-minute burn of 
the Lunar Module engine reduced the travel time to Earth by 
12 hours, and changed the alternate splashdown point from the 
Indian Ocean back to the South Pacific. The spacecraft cluster 
was then programmed into a slow rotating manoeuvre so that 
the Sun would uniformly heat the exterior surfaces. On the 
ground, fellow astronauts of the Apollo 13 crew worked many 
hours in simulators checking every proposed manoeuvre and the 
use of consumables aboard the Lunar Module. Mission Control 
also determined the best way to devise an air-purifying system in 
the Lunar Module to keep carbon dioxide at a safe level. Lithium 
hydroxide canisters taken from the Command Module were rigged 
with plastic, cardboard, a sock, and held together by tape; they 
helped keep the air clean in the Lunar Module. 

Several hours after the engine burn, Mission Control radioed 
the astronauts that calculations showed that the crew would have 
sufficient oxygen and water to last through splashdown. However, 
life aboard the spacecraft was very uncomfortable for the crew. 

The original Command Module pilot of Apollo 13 worked out 
mid-course manoeuvres and re-entry procedures with other astro- 
nauts and technicians on the ground and relayed instructions to 
the crew members in the spacecraft. A third burn of the Lunar 
Module engine was made for a slight correction in the Might path, 
A final correction on the last day of the mission assured landing 
on target in the Pacific Ocean. Seven hours later, Astronaut 
Swigen turned on the systems of the Command Module and 
prepared for separation from the damaged Service Module, After 
separation, the astronauts returned to the Command Module and 
the hatch connecting them with their lifeboat, the Lunar Module, 
was closed. Since the Lunar Module was not designed to enter 
the Earth's atmosphere, it was abandoned. 

193 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

On April 17, 1970, the Apollo 13 spacecraft splashed down on 
schedule within four miles of the recovery ship. The six-day 
journey around the Moon — the shortest and most perilous Apollo 
lunar mission — was completed. 

The Apollo 13 crew's performance was acclaimed throughout 
the world as a triumph of the human spirit, an exoneration of the 
human mind, a tribute to human perseverance, and a victory for 
all mankind. Most noteworthy was their calm, precise reaction 
to the emergency situation and their subsequent diligence in con- 
figuring and maintaining the Lunar Module for safe return to 
Earth. Despite lack of adequate sleep and low temperatures in 
the spacecraft, neither their performance nor their spirit ever 
faltered throughout the flight. Later, when asked about what 
contributed most to the crew's ability to sustain (he rigours of 
the Apollo 13 mission, Commander Jim Lovell replied, ''1 think 
that the ability to keep working under the conditions that exist 
is the result, perhaps, of the many years of training in the business 
that Fred Haise, Jack Swigcrt, and myself arc in . . . we expect 
at times to meet adverse conditions. In this business, you cannot 
expect complete success all the time." 

With the saga of Apollo 13 and Astronaut Lovell's remarks in 
mind, let us now turn to a discussion of what makes an astronaut; 
the selection criteria for picking the right men; and the rigorous 
training they undergo to attain the skill and calm ability to isolate 
the cause of trouble in time of a crisis. 

Astronaut Selection 

The criteria used for selection of astronaut personnel are deter- 
mined by the kind of training the astronauts are to receive and the 
requirements of the missions to which they will be assigned. 
Astronaut selection is a responsibility of the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration (NASA) Manned Spacecraft Centre, 
Houston, Texas. Public announcements concerning the selection 
criteria for each astronaut training group and the periods during 
which applications will be received arc issued and controlled from 
the Manned Spacecraft Centre. 

Astronaut personnel must have an adequate background of 
experience and education to enable them to learn rapidly the many 

194 




Astronaut Selection and Training 

intricate details of space (light operations and to analyze quickly 
any unusual or unexpected circumstance and make a rapid decision 
on the correct procedure to follow. Astronauts must be in excellent 
health and have the physical and mental stamina to endure stresses 
and strains not commonly encountered by the average person. The 
demands of space flight require that they have sufficient self-control 
to remain steady and calm in a crisis and be able to remain alert 
and responsive after hours of cramped confinement and periods 
of extreme tension. 

Early in 1959, prior to the beginning of manned space flight, 
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration asked the 
military services to search their records for men who met the 
following qualifications: 

1. Less lhan 40 years of age. 

2. Less than 5 feel 1 I inches tali. 

3. Excellent physical condition, 

4. Bachelor's degree in engineering or its equivalent. 

5. Qualified jet pilot. 

6. Graduate of test pilot school. 

7. At least 1500 hours' flying time. 

The armed forces listed a total of 508 men who qualified under 
these criteria. The military and medical records of these men were 
examined, psychological and technical tests were administered, and 
personnel interviews were conducted by psychological and medical 
specialists. Following this screening, a targe portion of the original 
508 were eliminated and an additional number decided that they 
no lunger wished to be considered. 

Each man who remained on the eligible list was subjected to 
the must comprehensive physical examination the NASA medical 
staff could devise. The objectives of this portion of the selection 
programme were to provide crew members who: ( I ) wou!d be 
free of intrinsic medical defects at the time of selection; (2) would 
have a reasonable assurance of freedom from such defects for the 
predicted duration of the flight programme; (3) would be capable 
of accepting the predictable psycho-physiologic stress of the 
missions; and (4) would be able to perform those tasks critical 
to the safety of the mission and the crew. 



195 




Figure 4-2. Left to right standing: Alan B. Sliepard, Jr., Walter M. ScMrra, 

Jr., John H. Glenn. Jr. Left to right seated: Virgil I. "Gits" Grisxom, M. 

Scott Carpenter, Donald K. "Deke" Slayion. L. Gordon Cooper, Jr. 

Following this screening, the first seven astronaut-piiots, known 
as the Mercury astronauts, were selected. The names of these men 
have since become household words in America. They were Alan 
B. Shepard, Jr.; Virgil 1. "Gus" Grissom; John H. Glenn, Jr.; M. 
Scolt Carpenter; Walter M. Schirra, Jr.; L. Gordon Cooper, Jr.; 
and Donald K. "Deke" Stay ton {Figure 4-2). 

In April, 1962, the Manned Spacecraft Centre issued a call for 
volunteers for a second group of astronauts to train for the Gemini 
and Apollo programmes. Minimum qualification standards were 
published and distributed lo the Press, aircraft companies, govern- 
ment agencies, military services, and the Society of Experimental 
Test Pilots. These standards required that an applicant: 

1. Be an experienced jet test pilot and preferably be engaged 
in flying high-performance aircraft. 



196 



Astronaut Selection and Training 

2. Have attained experimental flight test status through the 
military services, the aircraft industry, or NASA, or have 
graduated from a military test pilot school. 

3. Have earned a degree in physical or biological sciences or 
in engineering. 

4. Be a United Slates citizen under 35 years of age at the 
time of selection, and be six feet or less in height. 

5. Be recommended by his present organization. 

These criteria were similar to those originally established for the 
Mercury space flight programme but allowed the candidates to be 
taller and opened the way for civilian volunteers. The maximum 
age limitation was also lowered, because of the long-range nature 
of the Gemini and Apollo programmes. 

More than 200 applications were received from civilians and 
from volunteers in all four military services. Each candidate who 
met the five basic standards was asked to complete a variety of 
forms describing his academic background and his flight and 
work experience in detail. Each was also asked to take a medical 
examination and to forward the results of this examination lo the 
Manned Spacecraft Centre. 

A preliminary selection committee met and selected 32 of the 
most highly qualified applicants for further examinations, tests, 
and interviews. From this group, nine were selected as future 
astronauts. Included among the selectees were Frank Borman 
and James A. Lovell, Jr. — two of the three-man Apollo crew who 
first orbited the Moon — and Neil A, Armstrong — the first man 
to set foot on Ihe Moon. 

At the time of this second selection, Dr. Robert R. Gilruih, 
Director of the Manned Spacecraft Centre, pointed out that: 
{ I ) assignment of flight personnel to specific missions depends 
upon the continuing physical and technical status of the individuals 
concerned and upon (light schedule requirements; and (2) (light 
personnel have an important role in addition to any flight participa- 
tion to which they may be assigned; this role includes contributions 
to engineering design, development of future spacecraft, monitoring 
of flights, and the development of advanced flight simulators. 



197 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

In June, 1963, volunteer applications were requested for a third 
group of astronauts. In the requirements stipulated for this group, 
increased emphasis was placed on academic requirements, and 
emphasis on flight experience and test pilot work was reduced. 
The applicants were required to: 

1. Be a citizen of the United States; no taller than six feel; 
not over 34 years of age. 

2. Have a bachelor's degree in engineering or physical or 
biological science. 

3. Have acquired 1000 hours' jet pilot time or have attained 
experimental (light lest status through the armed forces, 
NASA, or the aircraft industry. 

4. Be recommended by his present organization. 

A total of 271 applications were received, 200 from civilians 
and 71 from military personnel. From these applicants, 14 were 
selected for astronaut training. Two of the 14 men selected were 
civilians; seven were Air Force pilots; four were Navy pilots; and 
one was a Marine pilot. 

Extensive changes were made in the selection criteria for the 
fourth group of astronauts who were to be called scientist-astronauts. 
NASA called for applications for the selection of the first group 
of scientist-astronauts in October, 1964. The applicants were 
required to be aged 34 or under and have a bachelor's and doctor's 
degree or equivalent experience in natural sciences, medicine or 
engineering. No requirement was made for jet pilot experience. A 
total of 1492 letters of interest were received. Some were formal 
applications; some were informal inquiries. Of the applications 
received, 422 were selected as being qualified on the basis of the 
minimum criteria established and were forwarded to the National 
Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C., for evaluation. 

The Nation tl Academy of Sciences evaluated these applications 
on the basis of Scientific criteria developed cn-nperalely with the 
NASA Office of Space Science and Applications and selected 16 
of the applicants as being highly recommended for consideration. 
Following thorough physical examinations and extensive testing 




Astronaut Selection and Training 

at the Manned Spacecraft Centre, six from this group were selected 
for training as scientist-astronauts. The group selected was 
composed of one geologist, two physicians and three physicists. 
Selection was made primarily on the basis of scientific background, 
regardless of jet pilot experience; however, two of the group were 
jet pilots and needed no basic flight training prior to entering the 
regular astronaut training programme. 

In September, 1965, NASA again issued a call from the Manned 
Spacecraft Centre for volunteer applicants for astronaut training. 
The eligibility requirements were basically the same as those set 
for the third astronaut group in June, 1963, except that the 
applicant must have been born on or after December 1, 1929. 
Applications were received from 351 persons, of whom 159 met 
[he basic requirements. Of that number 100 were military 
personnel and 59 were civilians. Following the usual screening 
procedures, a total of 19 pilot-astronauts were selected on April 
4, 1966. Four were civilians, seven were Air Force pilots, six 
were Navy pilots and two were Marine Corps pilots. 

NASA requested that the National Academy of Sciences nominate 
a second group of scientists for selection and training as astronauts 
in September, 1966. The Academy was to seek experienced scientists 
of exceptional ability to conduct scientific experiments in manned 
orbiting stations and to observe and investigate the lunar surface 
and circumterrestrial space. Applications were invited from United 
States citizens and persons who would be citizens on or before 
March 15, 1967, no taller than six feet, born after August 1, 1930, 
and having a doctorate in the natural sciences, medicine or 
engineering. The applicants would also be required to meet 
physical qualifications for pilot crew members, hut exceptions to 
any of the above requirements would be allowed in outstanding 
cases. Selection procedures were similar to those used in choosing 
the first group of scientist-astronauts in 1965. In its announcement 
for applications, the National Academy of Sciences stated: 

The quality most needed by a scientist serving as an astronaut 
might be summed up by the single word "perspicacity". The task 
requires an exceptionally astute and imaginative observer, but 



198 



199 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



Astronaut Selection and Training 



one whose observations are accurate and impartial. He must, 
from among the thousands of items he might observe, quickly 
pick out those that are significant, spot the anomalies, and 
investigate them. He must discriminate fine detail and subtle 
differences in unfamiliar situations, synthesize observations to 
gain insight into a general pattern, and select and devise key 
observations to test working hypotheses. He must have the 
good judgement to know when to stop a particular set of 
observations and turn to the next. The scientist as an astronaut 
must translate observations into verbal form and be able to 
generalize from observations to derive appropriate conclusions. 

This recruiting effort, completed in 1967, yielded 11 civilian 
scientist-astronauts, two of whom were naturalized citizens of the 
United States — one having been born in Wales and the other in 
Australia. Following a brief period of general orientation activities 
at the Manned Spacecraft Centre, these astronauts began a 
programme of academic training. This included orbital mechanics, 
computers, spacecraft orientation and general math and physics 
refresher courses, as well as field trips for contractor facility 
orientation. In March, 1968, they began Air Force flight training 
to become qualified jet pilots. 

When the Air Force discontinued its plan to place a Manned 
Orbiting Laboratory into Earth orbit in 1969, NASA assigned 
seven of the Air Force aerospace research pilots to its astronaut 
programme. The addition of these seven men brought the total 
number of active astronauts to 54 in August, 1969. No further 
astronaut selections have been made to date. 

Although crew qualifications change and space hardware becomes 
more refined with each new programme, the importance of man 
as an integral part of the machine will not change. The ability 
of man to assess a situation and provide the necessary input is as 
important today in space as it was during earlier exploration. And, 
in retrospect, it is difficult to isolate a manned space flight during 
which the crew did not provide a contributing or decisive input. 
This capability was especially proven during the flight of Apollo 13. 



200 



Astronaut Traioing 

The astronauts' part in the space programme is to provide the 
crews needed to man the space (light vehicle and to provide an 
operational input to design. This input is based on individual 
judgement, past experience and education, engineering simulations, 
and actual space flight experience. 

In Project Apollo, man for the first time has left his orbit 
around the Earth and has landed on the Moon — the first stepping 
stone in the exploration of the solar system. The navigation 
required for this voyage demands that the astronaut be skilful, not 
only as a spacecraft pilot and in carrying out the routine computa- 
tions on digital computers in the spacecraft, but also in using 
other more complex equipment such as propulsion control systems 
and fuel cells for electric power generation. In addition to operating 
scientific equipment the astronaut was required to make meaningful 
observation in order to select and interpret those phenomena which 
may be of significant scientific interest. Therefore, the basic 
objectives of the astronaut training programme arc to train crew 
members ( 1 ) to operate the spacecraft in the best possible manner 
for the accomplishment of an assigned mission, and (2) to serve 
as competent observers who can conduct the scheduled in-flight 
experiments. The astronaut training programme is organized in 
two basic divisions: general training and specific mission training. 

General Training 

When one considers the complexity of the Apollo mission, it is 
clear that the training programme should be similar in some 
respects to graduate study activity in several disciplines con- 
currently. The (light crew must assimilate knowledge of space 
flight trajectories, lunar geology, and many spacecraft and launch 
vehicle systems operational details. Then, working with the design, 
procedures, flight planning, and simulation personnel, they must 
develop proficiency to fly not only the planned mission, but be 
able to fly the planned alternate missions under an almost infinite 
number of abnormal conditions. 

The Apollo training programme is based on extrapolations from 
Mercury and Gemini training experience. Simulation hours can 



201 






Pioneering in Outer Space 



Astronaut Selection and Training 



be used to compare the relative operational complexity of Mercury, 
Gemini and Apollo. Considering only the time spent in spacecraft 
simulators, which represent approximately 20 per cent of the 
training activity, the average totals are: Mercury — 50 hours, 
Gemini — 195 hours and Apollo — 380 hours. 

The general training programme for astronauts consists of an 
academic programme, an aircraft flight programme, environmental 
and contingency training, spacecraft design and development 
studies, and physical conditioning. Although the general 
programme is organized primarily for new incoming groups of 
astronauts, other astronauts also participate in certain phases of 
the programme for purposes of maintaining proficiency. 

The academic programme is composed of courses conducted in 
a formal classroom situation, with accompanying support activities 
and field exercises. The programme generally consists of courses 
in basic science and technology, and familiarization with spacecraft 
and space flight operations. 

The basic science and technology courses help to bring the 
flight crews to a common level of understanding in the prescribed 
subjects. Typical of such courses are geology, astronomy, digital 
computers, flight mechanics, meteorology, guidance and navigation, 
and physics of the upper atmosphere. With the exception of 
guidance and navigation, the courses arc all fundamental in nature. 
The guidance and navigation course is primarily a functional 
description of the Apollo system but also covers the basic 
components of incrtial guidance systems. Knowledge of these 
subjects enables the crews to understand the design and operation 
of the spacecraft and the launch vehicles used in manned space 
flight and to perform more effectively the assigned mission experi- 
ments. 

From a training standpoint, the most significant difference in 

Apollo as compared to Gemini and Mercury is in the area of 
guidance and navigation. Learning the capability and gaining 
proficiency in the operation of the spacecraft guidance and 
navigation systems absorbs approximately 40 per cent of the 
training hours. 



I 



The crew must use onboard sextants and telescopes to align 
the spacecraft navigation systems to the stars, landmarks or horizon. 
They must also ensure that the navigation systems of their two 
spacecraft are tracking each other. For each mission phase such 
as launch, mid-course navigation, lunar descent, lunar ascent, 
rendezvous, and Earth re-entry there is a corresponding computer 
programme which must be activated by the crew. Within each 
individual programme are many routines and options which may 
be selected. The optimum integration of this guidance and 
navigation activity into the normal and emergency operation of 
the other spacecraft systems has been an iterative process where 
experience gained during simulations and previous flights are fed 
back to improve the procedures and arrive at the best concept 
for subsequent flights. 

Training in spacecraft and launch design and development is 
accomplished through astronaut participation in spacecraft and 
launch vehicle engineering studies and mockup reviews of specific 
contractor-NASA design and development studies. The astronauts 
attend certain contractor-NASA meetings which are of concern to 
them, such as conferences on the development of pressure suits 
and personal equipment, on development of the pre-flight test 
programme of the spacecraft, and on launch vehicle ground test 
programmes. 

However, in a training programme of this scope and complexity, 
it is impossible for all the astronauts to keep up with all the 
day-to-day progress and the ever-changing status of the launch 
vehicles and spacecraft and their many intricate systems. For this 
reason, the Flight Crew Operations Directorate has assigned one 
or more astronauts to each of a number of vital specialized fields. 
These astronauts closely investigate the activities in these fields 
and periodically report to the entire group of astronauts on the 
changes made and the progress effected. Specialized assignments 
arc made in the following fields: 

(a) Command and Service Modules. 

(b) Lunar Module and cockpit layout. 

(c) Launch vehicles. 

fd) Control systems, communication systems, and instrumen- 
tation. 



202 



203 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

fe) Mission planning and guidance and navigation. 

(f) Recovery systems. 

(g) Trajectory analysis and flight plan, 
(h) Training simulators. 

(i) Spacecraft propulsion. 

(j) Deep space network. 

( k ) Range operations and crew safety systems. 

(1) Attitude and translation control systems and cockpit 

integration, 
(m) Environmental control systems, and radiation and thermal 

protection, 
(n) Pressure suits and extravehicular experiments. 
(o) Future manned programmes and in-flight experiments. 

(p) Electrical and sequential experiments, and monitoring of 
non-flight experiments (including experiments conducted 
on the lunar surface). 

Environmental Training 

The environmental conditions of space (light arc either more 
extreme or occur for a longer period than the conditions met in 
aircraft flying. Since man's performance is affected by his 
familiarity with the environmental conditions under which he must 
operate, astronauts arc given training to familiarize them with 
the conditions to be encountered in space flight, insofar as possible. 
Each man is exposed to the environmental conditions of weight- 
lessness and launch and re-entry accelerations, and familiarized 
with the operation of the pressure suit. 

Periods of weightlessness of approximately 30 seconds* duration 
arc produced in a modified KC 135 aircraft by flying the aircraft 
in a parabolic trajectory. This enables the crew members to 
practise such activities as eating and drinking, free-float 
manoeuvring, self-rotation, and tumble and spin recovery. 

A large centrifuge facility at the Manned Spacecraft Centre is 
used to familiarize astronauts with the expected acceleration profiles 




Figure 4-3. Centrifuge facility at the Manned Spacecraft Centre. 

of Earth orbit launch, launch aborts, and orbit re-entry (Figure 
4r3), Personal familiarity with the forces encountered also gives 
an astronaut an opportunity to evaluate his own operational 
capability under these forces. 

Pressure suit familiarization includes briefings on suit design 
and construction and demonstrations in donning and doffing the 
suit. The pilots also wear pressure suits during specific mission 
training exercises in order to become familiar with their operation. 

Survival Training 

During a manned space flight mission, an emergency requiring 
an immediate return to Earth could result in a landing in a remote 
and unplanned area. In the event of such an emergency the 
astronauts must be prepared to land and survive in all types of 



204 



205 




Figure 4-4. 
A Mr a n a it t s during 
desert survival training 
near Pasco. Washington. 



terrain and climate. The contingency portion of the training 
programme includes water, desert and jungle survival exercises. 

Water survival training is conducted by NASA and the U.S. 
Navy at the Pensacola Naval Air Station, Pensacola, Florida. Here 
the astronauts practise riding the Dilbcrt Dunkcr, where they 
experience the difficulty of getting out of a spacecraft or aircraft 
if it should become inverted in the water. They also practise 
other water survival techniques such as getting into a life raft. 

Desert and tropic training makes use of existing U.S. Air Force 
Schools. For desert survival training the astronauts visit the 
deserts of Nevada and Washington State during the month of 
August, when temperatures are at their peak. The astronauts 
spend two days in the classroom hearing lectures and seeing 
demonstrations, and then three days on a field expedition into the 
desert. On this expedition they carry only survival kits, parachute 
and three and one-half quarts of water. They are taught to use a 
portion of their parachutes to make clothing to protect them from 
the heat, which can get as high as 1 10 degrees Fahrenheit. The rest 




t-'ignre 4-5. Receiving instruction at ilie Panama Jungle Survival School Is 

Annuitant James B. Invin in the foreground, and seated next to him is 

Scientist- Astronaut t\ Curtis Michel. 

of the parachute is used to make a tent with a life raft as the 
centre pole {Figure 4-4). 

For tropic survival training the astronauts take a one-week trip 
to Panama. Again, the first two days are spent in the classroom 
learning survival techniques. In the morning of the third day they 
are taken into the jungle by helicopter. They are divided into 
three-man teams, like an Apollo crew. They hike off into the 
jungle until they find a suitable spot on which to construct a lean-to 
for protection from the tropical afternoon rains. They live "off 
the land" for three days, with nothing but a parachute and a survival 
kit (Figure 4-5). 

Sn far. none of the desert and jungle emergency survival measures 
have been needed by a manned space flight crew. In the most 



206 



207 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

serious emergency, that of Apollo 13, the crew was able to land 
in the Pacific Ocean and splashdown was performed in the manner 
practised for all missions. 

Aircraft Flight Programme 

Spacecraft flight readiness is maintained through a flight 
programme utilizing high-performance jet aircraft. In addition to 
local llighls, these aircraft are used by the astronauts for cross- 
country flights in support of engineering and training activities. 
This permits greater flexibility in travelling as well as maintenance 
of the crew members' flying skills. A continuing programme of 
helicopter flying provides the astronauts with an opportunity to 
familiarize themselves with lunar landing trajectories. 

Physical Training 

The physical condition of an astronaut is very important, because 
his performance must not deteriorate under stress. Since individual 
schedules vary somewhat, each astronaut maintains his own 
physical fitness programme. Facilities are provided and physical 
training specialists are available to assist the astronauts in their 
individual programmes. 

Egress Training 

Egress training consists of preparing the crew for all pre-flight 
and post-flight nominal and emergency egress from the spacecraft 
while in the vacuum chambers, on test stands, on the launch 
complex and in the water. 

Water Egress Training 

Water egress training is divided into three phases. Phase I 
involves procedures familiarization utilizing a Command Module 
mockup. The crew receives a briefing and demonstration of the 
survival gear components and their operation. Then the crew 
reviews egress procedures (unsuitcd) using the trainer and 
survival equipment. During this review, they receive farther 
instruction on hatch operation, survival equipment stowage, location 
and removal, and post landing system activation. In Phase II — 
the freshwater tank exercise— the crew receives a briefing on the 



208 



, TfciWP 














Figure 4-6. The crewmen of Apollo 13 prepare for water egress training 

hi the Mantled Spacecraft Centre. Left to right are Astronauts Fred W. 

Hoist, Jr., Lunar Module pilot; James A. Lovvll, Jr.. commander, and 

Thomas K. Mattingly //. Command Module pilot. 



differences between the spacecraft and the trainer. This is followed 
by crew egress (suited) practice from the egress trainer while 
floating upright (Stable 1 position) in the flotation tank, located 
at the Manned Spacecraft Centre. After completing the Stable I 
practice, the crew receives a briefing on apex down (Stable II) 
egress with subsequent practice in uprighting the training article 
and Stable II egress. Phase III is a full-scale recovery operation in 
the Gulf or Mexico. The crew receives a briefing on overall 
recovery operations and crew recovery procedures. They then 
practise uprighting the trainer to the Stable I position, egress into 
their rafts and are picked up by helicopter (Figure 4-6). 

Spacecraft Prclaunch Egress Training 

The crew uses egress mockups early in the training programme 
to develop familiarity with the operation of egress equipment and 
to practise egress procedures in conjunction with closed hatch 

209 




Figure 4-7. Astronaut Smart Roots, Apollo 9 mppon crew, prepares to 

descend a rope following tin- first manned nu\ down a slide win in a tub 

from the three-foot level. 

spacecraft tests in vacuum chambers and on the launch pad. 
Emergency egress procedures cover lire, internal and external 
contamjnuniY, electrical power Failures and other emergencies. 

At approximately 40 days before launch, the crew accomplishes 
a launch pad egress exercise at the Kennedy Space Centre designed 
[0 assure a rapid crew egress from the spacecraft Bfld launch pad 
vicinity. This training consists of a briefing on the total launch 
pad operation, followed by a practice launch pad egress walk- 
through demonstration of the three evacuation modes: high speed 
elevator, slide tube and slide wire {Figure 4-7). 

Specific Mission Training 

Crew training following assignment to a flight is designed to 
prepare the crew to perform a specific mission in accordance with 
a detailed (light plan. Approximately 2300 hours of crew 



!to 









Astronaut Selection and Training 

training is programmed to develop a highly skilled crew to fly the 
Lunar Landing Mission, In addition to the programmed training, 
each crew member spends many additional hours participating in 
other training activities, i.c., physical exercise, study, informal 
briefings and reviews and necessary mission support activities (air- 
craft flying, suit fits, pilot meetings, travel, physical examination, 
mission development ) . 

Criteria used to develop the training programme and overall 
training objectives are as follows: 

(a) The training programme encompasses approximately a 12- 
month period. 

(b) Initially, crews are scheduled for a two- to four-day training 
week to permit incorporation during remaining time of 
essential mission development activities requiring crew 
participation early in the training programme. 

(c) The prime and backup crews receive the same training. 
The support crew members (a third astronaut crew) 
primarily support c, w training by substituting for the 
prime and backup crews in activities that are essential for 
mission development. 

(d) Because of mission complexity and training time constraints, 
crew members only train for their specific inflight respon- 
sibilities with sufficient cross-training to assure a redundant 
capability for the more critical mission tasks. 

Briefing 

Flight crew training is initiated with a series of briefings. These 
briefings cover a wide variety of subjects, including: 

(a) Command Service Module Systems — describing each major 
subsystem and emphasizing its operation to assure that 
each crew member has a thorough comprehension prior to 
initial crew simulator training or participation in spacecraft 
tests. 

(b) Lunar Module Systems — describing each of the major 
systems and emphasizing its operation. 

(c) Launch Vehicle — covering launch vehicle systems operation 
and performance and related aspects such as countdown 

211 




Figure 4-8. 

Suited Scientist-Astronaut 
Harrison H. Schmitl 
participates in u simulation 
of using the Aseptic 
Sampler on the surface of 
the Moon. He is strapped 
to a pttrtial gravity 
simulator. 



techniques, range safety, failure modes, abort situations and 
vehicle flight dynamics and instrument unit operation. 

(d) Guidance and Navigation Programme — covering Boost, 
Earth Orbit. Coast, Prelhrust. Thrust, Midcourse Navigation, 
Entry, Backup and Service Programmes. In conjunction 
with these briefings, functional descriptions of the Inertia!, 
Optical, Rendezvous Radar, Landing Radar and Computer 
Subsystems arc presented. 

(e) Lunar Surface — to provide an understanding of the 
purpose, results expected and the constraints under which 
lunar surface data is to be collected: and to describe the 
equipment and methods to be utilized on the lunar surface. 

(f) Geology — verbal descriptions of geological features, 
observation techniques, geological sampling, information 
provided by studies by Ranger, Surveyor and Lunar Orbilcr 
data and photography. Simulated geological missions arc 
conducted using Apollo tools and instruments (Figure 4-8). 

(g) Biology — to instruct the crew in techniques and methods 



Astronaut Sefection and Training 

for obtaining aseptic samples, and to give them an 
appreciation for the concern of back contamination. 
Lectures are conducted to develop a basic understanding 
of microbiology as it pertains to the lunar surface. 
(h) Experiments — to familiarize the crew with the purpose 
of the various lunar surface experiments, the constraints 
involved, and the desired results. Whenever possible, these 
briefings arc conducted by the principal investigator for 
the particular experiment. Examples of experiments 
covered are: 

(a) Solar Wind Composition. 

(b) Early Apollo Surface Experiment Package (EASEP). 

(c) Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP). 
(i) Equipment — in conjunction with the experiment briefings, 

a series of training sessions is conducted to familiarize the 
crew with the operation of the experiment hardware. The 
exercises range from a table-top display of the equipment 
to a suited exercise of an entire EVA timeline (Figures 4-9 
and 4-10). Sonic hardware items covered are the S-Band 
antenna, geological hand tools, sample return containers. 
cameras (Figure 4-11). modular equipment stowage 
assembly (MESA) (Figure 4-12), EASEP and ALSEP 
(Figure 4-13). 

(j) Photography — early in the training programme, the crew 
receives several briefings by the Mission Operations 
Branch on the photographic requirements of the mission 
and operation of the involved photographic equipment. At 
this time cameras and film are given to the crew for their 
practice. 
(k) Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) — the crew receives 
a briefing and demonstration of the EMU, which consists 
of the Pressure Garment Assembly (PGA), the Portable 
Life Support System (PLSS), and the Oxygen Purge System 
(OPS). Additional knowledge is gained during subsequent 
training exercises requiring wearing of this equipment. 

(1) Lunar Landing Site — lunar topography recognition for the 
three selected landing sites. Training encompasses landing 
site landmark sighting, powered descent track monitoring, 

213 





Figtire 4-9. Apollo II prime crew participate in a walk-through of the 
extravehicular activity (EVA) timeline. 




*/;„,,„„ 4 til Cr/^t ,i.,...tl 



Figure 4-11. Scientist - Astronaut 
Harrison H. Stimuli wearing an 
Extravehicular Mobility Vnft(BMl >, 
goes through a .simulation uj deploy- 
ing the lunar surface television 
camera. 



Figure 4-12. Apollo 12 Astronaut 
Charles Conrad, commander. It'll, 
releases equipment from the Modu- 
lar Equipment Stowage Assembly 
(MESA) as Alan Bean, Lunar 
Module pilot, descends the ladder to 
the ground. 




Figure 4-1 3. The Apollo 13 crew practise deploying the Apollo Lunar 
Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) which would be left behind cm the 
Moon. Working with ALSEP experiments are: Left background, James A. 
Lovell, Jr., prime crew commander, and in right foreground, John W. Young, 
backup crew commander. 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

LM pitch variation monitoring, post high gate landing point 
identification and selection and post landing location of the 
LM landing point, 
fm) Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) — the MQF is designed 
to biologically isolate the llight crew and support personnel 
from recovery to delivery to the Lunar Receiving Laboratory 
at the Manned Spacecraft Centre in Houston. The MQF 
briefing emphasizes communications, oxygen and de- 
compression, sanitation, emergency egress and crew safety. 
It also includes a familiarization tour of the Lunar Receiving 
Laboratory facilities and an explanation of the procedures 
to be followed during the quarantine period. 

Mission Simulator Training 

To simulate has been defined as "to assume the appearance of, 
without reality". This is exactly what NASA simulators arc 
designed to do. Crews receive extensive practice in performing 
all of the nominal and contingency missions tasks on one or more 
of the simulators located at the Manned Spacecraft Centre in 
Houston, Kennedy Space Centre in Florida, and the contractor 
sites. Contractor simulators arc primarily intended for engineering 
development. When the astronauts practise in the NASA simulators, 
they are made to feel that they are on actual space missions. As 
a result, when they head into space, they are already familiar with 
almost every detail of their mission and have had advance 
preparation for possible emergencies. 

NASA has simulators for training Apollo llight crews at two 
of its facilities, mentioned above. The Apollo Mission Simulator 
(AMS) is the basic and primary device for the preparation of 
Apollo flight crews (Figure 4-14), This simulator can provide 
full simulation of a mission, in the appropriate spacecraft Con- 
figuration, with the proper interface with the Mission Control 
Centre. Visual displays of the navigation devices in the cockpit 
and the out-of-the-window views will be complete for the total 
mission. The AMS training programme has been developed in 
four phases, to allow the crews to progress easily from single- 
member part tasks, through increasingly complex operations, to 
integrated ercw and flight controller training. 




Figure 4-14. The Apollo S f ; mc crew during training in the Apollo 

Mission Simulator at the Kennedy mice Centre. Left to right are Astronauts 

William A. Anders, Lunar Modul. pilot; James A. Lovell. Jr., Command 

Module pilot, and i rani Bormtm, commander. 

Part task training is accomplished on an individual basis, and 
each man becomes familiar with the basic procedures and skills 
necessary for the mission. Since all crew members receive this 
training and all crew stations are considered, the crews are 
cross-trained during this phase. 

Mission task training is a series of exercises in which tasks are 
combined to provide practice in a specific phase of the mission and 
the crews arc introduced to a co-ordinated effort with a two- or 
three-man operation. It ties the crew tasks together in a complete 
mission concept in real time, without extending the simulator session 
beyond reason for crew comfort and effective training. Missions of 
several orbits arc practised, along with sessions on entry and 
launch aborts. 

Integrated mission training exercises tie the AMS with the 
Mission Control Centre and simulated remote site. This portion 
of the training is conducted in the last few weeks before a flight, 
to train the flight controllers and to give the flight controllers and 



216 



217 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



astronauts the experience of working together. This training also 
exercises the full capability of the Manned Space Flight Network. 

In addition to familiarizing crews with the spacecraft controls 
and all aspects of a mission, the mission simulator provides training 
in procedures to be followed during a systems failure. Malfunctions 
can also be simulated at random in all phases of the training. 
Command Module Simulators 

The most important as well as extensive Command Module crew 
training is accomplished on the Command Module Simulators, one 
located at the Manned Spacecraft Centre and two at Kennedy Space 
Centre. Crew training proceeds through three distinct phases, 
progressing from basic systems familiarization and individual crew 
tasks (Phase 1), through mission simulations (Phase II) and con- 
cluding with integrated mission simulations (Phase III). 

Typically, each Command Module Simulator (CMS) training 
exercise includes a briefing and debriefing. The briefing covers 
salient aspects of the training exercise to be accomplished and 
information relating to the system or operations exercised. Crew 
questions, performance and simulation discrepancies are reviewed 
during the debriefing. 

In addition to the Command Module Simulator, the crew trains 
on three other types of simulators related to jommand module 
operations. The Command Module Procedures Simulator is used 
to familiarize the flight crew with the rendezvous and entry phase 
of the mission. The Dynamic Crew Procedures Simulator is 
utilized to obtain basic familiarity and subsequently maintain 
proficiency in crew procedures relative to the Launch Escape 
System and Service Propulsion System aborts with the attendant 
entry manoeuvre. This training also provides the crew with the 
opportunity to review with launch vehicle cognizant engineers 
nominal and abnormal booster systems operations and performance. 
Training exercises progress from normal runs with minor deviations 
to runs with one or more malfunctions inserted. 

The Command Module Pilot also utilizes the Rendezvous Docking 
Simulator at Langley Research Centre, Virginia, for familiarization 
with Command Module active (Lunar Module rescue) dockine 
procedures. Training is conducted under both day and night 
lighting situations. 



218 



Astronaut Selection and Training 

Lunar Module Simulators 

The most important and extensive Lunar Module crew training 
is accomplished on the two Lunar Module Mission Simulators, one 
each at the Manned Spacecraft Centre and the Kennedy Space 
Centre. These simulators are capable of simulating the entire LM 
mission in the appropriate configuration with external displays and 
interfaces with the CMS and the Mission Control Centre. 

LMS training is phased similarly to that employed in the CMS. 
Simultaneous with Phase I and Phase II LMS training, the crew 
accomplishes a comprehensive rendezvous training programme on 
the Lunar Module Procedures Simulator. Phase 1 frequently 
requires only one crew member in the LMS, whereas Phase II and 
Phase III emphasize lunar descent, landing site identification, ascent 
and rendezvous with the CMS. Crew briefings and dcbrielings arc 
similar to those for CMS training. 

In the Lunar Module Procedures Simulator, the crew receives its 
basic familiarization and initial proficiency training in LM rendezvous 
procedures and techniques related to the Abort Guidance System 
and the Primary Guidance and Navigation Control System. 

The Lunar Module crew uses the Translation and Docking 

Simulator to become familiar with the LM active docking technique 
(passive CM) (Figure 4-15). The crew commander develops 
proficiency in the LM docking task under various lighting and 
malfunction situations. 

There are other simulators bpsides the Command Module and 
Lunar Module Simulators, which arc important to manned space 
flight missions. Housed in a 135-foot diameter circular room at 
the Ames Research Centre is a Space Navigation Simulator, which 
duplicates every known factor of control and navigation during 
space flight. The facility contains two spacecraft models. One is 
a three-man model to conduct simulated lunar and interplanetary 
missions. The other is a one-man model for study of physiological 
and psychological factors of prolonged flight in space. The models 
are equipped with systems such as may be used on long-duration 
flights; for example, life-support (air, temperature control, food, 
etc.), navigation, guidance and power. A feature of the facility 



219 




Figure 4-15. The Translation unci 
Docking Simulator used to train 
astronauts in the rendezvous and 
docking of the Lunar Module tea nt 
stage and the Command and Service 
Modules, 




figure 4-16. Astronaut Charles 
Conrad, Jr.. commander of the 
Apollo 12, sits in the cockpit of a 
Lttnar Landing Training Vehicle 
(LLTV) during a lunar simulation 
flight. 



is its motion generator — a carefully controlled centrifuge that 
provides the acceleration and deceleration forces associated with 
lift-off from Earth, firing of rockets during flight path adjustments 
(mid-course manoeuvres), and entry into the atmosphere of Earth 
on return from the Moon and planets. 

Several simulators help perfect techniques for landing safely, 
using only rocket power, on the airless Moon. The Lunar Landing 
Research Vehicle at the Flight Research Centre in Edwards, 
California, has a jet engine that is automatically regulated and 
controlled to counterbalance five-sixths of the Earth's gravity (the 
vehicle's weight). The Lunar Landing Research Vehicle uses 
hydrogen peroxide gas jets to lower, raise and balance itself in the 
same manner as the Lunar Module is expected to operate as it 
descends to the Moon's surface. An improved version of this craft, 
looking like the LM, is called the Lunar Landing Training Vehicle 
(Figure 4-16). 



Astronaut Selection and Training 

Celestial Training 

Celestial training is given to increase the crew's capability to 
orient and control their spacecraft by use of celestial information 
and to make certain astronomical observations. In missions 
involving long flights to the Moon, the star background remains 
constant and the planets do not change position appreciably due 
to man's movement from the Earth to the Moon. However, the 
Moon and Earth are objects of prime importance in the man-to- 
the-Moon missions. 

Planetarium facilities are used for general reviews of the celestial 
sphere, including the recognition and location of prominent stars 
and constellations. The star patterns that will be visible during an 
actual mission can be simulated with planetarium equipment and 
with specially prepared out-of-l he-window optical displays. 

The planetarium's Apollo capsule simulator has four windows 
in addition to instruments designed for star observation and 
navigation. From his seat in the capsule, the astronaut operates 
a machine to bring a recognizable star pattern into the 60 degree 
diameter field of the Apollo telescope. Specific sightings may then 
be taken through the sextant which has a field of view of 1.8" 
(a full Moon is ,5 C across). A great deal of practice time is 
spent getting from one field of view to another by the shortest 
route in order to economize on imagined fuel. 

Conclusion 

When training for a specific mission is complete, the flight crews 
and all the support personnel have been thoroughly trained and 
rehearsed together in every aspect of the mission. For this reason, 
an actual mission often seems like a repeat of a fully integrated 
mission simulation. Of course, there are notable exceptions, such 
as the flight of Apollo 13. 

A crew's training, however, is not terminated with the completion 
of a space flight. Each astronaut's (light experience is valuable in 
the evaluation of the current astronaut training programme. 
Flight experience helps in determining the need to minimize or 
strengthen certain aspects of the training programme. Also, future 
flights to which astronaut crews may be assigned will make new 



220 



221 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

demands, creating the need for additional training. An astronaut 
must train and study continuously, since his occupation is one 
that places him constantly in the forefront of new knowledge. 

It must be kept in mind thai the space programme of the United 
States is very broad and includes a great deal more than the 
selection and training of astronauts. There are thousands of 
people whose jobs arc just as vital to the success of manned space 
missions as those of the astronauts. These men behind the scenes 
represent almost every field of science and engineering, and they 
participate in a remarkable variety of activities. 

Medical personnel study the reactions of the astronauts under 
physical and psychological stress. Biologists, physiologists, 
radiologists and doctors determine the physical conditions necessary 
to sustain human life during lunar exploration. Chemists and 
chemical engineers develop new materials necessary to absorb the 
tremendous heat of re-entry. Suit designers and engineers join with 
geologists to determine what the space suit should be like not only 
to sustain life but to perform the tasks required in space. 
Nutritionists design condensed foods which arc carried on extended 
missions. Aerodynamicists, structural engineers, electrical engineers, 
physicists, thermodynamicists, metallurgists, meteorologists, data 
analysts, and people trained in various other disciplines are 
extremely important to the efforts of space exploration. So it 
becomes obvious that the space programme Offers a challenge to 
many types of dedicated and trained individuals. 

Many young people write to the astronauts asking how they can 
get into the space programme. When astronaut James Lovcll, 
the Apollo 13 commander, was queried as to how he answers 
these letters, his reply was, "We answer them in a manner that 
suggests that of all things, they continue their education. We feel 
that one of the best ways that we can forward our programme is 
to have well-educated people in it. I think that their resourcefulness, 

their background, made it possible for this flight — Apollo 13 

to be completed. We say above all things, continue your education. 
We believe the space programme, if nothing else, is a stimulus to 
education and inspires young people to follow along."" 






1 



CHAPTER FIVE 

Apollo Missions 
1 Through 10 bY G. Hage 

The spectacularly successful flight of Apollo 1 1 and the landing 
of Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin on the lunar surface arc 
unquestionably man's greatest technological achievement. Not 
only did this "Great Leap for Mankind" remove the fundamental 
barriers to our travel throughout our solar system and eventually 
the universe, but it demonstrated that men and resources, properly 
directed, can solve any problem, attain any goal, no matter how 
impossible it may seem. 

When, in 1961, only nine years ago, President Kennedy 
announced the National intention of landing men on the Moon 
and returning them safely to Earth within the decade, only a 
handful of astute scientists really believed that it would be done, 
but it has been done, and the procedure has been well documented 
so that we will know precisely how it was done. The knowledge 
and experience gained in the Apollo programme can thus be 
applied to other large and complex problems. 

I would like to review with you the major steps which preceded 
the lunar landing. 

The rapid, but carefully planned progress which brought men 
to this high plateau of achievement began with the setting of the 
lunar goal and the establishment of milestones enroute to the 
Moon. Those which were set toward the end of 1963 have been 
attained and the lunar landing was accomplished within the time 
period specified and at the lowest cost estimated in 1961. 

Tn 1960 serious doubt existed concerning man's ability to live 
in space. Although authoritative opinions differed somewhat, the 
consensus was far from optimistic. Opinions were based upon 
research and experimentation in man's tolerance to the environ- 
ment known, or thought, to exist beyond Earth's atmosphere. 

223 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

Categories of particular concern were: The effects of weight- 
lessness; man's response to severe acceleration and deceleration 
loads; difficulties associated with the creation of a life-sustaining 
atmosphere; and physiological and psychological reactions to 
prolonged confinement and radiation hazards. 

In the face of these unknowns, the six subjects and 54 hours 
of manned flight accumulated in Mercury could not be considered 
as an acceptable clinical sample. Therefore, the Gemini pro- 
gramme became the essential link in the chain which would carry 
men to the Moon. 

In the Gemini programme some major steps toward Apollo 
were taken. The vital rendezvous and docking operations were 
performed, extravehicular activity was accomplished and it was 
proven that men could live and do useful work in space for up 
to 14 days with no ill effects. Training and conditioning of the 
astronauts which had begun with Mercury were carried to a high 
point in Gemini, It was learned that man was an essential part 
of this system designed to conquer a new environment, for he 
was able in numerous cases, by applying his knowledge and his 
ingenuity, to save a mission that would otherwise have had to be 
aborted. 

Many of the procedures which were developed for Gemini 
were later applied to Apollo. Guidance Technique — rolling the 
spacecraft to get lateral control for entry — was one of these. Much 
of the manned spaceflight network was operational for the Gemini 
flights, although it had to be augmented for Apollo. Launch 
techniques and mission control were developed and reached a 
high stale of readiness before the first Apollo flight. 

Within 20 months, the Gemini flights, each carrying two men, 
had made significant accomplishments. They included: the longest 
manned flight, 330 hours; the highest altitude, 742 nautical miles; 
the accumulation of 1,993 hours of manned space flight by 18 
different astronauts; 12 hours of extravehicular activity; the greatest 
number of miles travelled on one mission, 5,129,400, and the 
greatest number of revolutions about the Earth on one flight, 206. 
With this experience, the way was cleared for the Apollo pro- 
gramme. 







Figure 5-1. Apollo Spacecraft 009 

mop the Saturn Hi launch vehicle 

during preparations for Apollo/ 

Saturn 201 text flight. 



Three primary launch vehicles were developed in Apolk 
Saturn 1, IB and V. 

The Saturn 1 was originally planned to be used for manned 
flight. However, when the reorganization of 1963 took place, and 
the "Ail-Up" test concept was instituted, it was decided to 
discontinue the manufacture of the Saturn I. 

The orderly process of the Apollo programme is best revealed 

by a description of the 10 flights which preceded the flight of 

Apollo 11. Therefore, I will describe these to you in their 
chronological order. 

An orderly build-up of objectives was necessary to maximize 
the returns from the flight programme. First, the unmanned 
tests qualified the booster and the spacecraft. Then the manned 
tests proceeded in gradually increasing complexity, finally culmina- 
ting in the landing on the Moon. 



224 



225 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



APOLLO/SATURN 201 

Apollo/Saturn 201 was the first flight of the uprated Saturn 
launch vehicle, the Saturn IB. It carried, for the first time, both 
the S-IB first stage and the S-1VB second stage, Flight separation 
of the launch, vehicle and the spacecraft took place for the first 
time in a non-orbital mode. The Command Module was recovered, 
the Service Propulsion System burned and restarted and the Block I 
Apollo spacecraft was tested in flight, all for the first time (Figure 
J-/). 

Many objectives were assigned to this flight and all of them 
were successfully accomplished. In the interests of economy of 
both funds and time, as many tests were conducted as possible on 
each flight. In the event that all could not be accomplished, 
others could be substituted, and those not performed, put forward 
to the next flight. 

As the first flight test of the launch vehicle and the Block I 
spacecraft, this flight demonstrated their structural integrity and 
their compatibility. Separation of the S-IVB stage Instrument 
Unit and spacecraft from the S-IB stage was performed according 
to plan as was the separation of the launch escape system and 
the boost protective cover of the Command Service Module. The 
Command Module made a smooth removal from the Service 
Module, 

Flight operation information was obtained on the launch vehicle. 
the propulsion, guidance and control, and electrical systems. The 
hc;u shield was tested for entry from low Earth orbit at approxi- 
mately 28,000 feet per second. The emergency detection system 
was checked out in an open-loop configuration. 

This flight was also the first flight to operate under the newly 
installed Mission Director concept, and the first to be controlled 
from the new Mission Control Centre. It proved not only the 
competence of the hardware but also the viability of the support 
facilities for launch, mission conduct and Command Module 
recovery (Figure 5-2). 

226 



fiN? \ 



*< 



Figure 5-2. A Navy helicopter hovers over the Apollo Spacecraft 009 

Command Module as a frogman learn prepares it for recovery. The 

flotation collar increases the spacecraft's buoyant y. 



All of the foregoing tests as well as many others which would 
be performed on later flights, were designed to ascertain the readi- 
ness of the equipment for manned missions. Particularly important 
on this flight were the performance of the spacecraft Control 
System; the Service Propulsion System in operation for a minimum 
of 20 seconds after at least two minutes in the space environment, 
its ability to restart and its ability to operate for 200 seconds and 
shut down; the Reaction Control Systems of the Command Module 
and the Service Module; the total environmental control system; 
the communications system. 

The recovery operation including the parachute recovery sub- 
system and all other recovery aids were exercised for the first 
time with complete success. 



227 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

Unmanned, the flight took only 37 minutes, yet with a single 
flight proved the integrity and compatibility of the systems and 
hardware. The launch vehicle placed the Command Service Module 
in an Earth intersecting orbit with an apogee of 266 nautical mites. 
The spacecraft engine was then fired twice to increase velocity and 
the Command Module landed in the Atlantic Ocean and was 
recovered by U.S.S. Boxer on February 27, 1966. 

APOLLO/SATURN 202-203 

The two following flights, with Apollo/Saturn 202 and 203, had 
similar objectives, but it was the function of each to do more 
detailed testing, 203, for instance, was used to check out the 
systems needed to restart the S-IVB stage and to determine the 
action of liquid hydrogen in orbit. The heat shield was subjected 
to additional testing on 202 as the flight apogee of 617 nautical 
miles brought it back into the atmosphere at a velocity of 28,500 
feet per second. 

The continuous venting system of the S-IVB LH- was evaluated 
as was the chilldown and recirculation system of this stage, and the 
fluid dynamics of the tank. Heat transfer into liquid oxygen 
through the tank wall was examined and data was obtained for a 
propcllant thermodynamic model. Both the S-IVB and the 
Instrument Unit were checked out in orbit. 

The orbital operation of the launch vehicle attitude control and 
thermal control systems was tested. Tests were also made of the 
ability of the launch vehicle guidance system to insert a payload 
into orbit (Figure 5-3). 

Unusual features of the 203 flight included the simulation of 
the S-IVB engine restart in orbit and the use of hydrogen continuous 
vents to accelerate payload in orbit for settling the LH- of the 
S-IVB stage. This was the first orbital flight of the S-IVB and 
of the redesigned, lighter weight S-IB stage. The most weight to 
that dale was inserted into orbit by the U.S. — 28 tons. However, 
no spacecraft was carried aboard AS-203 which was launched 
July 5, 1966, and performed four revolutions of the Earth at 





Figure 5-3. Saturn lii /<//«//. 



Figure 5-4. Apulia f Saturn Mixtion 

203 liflofl. lis primary abjective wta 

the orbital behaviour of liauid 

hydrogen? 



approximately 101 nautical miles distance. An aerodynamic fairing 
weighing 3,700 lbs. was attached to the instrument unit and 
contained a cryogenic experiment. 

Since recovery of the vehicle was not planned, a pressure test 
above the design value was conducted and the vehicle broke up. 

AS-202 flew after 203, and was launched August 25, 1966. It 
carried a spacecraft which went through rigorous testing of ii^ 
separation qualities and of its subsystems. 

These three [lights man-rated the Saturn IB as well as the heat 
shield and the Command and Service Modules. Additional tests 
conducted on 203 looked far ahead at the examination of the 
venting of spent stages; an important clement in potential future 
programmes (Figure 5-4). 

Fuel cells were first used on Apollo/Saturn 202 as was the Apollo 
Guidance and Navigation System. This was the first test of the 
unified "S" band high gain antenna, and the first recovery of an 
Apollo space craft in the Pacific Ocean, after a one-hour 3 3 -minute 
flight. 



228 



229 




<f polio/ Saturn V HI ml]. 



APOLLO 4 



The flight of Apollo 4 was undoubtedly the most important 
flight of the Apollo test programme; this was the first (light of the 
Saturn V launch vehicle, and it accomplished every one of Us 
objectives flawlessly. From liftoff at Cape Kennedy to recovery 
eight and one-half hours later in the Pacific, all systems behaved 
perfectly. 

Before the "all-up" llight lest programme was instituted, four 
flights were scheduled to perform the tests which were accom- 
plished tin the single flight of Apollo 4. All three stages of the 
vehicle were tested at once. The spacecraft i henna I qualities were 
testetl at an entry velocity of 36,537 feet per second, equal to lunar 
return velocity. The new hatch, designed after the spacecraft lire 
at the beginning of that year, 1967, was also tested; restart of the 
S-IVB as well as burns of the Service Module propulsion system 
were successfully conducted (Figure 5-5). 





Figure 5-6. 

The mission of Apollo 4 was unusual in many ways. It saw 
the first launch from Pad 39A at Cape Kennedy, the site especially 
designed to launch the huge Saturn V to the Moon. As well as 
being the first flight of the Saturn V it was also the first of the 
S-IC stage, the S-ll stage and of a Lunar Module test article. The 
S-IVB stage was restarted in orbit and the Service Propulsion 
System performed the first no-ullage start. The return velocity 
from the Moon was successfully achieved for a full test of the 
simulated Block II heat shield. The Command and Communications 
system had its first flight test as did the Apollo Range Instrumentation 
Aircraft. And for the first time A polio-con figured ships were used 
in the communications net. 

The Lunar Module test article was a "boiler-plate" test article 
instrumented to measure vibration, acoustics, and structural integrity 
at 36 points in the spacccraft-LM adaptor. Data was telemetered 



23(1 



231 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

to the ground stations during the first 12 minutes of flight. The 
test article used a flight-type descent stage without landing gear. 
Its propcllant tanks were filled with water/glycol and freon to 
simulate fuel and oxidizer, respectively. The ascent stage was a 
ballasted aluminium structure containing no flight systems. 

This flight was launched November 9, 1967, and lasted for 
8 hours 37 minutes and 8 seconds; it was recovered in the 
Pacific by the U.S.S. Bennington {Figure 5-6). 

This was a "textbook" flight, perfect in every way, and it 
confirmed not only the integrity of the hardware and systems, but 
also the value of the "all-up" test philosophy. This single flight 
moved the lunar landing almost a year closer to accomplishment. 

APOLLO 5 

The flight of Apollo 5 was primarily for the verification of the 
Lunar Module and its ascent and descent engines. 

The Saturn IB carried the Lunar Module into its first flight 
unmanned. This fantastic mechanism, the Lunar Module, designed 



Figure 5-7. Apollo 5 liftoff. 




Apollo Missions 1 Through JO 

to operate only outside Earth's atmosphere, performed well. An 
unscheduled hold of 3 hours 48 minute occurred during the 
countdown at T-2 hours 30 minutes. The hold was caused by two 
problems: a failure in the freon supply in the environmental 
control system ground support equipment, and a power supply 
failure in the digital data acquisition system. 

The flight of the SA-204 Launch Vehicle was according to plan. 
The LM-I spacecraft also performed according to plan until the 
time of the first descent propulsion engine burn. The engine started 
as planned but was shut down after slightly more than four seconds 
by the LM guidance subsystem when the velocity did not build 
up at the predicted rate. The problem was analyzed and was 
determined to involve guidance software only, and the decision was 
made to go to an alternate mission plan that provided for 
accomplishing the minimum requirements necessary to meet the 
primary objectives of the mission (Figure 5-7) . 

The major difference between the planned and alternate missions 
was the deletion of a long (12-minute) descent engine burn and 
the substitution of Programme Reader Assembly control for primary 



Figure 5-8. Complex 37 blockhouse during the Apolh 5 countdown. 




Pioneering in Outer Space 

guidance control during the propulsion burns. During all bums 
thus conducted there was no attitude control; only rale damping 
was provided. The alternate plan was successfully executed by 
the flight operations team {Figure 5-8). 

Sufficient data were obtained to proceed with the mission 
schedule and to man-rate the Lunar Module. The flight was 
launched on January 23, 1968. ;ind lasted 7 hours and 50 
minutes. No recovery was planned. 

APOLLO 6 

Apollo 6, the second unmanned flight of the Saturn V, was a 
complex and interesting one from which a great deal was learned. 
It was planned to be the same as Apollo 4, GO be sure that the 
perfection of that flight was not a "random*' success. The launch 
vehicle developed a massive longitudinal oscillation and the 
S-IVB did not restart. A high iipogcc had been designed into this 
flight in order to simulate re-entry from the Moon. Upon the 
failure of the third stage to restart, the service propulsion system 
of the spacecraft, operating on a contingency plan, pushed the 
spacecraft to an apogee of 12,020 nautical miles. Although only 
32,000 instead of 36,000 feet per second entry velocity was 
attained, this speed was considered adequate for a heat shield test. 

The spacecraft, however, worked very well throughout the 
mission and as telemetry was returned concerning the activity of 
the launch vehicle, one of the world's greatest technological detective 
stories unfolded. Although no part of the launch vehicle was 
recovered, film and telemetry information were available. Within 
three months it had been established that four anomalies had 
occurred in flight and a number of fixes were instituted {Figi&c 
5-9). 

First, a longitudinal oscillation descriptively called "POGO" 
had occurred. Second, a film revealed that a piece of the shroud 
covering the Lunar Module had fallen away. The third anomaly, 
a premature shutdown of two of the five second stage engines, was 
found to have been the result of first a lire in one engine and then 
of faulty wiring in an interconnection. The fourth, the failure of 




Figure 5-V. Apollo 6 prior in liftoff. 



Figure .WW. Apnlh (5 tiflog. 



the third stage to restart, was traced to a fire in this engine during 
its first burn. 

The Marshall Space Flight Centre undertook a study of "POGO" 
and established that while oscillation had been noted in some of 
the live engines operating on Apollo 4, and while the statistical 
probability of all five engines operating in a destructive resonance 
pattern at the same lime was highly unlikely, this appears to be 
what actually did happen on Apollo 6. In order to prevent a 
recurrence, bubbles of helium were inserted in the fuel line's 
accumulators in order to change the resonant frequency or the 
lines and thus prevent any oscillation from building up. The 
shroud was found to have blown apart from internal pressure — 
vent holes cured that problem. The engine fires resulted from 
the breakage of a flexible line from vibrations that could only occur 
in space. Flex lines were replaced with solid lines. These were 
the first and, so far, the last problems with the Saturn V launch 
vehicles. The Command Module landed within 50 miles of the 
targeted landing point and was recovered in good condition by 
U.S.S. Okinawa [Figure 5-10). 



234 



235 





■A 



- - ■ * 



| Figure $-11. Apollo 7 mating. Apollo 

Spacecraft 10 I Command Service 

Mutinies being moved into position 

lor mating with Spacecraft Lunar 

Module Adaptor (SLAyS. 



APOLLO 7 



Apollo 7 was the first manned flight in the Apollo Programme. 
Its overwhelming success generated enough enthusiasm to carry 
men to the Moon within nine months. This Saturn S-1B vehicle 
was launched successfully from the Cape on October II, 1968, 
carrying Wally Schirra, Don Eiscle and Walter Cunningham on a 
H).8-day journey. 

Accomplishments included eight successful burns of the service 
propulsion system. A rendezvous of the Command Service 
Module with the S-1VB stage brought the two spacecraft within 
70 feet of each other. On this mission we enjoyed our first -live 
TV shows from space — seven from Earth orbit (Figure 5-1 J). 

All primary Apollo 7 mission objectives were successfully 
accomplished. In addition, all planned detailed test objectives 
plus three that were not originally scheduled were satisfactorily 
accomplished. 



236 



-00 Q 



^ 







Figure 5-12. Apollo 7 astronauts relax daring suiting up. Front to rear: 
Walter M. Schirra. Jr., Donn F. Eisele and Walter Cunningham. 

As part of the effort to alleviate fire hazard prior to liftoff and 
during initial flight, the Command Module cabin atmosphere was 
composed of 60% oxygen and 40% nitrogen. During this period 
the crew was isolated from the cabin by the suit circuit, which 
contained 100% oxygen. Shortlv after liftoff, the cabin 
atmosphere was gradually enriched to pure oxygen at a pressure 
of 5 psi. 

Hot meals and relatively complete freedom of motion in the 
spacecraft enhanced crew comfort over previous Mercury and 
Gemini flights. The Service Module main engine proved itself by 
accomplishing the longest and shortest manned burns and the 
largest number of inflight restarts. This engine is the largest 
thrust engine to be manually thrust vector-controlled (Figure 5-12). 

Manual tracking, navigation and control achievements included 
full optical rendezvous, daylight platform realignment, optical 
platform alignments, pilot attitude control of launch vehicle and 
orbital determination by sextant tracking of another vehicle by the 
spacecraft. The Apollo 7 mission also accomplished the first 

237 







Figure 5-13. Apollo 7 astronauts, left to right. Wallet M. Sihirra. Jr.. 

Dunn F. Ehck' ami Walter Cunningham, leaving the recovery helicopter 

on board U.S.S. Essex. 

digital auto pilot-control ted engine bum and the iirst manned 
S-Bund communications. 

All launch vehicle systems performed satisfactorily throughout 
their expected lifetimes. All spacecraft systems continued to 
function throughout the mission with some niinor anomalies. Each 
anomaly was countered by a backup subsystem, a change in 
procedures, isolation or careful monitoring so that no loss of system 
support resulted. Temperatures and consumables usages remained 
within specified limits throughout the mission (Figure 5-1 .>'). 

During this mission we gained an appreciation, not only of the 
skills but also of the humour of the astronauts. The crew developed 
colds while they were in orbit and there was considerable discussion 
during the mission of the possibility of ear damage on landing, 
but this did not occur. The crew, the launch vehicle and the 
spacecraft performed faultlessly throughout the mission. 

238 



Apollo Missions 1 Through 10 

APOLLO 8 

While Apollo 7 relumed the excitement of manned flight to the 
programme, it was Apollo 8, with man's first departure from his 
own planet to fly around the Moon, thai caught the imagination 
of the people of the world. The first manned flight of the Saturn 
V, Vehicle 503, proved conclusively that the detective work that 
had been done after the flight of Apollo 6 had been successful. 
Apollo 8's primary objectives were to check out the vehicle with 
modifications to the J-2 engines, and the changes which had been 
occasioned by "POGO" and its consequences (Figure 5-14). 

The mission was launched from Launch Complex 39A on 
December 21, 1968. It was recovered in the Pacific Ocean on 
December 27, 1968, by U.S.S. Yorktown. 

All primary Apollo 8 mission objectives were completely 
accomplished. Every detailed test objective was accomplished as 
well as four which were not originally planned. 



Figure 5-14. Erection ami mating 
of A polio/ Saturn 503. S-IC static. 



Figure 5-15. Apollo H on 
launching site. 






Pioneering in Outer Space 

The AS- 503 Space Vehicle featured several configuration details 
for the first time, including: a Block II Apollo Spacecraft on a 
Saturn V Launch Vehicle, an O-FL gas burner on the S-1VB for 
propel lant tank repressurization prior to engine restart, open-loop 
propcltant utilization systems on the S-II and S-IVB stages, and 
jettisonable Spacecraft Lunar Module Adaptor panels. 

For this first Apollo flight lo the lunar vicinity, Mission 
Operations successfully coped with lunar launch opportunity and 
launch window constraints and injected the S-IVB into a lunar 
"slingshot" trajectory lo prevent reconlacl with the spacecraft or 
impact on the Moon or Earth. Apollo 8 provided man his first 
opportunity to personally view the back side of the Moon, view 
the Moon from as little as 60 NM away, view the Earth from over 
200,000 NM away, and re-enter the Earth's atmosphere through 
a lunar return corridor at lunar return velocity. 

All launch vehicle systems performed satisfactorily. All spacecraft 
systems continued to function satisfactorily throughout the mission 
(Figure 5-15), 



l-'ig tire 5-17, Thirteen* frame 
sequence of the Moon from 
Apollo 10. Tlie darker inaria 
contrast with tlie tighter high- 
iiiiuh. The small circulur, more 
completely surrounded by high- 
lands, h the Sea of Crises. The 
largest terraced crater shown is 
Langrenus. 



I 



I 


Figure 


5-16, The crater Lim- 






grains 


its photographed from 






Apollo 3 at tin altitude of nearly 






150 nautical miles. The small. 






sharp 


circular crater nearby is 
Lungrentis C. 


















k 






. 


h 


m 




% 


V 




• 


' 




H 




•• 





Apollo Missions 1 Through 10 

Lunar photography was an important part of the assignment 
of Astronauts Frank Borman, James A. Lovell Jnr. and William 
A, Anders. Although not a primary objective, astronaut 
photographs of the Earth, taken from above the Moon, were one 
of the treasures collected on this flight. For the first time we saw 
ourselves as a whole world (Figures 5-16 and 5-17). 

Only five non-critical parts of the complex hardware which 
performed Apollo 8 failed — a percentage of reliability which is 
about 99.999996. The "Awareness Programme" carried out by 
all of the major contractors who manufactured the millions of 
pans and thousands of systems for Apollo has proven its effective- 
ness (Figure 5-18). 

APOLLO 9 

The Earth orbital flight of Apollo 9, with Astronauts James 
McDivitt, David Scott and Russell Schwcickarl on board, was 

actually as innovative and critical a flight as Apollo 8 had been, 
for the Lunar Module was flown manned for the first time. Beyond 
the imaginings of any of ou science fictionecrs, this strange craft 
went through its paces with a perfection rarely achieved with 



Figure 5-19. View of the docked 

Apollo 9 Command ' Service 

Module and Lunar Module 

Spider" during Astronaut David 

figure 5-18. Apollo 9 crew, from left. «■ Scott's extravehicular activity 

lames McDivitt, David Scott and Russell on lite fourth day of the Apulia 

Schwetckart. 9 Eurth-orhital mis: ion. 




Pioneering in Outer Space 

anything so revolutionary — so completely new. The Lunar Module 
had gone through live changes as it evolved on the drawing board, 
and changes were incorporated even after its first unmanned test, 

A mild virus respiratory illness which infected all of the Apollo 
9 crew members was the primary factor in the decision to reschedule 
the launch from February 28 to 1 1:00 EST. March 3, 1969. This 
decision to reschedule was made February 27, 1969, in order to 
assure the good health of the astronauts. The countdown was 
accomplished without any unscheduled holds and was the fourth 
Saturn V on-time launch. 

The Apollo 9 launch was the first Saturn V/A polio Spacecraft 
in full lunar mission configuration and carried the largest payload 
ever placed in orbit. Since Apollo 9 was the first manned 
demonstration of Lunar Module systems performance, many firsts 
were achieved. These were highlighted by Command and Service 
Module and Lunar Module-active rendezvous and docking, the first 
Apollo extravehicular activity, and intervchicalar transfer in shirt 
sleeve environment. This flight also contained the first demonstration 
of S-IVB second orbital restart capability (Figure 5-19). 

In the third day of the mission, Lunar Module Pilot Schwcickart 
was struck by nausea and this illness caused a small delay from 
the normal timeline in the donning of pressure suits and in the 
transfer to the Lunar Module. It also caused shortening of the 
proposed extravehicular activity plan. Later the next morning. 
Commander McDivitt assessed Lunar Module Pilot Schweickarl's 
condition as excellent and with ground control concurrence decided 
to extend his extravehicular activities. 

The Apollo 9 crew had remarkable success in sighting objects 
using the Crewman Optical Alignment Sight. Their success seems 
to confirm the thesis that the visual acuity of the human eye is 
increased in space. One example is their sighting of the Pegasus 
II satellite at a range of approximately 1,1X10 miles {Figure 5-20), 

All primary objectives were successfully accomplished on the 
Apollo 9 flight. All mandatory and principal detailed test objectives 
were accomplished, except two, and these two were partially 
accomplished. One secondary detailed lest objective, the S-IVB 
propcllant dump and safing, was not accomplished. 



242 




Figure 5-20. The Pegasut II suu-Hite sighted 
tram Apotlc 9 at « range <>l approximately 

1 000 miles. 



All launch vehicle systems performed satisfactorily with the 
exception of inability to dump propellants following the third 
S-IVB burn. All spacecraft systems continued to function 
satisfactorily throughout the mission. No major anomalies occurred. 
Those minor discrepancies which did occur were primarily 
procedural and were corrected in flight with no mission impact. 
or involved instrumentation errors on quantities which could be 
checked by other means. 

An experiment of considerable importance in future programmes 
was carried aboard this tlight. the multi-spectral camera equipment 
for experiment S065, Using filters of different wave lengths, 
photographs of the Earth were taken by ihe astronauts while the 
same Earth areas were being photographed from high and low 
Hying aircraft. Apollo 9 was landed in the Atlantic after 10 days, 
I hour and 53 seconds of flight and was recovered by the L'.S.S. 
Guadalcanal on March 13, 1969 (Figure 5-21). 



M3 



**J 



Apollo Missions 1 Through 10 




■ 




Figure 5-21. Apollo 9 recovery. Astronaut Russett L. Sckwetckart on 

open spacecraft prior to joining David K, Scott m life raft. 

Figure S-22. Apollo 10 crewmen, from left, Eugene C email, John Young 
and Thomas Stafford, with vehicle in background. 





- I? 

< 21 



*■' 





APOLLO 10 

The dress rehearsal for the lunar landing, Apollo 10 was 
launched on May 18, 1969, from Cape Kennedy with Saturn V 506 
carrying the Command and Service Modules and the Lunar Module 
on a flight around the Moon. For the first time, all of the equipment 
destined for the lunar landing was tested in lunar orbit, and every- 
thing worked. It is not possible to estimate the worth of the 
confidence which has been generated by this series of Apollo 
successes in one of man's most difficult and complex endeavours. 

Astronauts Eugene Cernan, John Young and Thomas Stafford 
orbited the Moon at 60 nautical miles. Stafford and Cernan entered 
the Lunar Module and flew it down to within 47,000 feet of the 
lunar surface (Figure 5-22). 

The most complex mission yet flown in the Apollo Programme 
was performed in the full lunar landing configuration, paralleling 
as closely as possible the lunar landing mission profile and 
timeline. Extensive photographic coverage of candidate lunar 
landing sites provided excellent data and crew training material 
for subsequent missions. This was the fifth on-time Saturn V 
launch. 

Nineteen colour television transmissions (totalling 5 hours 52 
minutes) of remarkable quality provided a world audience the best 
exposure yet to spacecraft activities and spectacular views of the 
Earth and the Moon. The Lunar Module pericynthion of 47.000 
feet was the closest man had come to the Moon, and the crew 
reported excellent visual perception of the proposed landing areas 
{Figure 5-23), 

The mission was nominal in all major respects. Translunar and 
transcarth navigational accuracy was so precise that only two of 
seven allocated midcourse corrections were required, one each during 
translunar and transcarth coast periods. Significant perturbations 
in lunar orbit, resulting from differences in gravitational potential, 
were noted. All launch vehicle systems performed satisfactorily 
{Figure 5-24), 

245 




Figure 5-23. Photograph taken 
minutes in- jure (tacking of Apollo 10 
thowi ascent tUtge of the Lunar 
Module. Rendezvous rudur dish ii 
li Hdied in the corner of photograph. 



Figure 5-24. View from Apollo 
10. Bruce, the prominent crater 
near the bottom of this scene, n 
uhoui six kilometres in diumtter. 



Spacecraft systems generally per Formed satisfactorily throughout 
the mission. One exception was the No. I fuel ceil which had to 
be isolated from the main bus, but work-around procedures made 
it available for load sharing, if required. Another problem was the 
occasional difficulty with direct Lunar Module to Earth 
communications. Two incidents of unexpected motion occurred 
prior to and during Lunar Module staging. Data indicated an 
unscheduled transfer of the abort guidance system mode from 
"Attitude Hold" to "Automatic" (Figure 5-25). 

A number of minor discrepancies occurred which were either 
primarily procedural and were corrected In flight with no mission 
impact, or which involved instrumentation errors on quantities 
thai could be checked by other means. Two cameras that 
malfunctioned were returned to Earth for failure analysis. All 
detailed test objectives were met, except for two secondary 
spacecraft objectives that were partially accomplished. Five other 
major activities not defined as detailed test objectives were fully 
accomplished. 

246 






/■inure 5-25. International Astronomical 
Union Crater No. 302 on the lunar 
fur tide. Photographed from Apollo 10. 



Figure 5-26.Vie\e of Moon from 
Apollo 10. The large dark area 
near the centre ol photograph 
is the Sea of Tranquillity. 



Flight crew performance was outstanding. Their health and 
spirits remained excellent throughout the mission. Unexpected 
bonuses from the mission were several sightings of individual 
spacecraft Lunar Module adaptor panels, three sightings o! die 
jettisoned descent stage as it urbited the Moon at low altitude, and 
a few sightings of the receding S-IVB stage with the naked eye, 
once from nearly 4000 miles as it tumbled and flashed in the 
sunlight (Figure 5-26). 

The years of hard work, innovation and zealous performance 
by almost half a million people in government, science and industry 
were soon to be rewarded, when Apollo 1 1 landed on the Moon 
and returned safely to Earth. 

These 10 flights of the Saturn launch vehicle, and the four 

flights of the manned spacecraft had thoroughly tested the men. 
machines and systems which would bring mankind to the 
demonstration of his highest efficiency — and fulfil the ancient 
dream of walking on another body in our solar system. 

247 



CHAPTER SIX 



The Lunar Landing 

by G. Hage 



"HOUSTON. TRANQUILLITY BASE HERE. THE EAGLE 
HAS LANDED." 

These words proclaimed that the impossible dream of man 
for countless generations had come true. For the first time in 
history, man had left his planet Earth and landed on another 
celestial body. 

In 1961, the President of the United States, John F. Kennedy, 
stated that America should commit itself to achieving the goal 
of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to Earth 
before the end of the decade. Thus, the manned exploration of 
the Moon became the national goal of the emerging government- 
industry space team of the United Slates. And in less than a 
decade man's footprint on the surface of the Moon was an 
accomplished reality. 

The flight of Apollo 1 1, the first manned landing on the Moon, 
began on the morning of July 16, 1969. Exactly on schedule, 
Apollo 1 I lifted off from Launch Pad 39A at Cape Kennedy, 
Florida, to start the trip to the Moon (Figure 6-1). Atop the 
363-foot, 7.6 million-pound Saturn V launch vehicle, the astronauts 
were strapped to their couches in the Command Module. These 
three dedicated men had been selected by the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration as the crew of Apollo II. Neil Arm- 
strong, the mission commander, was to be the first man in history 
to set foot on the surface of the Moon. Edwin E. Aldrin, the 
Lunar Module pilot, was the second member of the lunar landing 
team. Michael Collins, the Command Module pilot, would remain 



248 



APOLLO 11 LIFTOFF 

JULY 16, 1969 





Figure 6-1. Apollo II liftoff. 
alone in his spacecraft orbiting above the Moon during the 28 hours 
his fellow astronauts descended to the lunar surface and returned. 

Watching the launch of Apollo 1 1 was a world-wide television 
audience and an estimated one million eyewitnesses. Three and 
one-half miles away on the sandflats of the Kennedy Space Centre 
or seated in grandstands were half the members of the United 
States Congress and more than 3,000 newsmen from 56 countries. 

After several static seconds for thrust buildup, Apollo 1 1 lifted 
from the launch pad and moved up past the retracted gantry, 
gaining speed as it climbed. The events of the pre-orbital phase— 
the roll sequence, jettison of the launch escape tower, first stage 
rocket cut-off, second stage burn, second stage cut-off and third 
stage burn — took place with clockwork precision. With the shut- 
down of the third stage rocket engine, both spacecraft and the 
third stage entered a 103 nautical mile circular orbit. All systems 
operated satisfactorily. 

249 



CM SM SEFUMHON 



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IHIECIION 


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1 


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CSM HP »i 


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I CSt « NM 




'" ^\ BBAHIW 


LM INSfBTIOH fjA 
9«45NM ORBIT: JX 


<Wp\W-- dcounc 


LM ASCENT 




CSM ^ 


,_^~~., 0ESCENT OBB! 

7^ V IKIEBKON 



S-tVB 7no BUOKCUtOFF 
T»»MSIUK»B INJECTION III 



S C SCNMtIM TBAKSPOSIT10N 
OOCKINC 1 EJICINM 



CM SPlASHBOWM 



S IVB RESIOLiai PROREIUHT OWP 
SUHGSHOT AND SAFING 



PO*FRE0 0ESC1HT 
IMMTIOIt ' 



i5'6S NM 
LUNAR ORBIT 



60MJONM ^, 
lit 7 ORBITS 



SPS EVASIVE MANEUVER 
FREE RETURN TRAIfClORl 



Figure 6-2, Apollo II Flight Profile. 

The crew spent the next full orbit and part of the second in 
an engineering, communication and equipment checkout. Over a 
point north-east of Australia, Mission Control at Houston, Texas, 
gave them "go" for insertion into their translunar course (Figure 
6-2). Re-firing the third stage engine increased velocity to roughly 
24,200 miles per hour, sufficient to break out of low-Earth orbit 
into a free-return trajectory. This trajectory was an elliptical course 
that, if undisturbed, would loop the spacecraft around the Moon 
and bring it back to Earth. 

Once on course and moving farther and farther from Earth, 
the crew set about separating the Command Service Module 
(CSM) from the third stage which still housed the Lunar Module 
(LM) in the protective shelter of the panelled adaptor section. 
First, the astronauts fired explosive bolls which caused the main 






The Lunar Landing 

spacecraft, called Columbia, to separate from the adaptor and 
blow apart the four panels that make up its sides, exposing the 
LM, code-named Eagle, Then, the CSM was pitched 180 
degrees and flown slowly back for docking with the LM. The 
LM separated from the third stage, docked with the CSM, 
and the newly joined components moved a safe distance 
from the stage. Mission Control then ordered the third stage 
to dump its remaining Eucl. This manoeuvre, which reduced its 
weight, caused the stage to propel itself into a course around the 
Moon and on into solar orbit. The mated Columbia and Eagle 
continued on toward the Moon. 

With the flight on schedule and proceeding satisfactorily, the 
astronauts were informed by Mission Control later in the day 
that the first scheduled mid-course correction was considered 
unnecessary. 

On the morning of July 17, Mission Control gave the Apollo 
crew a brief review of the morning news and informed the at 
about the progress of the Russian spacecraft Luna 15. Shortly 
after noon, a mid-course correction was made with a three-second 
burn, sharpening the course of the spacecraft and testing the engine 
thai would be used to get it in and out of lunar orbit. That 
night, the astronauts began their first scheduled colour telecast, 
showing a view of the Earth from a distance of about 128.0(H) 
nautical miles. 

The third day into the mission, July 18. was -.pent doing house- 
keeping chores, such as charging batteries, dumping waste water, 
and checking fuel and oxygen reserves. Once again. Mission 
Control informed the astronauts that course corrections scheduled 
for that afternoon would not be necessary. At 4.40 Eastern 
Daylight Time one of the clearest television transmissions ever 
sent from space was begun, with the spacecraft 175,000 nautical 
miles from Earth and 48,000 from the Moon. With the telecast 
in progress, the hatch to the Lunar Module was opened and 
Armstrong and Aldrin squeezed through the 30-inch-wide tunnel 
to inspect it. 

Though it left Earth orbit speeding at more than 24,000 miles 
per hour, relative to Earth, the gravitational pull of Earth steadily 



;.m> 



251 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

slowed the spacecraft until its velocity had been cut to slightly 
over 2000 miles per hour on the night of July 18, At this low 
point, the Apollo spacecraft was approximately 34,000 nautical 
miles from the Moon, a zone where the pull of the Moon's 
gravitational field is stronger than that of Earth and the spacecraft, 
accordingly, began lo pick up speed. 

Early afternoon of the next day, July 19, permission was given 
by Mission Control for lunar orbit insertion. As the spacecraft 
passed completely behind the Moon and out of radio contact 
with the Earth for the first lime, the 20,500-pound-lhrust engine 
was fired for about six minutes to slow the vehicle so that it 
could be captured by lunar gravity. The resulting orbit ranged 
from a low of 61.3 nautical miles to a high of 168.8 nautical 
miles. Later, a second burn of the main engines was employed 
for 17 seconds to stabilize the orbil at 54 by 66 nautical miles and 
the spacecraft began circling the Moon every two hours. 

On the morning of July 20, Armstrong and Aldrin crawled into 
the Lunar Module and powcred-up the spacecraft. At 1.46 p.m. 
EST, the LM was separated from the Command Module in which 
Michael Collins continued to orbit the Moon. 

An hour and 22 minutes later, the descent manoeuvre began 
with a retrograde burn of the LM's desceni engine that placed 
the LM in an elliptical orbit with a low point 8.5 nautical miles 
above the lunar surface. When the orbital low point was reached, 
the powcred-deseem stage started. This involved dropping the 
LM out of orbit into an arching glide with a terminus on the 
Moon's surface. The glide path had two check points: one called 
"hi-gate" at an altitude of 7,600 feel and 26,000 feet lateral!) 
from "lo-gatc", 500 feet in altitude and adjacent to the landing 
zone. During the glide the spacecraft's velocity would be cut 
from 342 miles an hour to about 50 miles an hour and eventually 
to almost zero. The descent went as planned and as the LM 
reached "lo-gate", its attitude approached the vertical to the 
Moon's surface. As the LM dropped below 500 feet in altitude, 
the crew transmitted a staccato numerical report to Mission Control 
on its rate of drop and lateral movement. 












The Lunar Landing 

Just seconds from touchdown, there was a break in communi- 
cations providing what can only be described as very tense 
moments. The next word heard from the crew was that the 
Eagle had landed. 

The full story of what actually happened became known after 
the astronauts returned to Earth. When Neil Armstrong first saw 
the landing site through the window of the LM, he was not 
absolutely sure where he was. Most of the landmarks he had 
studied and memorized were actually behind him and of no help. 
Because of the previous training Armstrong had received in the 
simulators, however, he knew exactly what must be done. Taking 
over partial control from the LM's autopilot, he ordered the 
computer to keep the spacecraft at a steady altitude and gave 
the LM a heading, reducing the braking effect of the descent engine 
and letting the craft surge forward at high speed. After clearing 
a large crater which appeared extremely rugged wilh boulders 
of five to 10 feet in diameter and larger and then a second, smaller 
crater 100 feet in diameter, Armstrong brought the descent engine's 
braking power into full play again in order to land at a level, 
relatively clear site. 

During the last 40 feet of descent, the descent engine exhaust 
sent up a cloud of Moon dust engulfing the LM. The particles 
flew at low angles and high velocity with no atmosphere to buoy 
or impede them. As soon as the engine was cut off, however, 
the view from the window of the LM was clear again. 

This manoeuvre took the astronauts more than 1 ,000 feel beyond 
where ihc computerized autopilot would have set them down. 
When ihc descent engine was cut off, there was only 30 seconds 
worth of fuel remaining. 

After touchdown, Armstrong began running through his post- 
landing check list and told the flight controllers at Mission Control 
that he had shut down the engine of the descent stage and that 
he had removed his controller from a neutral position and had 
programmed an attitude instruction into his onboard computer 
which would cause a reaction control thruster to fire as an audible 
cue that the Lunar Module might be tipping over. Both his 
primary guidance and navigation systems and his abort guidance 



252 



253 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

system were ready to be operated by computer if any equipment 
malfunctioned. 

The controllers on the ground and the crewmen in the module 
were very busy for the next few minutes as critical ■'stay-no-stay" 
times were relayed. Finally, a "stay" for one revolution of the 
Command Module, orbiting 60 miles above the lunar surface, 
was given. Mission Control radioed instructions to reset the mission 
timer as the LM crew continued to prepare for their exit from the 
Lunar Module to the lunar surface. Concurrently, preparations 
were made to prepare the spacecraft for ascent from the lunar 
surface. By this time, the crew had been on the surface for 
more than an hour. 

Aldrin began describing the view from his window of the Lunar 
Module: ", , . it looks like a collection of just about every variety 
of shapes, angularities and granularities, every variety of rock 
you could find. The colours vary pretty much depending on how 
you're looking. . . . There doesn't appear to be much of a general 
colour at all; however, it looks as though some of the rocks and 
boulders, of which there are quite a few in the near area, are 
going to have some interesting colours to them." 

A few moments later, he told of seeing numbers of craters, some 
of them 100 feet across, but the largest number only one or two 
feet in diameter. He saw ridges 20 or 30 feet high, two-foot 
blocks with angular edges, and a hill half a mile to a mile away. 

Finally, in describing the surface, Aldrin said: "It's pretty much 
without colour, It's grey and it's a very white, chalky grey, as you 
look into the zero phase line, and it's considerably darker grey, more 
like ashen grey as you look up 90 degrees to the Sun. Some of 
the surface rocks close in here have been fractured or disturbed 
by the rocket engine and are coated with light grey on the outside, 
but when they've been broken they display a dark, very dark grey 
interior, and it looks like it could be country basalt." 

As the Command Module came around the backside of the 
Moon, Collins was asked to try to accurately pinpoint the location 
of the Lunar Module. He was informed by Mission Control the 
LM had landed about four miles beyond its targeted area. Despite 
repeated efforts, Collins was never able to spot the LM and its 



254 









EXTRAVEHICULAR MOBILITY UNIT 

BACKPACK SUPPORT STRAPS 
OXYGEN PURGE SYSTEM 



LUNAR EXTRAVEHICULAR VISOR 



SUNGLASSES 
POCKET 



BACKPACK ■ 



OXYGEN 

PURGE SYSTEM 

UMBILICAL 



LM RESTRAINT RING 

1NTECRATE0 THERMAL 
METE0R0ID GARMENT 



URINE TRANSFER CONNECTOR. 

BtOMEOICAL INJECTION. 

DOSIMETER ACCESS FLAP AND 

DONNING LANYARD POCKET 



Figure 6-1. Extravehicular Mobility 
Unit. 




— A BACKPACK CONTROL BOX 



OXYGEN PURGE 
SYSTEM ACTUATOR 



PENLIGHT POCKET 
CONNECTOR COVER 
COMMUNICATION. 
VENTILATION, AND 
LIQUID COOLING 
UMBILICAL5 



EXTRAVEHICULAR 
GLOVE 

UTILITY POCKET 



LUNAR OVERSHOE 



actual landing site was defined only after lift-off from the Moon's 
surface when the rendezvous radar was utilized. 

Another "stay" time was given to the LM and the crew prepared 
to power down their spacecraft and end the simulated countdown 
for an earlier than scheduled lift-off. Then the first lunar explorers 
put on space suits for their excursion onto the lunar surface. 

The space suits that they donned were designed for ingenious 
protection against the hazards of the Moon's environment (Figure 
6-3). From the skin out, the basic pressure garment consisted 
of a nomex comfort layer, a neoprcne-coated nylon pressure bladder 
and a nylon restraint layer. The outer layers, known as the extra- 
vehicular integral [hermai/niethcoroid cover, consisted of a liner 
of two layers of neoprene-coated nylon, seven layers of Beta/Kapton 
spacer laminate, and an outer layer of Teflon-coated Beta fabric. 
These outer layers are designed for protection against micro- 
meteoroids travelling at 64.000 miles an hour. 30 times the speed 
of a rifle bullet. 



255 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

After the suits were on, the astronauts then put on heavily 
corrugated plastic overboots that can resist temperatures from 250 
above zero Fahrenheit to 250 : below, gloves covered with fine 
metal mesh, and hoods for their transparent bubble helmets with 
double visors (both coated with gold) to block the sun's intense 
glare, heat, and ultraviolet radiation. Finally, each donned a 
backpack, known as the PLSS (portable life-support system) to 
provide cooling water, electric power, communications and enough 
oxygen to last for four hours outside the Lunar Module without 
replenishing. 

With everything in order, Armstrong radioed a recommendation 
that a scheduled rest period be eliminated and the Extra Vehicular 
Activity (EVA) be started earlier than originally scheduled. Mission 
Control concurred and, more than live hours ahead of schedule. 
Neil Armstrong opened the Lunar Module hatch after the craft 
had been depressurized. Armstrong began to squeeze through the 
hatch, a task made all the more difficult because of the bulky 
portable life support system and an unfamiliar gravitational environ- 
ment. About 12 minutes from the report of the hatch opening, 
Armstrong was out of the spacecraft and on the porch of the 
Lunar Module's ladder. 

The next task for Armstrong was to unstow the module equip- 
ment stowage assembly (MESA), a pallet on the descent stage of 
the Lunar Module containing fresh batteries for the portable lite- 
support system, a television camera, sample bags and tools for 
obtaining lunar samples. This task was accomplished without 
difficulty and shortly thereafter Mission Control reported picking 
up a signal from the television camera. The television transmissions 
were fuzzy and scored with lines but nonetheless held the world 
spellbound as Armstrong prepared to descend to the surface of 
the Moon. 

As he descended the ladder, Armstrong inspected the footpads 
of the Lunar Module and took his first close look at the surface of 
the Moon. He reported that the LM footpads were only depressed 
in the surface about one or two inches and that the surface 
appeared to be very fine grained and almost like powder. Arm- 
strong continued down the ladder, put his left foot on the Moon 



256 



T 




Figure 6-4, Lunar surface footprints. 

and said into his radio microphone, "That's one small step for 
man, one giant leap for mankind". In less than two seconds, this 
message was received at the huge telescope dish at Honeysuckle 
Creek, near Canberra, Australia, bounced to the COMSAT satellite 
over the Pacific Ocean, then to the switching centre at the Goddard 
Space Flight Centre outside of Washington, D.C., and finally to 
the Manned Spacecraft Centre at Houston, Texas, and the rest 
of the world (Figure 6-4), 

Armstrong's attention was first directed toward the nature of 
the surface material and observed that the exhaust of the descent 
engine had not cratercd the area directly below the LM engine 
nozzle. He then proceeded with his scheduled task of collecting a 
contingency sample consisting of several pounds of lunar surface 
material which he stowed in a space suit pocket. This collection 
was assigned as a first task to make sure that there would be samples 
aboard in case an early abort of the mission was necessary. 



257 




Flgitn ft-.s. AUrtn makes the desceai to iiu- lunar mince. 

Once the LM inspection and the contingency sample collection 
were completed, Aldrin came out of the LM and climbed down 
the ladder, with Armstrong providing guidance and taking photo- 
graphs {Figure 6-5). The two astronauts then unveiled the plaque 
mounted on the strut behind the ladder of the LM. They read 
the inscription for the benefit of their world audience: 

HERE MEN FROM PLANET EARTH 

FIRST SET FOOT UPON THE MOON 

JULY 1969 A.D. 

WE CAME IN PEACE FOR ALL MANKIND 

The plaque was signed by the astronauts and United States President 
Richard Nixon. 

258 







ligitre 6-6. Astronaut on timar surface. 

Armstrong then removed the TV camera that had covered his 
first steps on the Moon and placed it in a position so that the LM 
and surface activities could be observed. 

After surveying the surroundings, Armstrong and Aldrin began 
moving about, testing themselves in the gravity environment one- 
sixth of that on Earth (Figure 6-6). 

There was no problem in collecting samples of lunar rocks and 
soil. The astronauts bagged upwards of 50 pounds of the dark, 
loose surface material and representative samples of the lunar 
rocks. The men used a specially made aluminium scoop on an 
extension handle and a pair of long aluminium longs to perform 
this task since the space suits were too cumbersome to facilitate 
bending over. The samples were put into two boxes, each formed 
from a single piece of aluminium. A ring of indium, a soft metal, 
lined the lip of each box. When the box was closed and the 



25«> 




Figure 6-7, Lmwr rock sample collected by Apollo II crew. 

straps drawn tight around it, a knifelike strip around the edge of 
the lid bit deeply into the indium which sealed the samples in a 
vacuum and protected them against contamination. 

Armstrong and Aldrin noted that the Moon was strewn with 
rock fragments of a wide range of size, angularity, and texture 
{Figures 6-7 and 6-8). Although some rock fragments were 
obviously lying on top of the surface, it was not always possible 
to judge their depth of burial. In the course of using the scoop, 
rocks buried under several inches of soil were encountered. 

The major tcxtural types of rock fragments observed were plain, 
even-grained basaltlike rocks, vesicular basaltlike rocks; basaltic- 
appearing rocks with one to five per cent small white minerals; 
and rocks consisting of aggregated smaller fragments. In some 
instances, loosely aggregated clods of soil were difficult to distinguish 
from the rock fragments until they were disturbed and broken up. 





Figure 6-8. Lunar rock samples. 

Smaller pieces of material that had a metallic lustre were noted. 
These pieces of material were concentrated in scattered aggregates 
at the bottoms of three or four-feet diameter craters. Several 
examples of lunar material that seemed to be transparent crystals 
were also observed. These crystai-like materials resembled quartz 
crystals and appeared to be opaque from some views and translucent 
from other views. There were also fragments that resembled biotitc 
but these fragments were not examined closely. 

The astronauts described the fine surface material as a powdery, 
graphitelike substance that seems to be dominantly sand to silt size 
and when the material is in contact with the rocks, it makes them 
slippery. This phenomenon was checked on a fairly smooth, sloped 
rock. When the powdery material was placed on the rocks, the boot 
sole slipped easily on the rock and the slipping was sufficient to 
cause some instability of movement. Otherwise, the astronauts 
reported that traction was generally good in the loose powder. 



260 



261 




l-'igtire 6-9. Aidrin taken lunar core sample. 
Solar wind experiment in the background. 

Armstrong and Aidrin found unexpected differences in the con- 
sistency and softness of the top layer of the surface material at 
locations having minor changes in surface topography. These 
differences were manifested in significantly different footprint depths. 
The depth differences indicated that there may be different depths 
of surface material covering the more resistive subsurface, particu- 
larly on the rims of small craters. 

Surface penetrability decreased quickly within the first few inches 
of the surface. When specifically probed more than four or Jive 
inches, the surface was found to be quite firm. Surface penetration 
by using core tubes was no greater than eight or nine inches, even 
when the sampler extension was hammered hard enough to be 
significantly dented (Figure 6-9). However, there were no rocks 

262 






Figure 6-10. Aidrin seu 
up .\oiar wind experiment. 




under the core tubes during the driving operations. The material 
at the bottom of the core sample appeared to be darker than the 
surface material, and this material packed in and adhered to the 
sides of the tube in the same manner as wet sand or silt. 

As scheduled, the astronauts then set up three planned experi- 
ments, on one of which was mounted a dust detector experiment.* 
From an outside storage compartment in the Lunar Module, 
Aidrin removed the solar wind experiment. The solar wind 
is an ionized, or electrified, gas which constantly streams away 
from the Sun at speeds of 200 to 400 miles a second. The wind 
is not normally detected on Earth because the magnclospherc 



* The Dusl Detector Fxperiment. developed by Or. Brian J, O'Brien of the 

School of Physics. University of Sydney, is d esigne d to monilor duM 
actum u In lion on ihree solar cells. — Ed. 



263 







American flag planted on luimr surface. 



deflects the gas. Its effects can only be seen when a small amount 
of the solar wind enters into the mauiiL-iospherc in the polar regions, 
accelerated by some unexplainablc process, and causes the aurora 
high in the atmosphere. 

Since the Mnon does not have a strong magnetic field, a steady 
barrage of atomic particles, carried by the solar wind, is battered 
against it. Scientists believe that these particles may slowly erode 
the lunar rocks. A simple device was deployed by Aldrin to trap 
these particles which consisted of a strip of aluminium foil about 
a foot wide and four and a half feet long that was unfurled and 
hung on a mast stuck into the Moon (Figure (5-70). This sheet 
was left exposed to direct sunlight for an hour and 17 minutes. 
Then it was rolled up and stored inside one of the lunar sample 
boxes. During this exposure, scientists hope the sheet received 
the full blast of the solar particles. This experiment was sponsored 

264 




Figure 6-12. Deployment 
af Early Apollo Scientific 
Experiment Puckuge. 



by a team of Swiss researchers at the University of Bern and the 
Federal Institute of Technology in Switzerland where they hope 
to find isotopes, or varieties, of these elements in the returned foil. 
Knowledge about the proportions of such isotopes is expected to 
enhance the understanding of the origin of the solar system and 
how the Earth and its almosphere were formed. 

With the solar wind experiment implanted, the astronauts next 
deployed a three-by-five foot American flag. They joined together 
its two-piece aluminium staff and fitted a support along its upper 
edge so that it would remain unfurled in the windless Moon environ- 
ment (Figure 6-11), While implanting the flag, the men discovered 
a strange phenomenon. When they pushed the flag in the lunar 
soil, they had to press hard to force the staff down, yet it would 
fall over easily. The soil showed great resistance downward, but 
little sideways. 

After the completion of this task. Mission Control put through 
the longest long-distance telephone call in history to the astronauts. 

2fi5 






Pioneering in Outer Space 

The call originated in the White House in Washington and was 
relayed by the facilities at Mission Control to one of the giant dish 
antennae handling ground-Moon communications, and on to Arm- 
strong and Aldrin. When the conversation was completed, the 
astronauts faced the TV camera and saluted. 

The remaining two experiments were taken out of the LM and 
set up approximately 70 and 80 feet away from the LM. These 
distances were I safeguard against damage 10 the instruments by the 
ascent engine exhaust at take-off. The seismometer, designed to 
record and report events affecting the physical structure of the 
Moon, such as moonquakes, meteorite impact or volcanic eruption, 
began returning data to Earth immediately. The laser reflector, 
which was to provide very precise information on the Moon's 
distance from Earth and its orbital path, did not function immedi- 
ately. However, a few days later it began nperating correctly. 
Together, these two experiments form the EASEP or Early Apollo 
Scientific Experiment Package (Figure 6-12). 

The seismometer consisted of a mechanical combination of 
booms, hinges, and springs that respond to vibrations, and electronic 
devices to record the intensity of these vibrations and transmit them 
to Earth, Two solar panels provide the necessary electric power 
during the two-week long lunar day. During the Moon's night, 
the instrument was designed to be silent with nuclear heating to 
keep the transmitter warm. The seismometer was 10 to 100 
times more sensitive than those used on Earth and could detect 
the impact of a meteorite the size of a small pebble half a mile 
away on the Moon, It was designed to record tremors about one 
million times smaller than the vibration level that a human being 
can feel. 

The laser reflector, unlike the seismic package, had no moving 
parts and required no power supply. It consists of a hundred 
fuscd-silica prisms, set in an aluminium frame 18 inches square. 
The prisms form the most accurate reflectors ever made in any 
quantity. Knowing the speed of light and timing the round trip 
to an accuracy of one billionth of a second, the distance to the 
laser reflector can be calculated with an exactness never before 



266 






The Lunar Landing 

possible. It is expected that the distance between the Earth and 
Moon will be measured to an error of only six inches. Within a 
decade, scientists from all over the world hope to use the laser 
reflector to check on how fast the Moon is receding from the 
Earth, examine the wobble of the Earth on its axis, and test new 
theories of gravity. 

Leading up to the flight of Apollo 1 1, scientists had reservations 
about man's ability to move around freely in the lunar environment. 
The space suit that the astronauts wore with its backpack of 
life support and communication equipment had an Earth weight 
of over 180 pounds. Adding to this problem, the suit's internal 
pressure inflates it and substantially reduces its flexibility. Some 
scientists had also expressed doubts about the human ability to 
adapt to the one-sixth gravity of the Moon, and thought that 
disorientation would make movement awkward. 

As Armstrong and Aldrin demonstrated, these fears were ground- 
less. The astronauts reported that movement on the Moon was 
easier than it had been in the one-sixth gravity simulator in which 
they had practised. The earthbound audience watching Aldrin 
perform a series of leaps and bounds will attest to the apparent 
agility he demonstrated. However, as he pointed out, it was im- 
portant to know where the body's centre of mass was and to keep 
a foot under it. The "kangaroo lope" worked quite well as a 
method of lunar locomotion but not as well as the time-tested earthly 
method of putting one foot in front of the other. The fact that 
the astronauts ignored the rest periods that had been scheduled 
for them during the Moon walk confirms the ease of movement on 
the Moon's surface. At no time during the extravehicular activities 
was any heavy breathing delected. For the most part, the astro- 
nauts' heartbeat was lower than expected. Pulse rates for both 
men were within the acceptable range throughout. 

Even though movement on the Moon was relatively simple, 
certain other unusual physiological effects were noted by the 
astronauts. They found that distances on the lunar surface were 
deceiving. A large boulder field located north of the LM did 
not appear to be very far away when viewed from the LM 
cockpit. However, on the surface they did not come close to 



267 






Pioneering in Outer Space 

this field, although they traversed about 100 feet toward it. The 
flag, the television camera, and the experiments, although deployed 
a reasonable distance away from the LM and deployed according 
to plan, appeared to be immediately outside the window when 
viewed from the LM. Because distance judgement is related to the 
accuracy of size estimation, it was concluded that these skills may 
require refinement in the lunar environment. 

The astronauts also discovered that the lunar gravity field had 
differing effects on Earth-learned skills. Although the gravitational 
pull on the Moon is known to be one-sixth of the gravitational 
pull on the Earth, they found that objects seemed to weigh 
approximately one-tenth of their Earth weight. The mass of an 
object made the object easy to handle in the reduced lunar 
atmosphere and gravitational field. Once moving, objects continued 
moving, although their movements appeared to be significantly 
slower in the lunar environment. 

The absence of any natural vertical features, coupled with the 
poor definition of the horizon and the weak gravity indication at 
the feet of the astronauts, caused difficulty in identification of level 
areas when looking down at the surface. The ability to discern 
level areas was further complicated by the fact that, when wearing 
a space suit, the centre of mass of the astronaut is higher and 
farther back than the normal centre of mass of a man on Earth. 

Armstrong and Aldrin found that walking in the up-Sun direction 
posed no problem, although the light was very bright with the Sun 
shining directly into the visor. While walking in the down-Sun 
direction, most objects were visible, but the contrast was not vivid. 
Varying shapes, sizes, and glints were more easily identified in 
the cross-Sun directions. 

During the exercises on the Moon, the astronauts used a series 
of cameras to document the lunar landing. They used a Hasselblad 
lunar surface camera extensively during the Moon walk to photo- 
graph each of their major tasks. Additionally, they made a 360- 
degrec overlapping panorama sequence of still photos of the lunar 
horizon, photographed surface features In the immediate area, 
made close-ups of geological samples and the area from which 






The Lunar Landing 

they were collected and recorded on film the appearance and 
condition of the Lunar Module after landing. A stereo close-up 
camera permitted the Apollo 1 I landing crew to photograph 
significant surface structure phenomena which would remain intaci 
only in the lunar environment, such as fine powdery deposits, cracks 
or holes and adhesion of particles. 

Radioing Mission Control to ensure that all assigned tasks had 
been completed, experiments set up, and photographs taken, the 
astronauts prepared to re-enter the LM. Aldrin climbed back the 
ladder first and Armstrong handed him the lunar samples and film 
packs. Then they both entered the LM. Two minutes later the 
hatch was secured. Armstrong had walked on the surface of 
the Moon for two hours, 31 minutes and 37 seconds; Aldrin 40 
minutes less. 

While entering the Lunar Module, one incident aroused some 
apprehension. One of the backpacks, which barely cleared the 
hatch entrance, struck a circuit breaker just inside and snapped 
its end off. This was a circuit breaker that was needed to arm 
the ascent engine, a necessary step before the engine could be 
fired to lift the astronauts off the Moon. However, the circuit 
breaker was not damaged so badly that it could not be pushed 
back in. More important, there were other ways in which the 
engine could be armed. As in most all Apollo systems, redundant 
or back-up features are provided. 

After entering the LM, the astronauts removed their portable 
life support systems that had sustained them on the lunar surface 
and began answering a number of questions concerning the geology 
of the Moon. Then Mission Control informed the astronauts that 
they were to sleep. Armstrong rigged himself a makeshift hammock 
and Aldrin curled up on the LM floor. However, due to the 
excitement of the Moon walk and the cramped quarters, neither 
slept well. 

Before leaving the Moon, Armstrong and Aldrin opened the 
hatch of the LM once more and jettisoned their portable life support 
systems and other items which could not be returned to Earth 
because of weight restrictions during lift-off. Left on the Moon 



268 



269 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

was an Apollo shoulder patch commemorating the three American 
astronauts, Gus Grissom, Ed White, and Roger Chaffee, who died 
on January 27, 1967, in a spacecraft fire. Medals honouring two 
Soviet cosmonauts who lost their lives, Yuri Gagarin and Vladimir 
Komarov, were also left behind. A final item carried messages of 
goodwill from leaders of 73 nations. Etched on a 1 1-inch disc 
of silicon by the same process used for manufacturing miniaturized 
electronic circuits, the messages were reduced in size 200 times. 

The Lunar Module lift-off from the lunar surface occurred at 1.34 
p.m. EDT using the descent stage as a launch pad. The total 
lunar stay time was 21 hours and 36 minutes. All lunar ascent 
and rendezvous manoeuvres were nominal and the LM rendez- 
voused with the Command Service Module and docked about four 
hours later while circling the back side of the Moon. After 
transfer of the crew, samples and film lo the Command Service 
Module, the Lunar Module ascent stage was jettisoned and will 
remain in lunar orbit for an indefinite period of time. Subsequently, 
a small burn of the Service Module propulsion system placed the 
Command Service Module in a 62.6 by 54.7 nautical mile orbit 
about the Moon. 

Shortly after midnight on July 22, while on the back side of the 
Moon with the LM trailing 20 miles behind, the CSM was 
injected into a transearth trajectory after a total time in lunar 
orbit of 59 hours and 28 minutes or 30 revolutions. 

Compared to the events of the preceding days, the trip back 
to Earth was relatively routine. Shortly after noon on July 22, the 
spacecraft passed the point in space, 33,800 nautical miles from 
the Moon and 174,000 from the Earth, where the Earth's gravity 
took over and began drawing the astronauts homeward. Sometime 
later, a mid-course correction was made to readjust the flight path 
of the spacecraft and 18 minutes of live television was transmitted 
to Earth was relatively routine. Shortly after noon on July 22, the 
effect of weightlessness on food and water and brief scenes of the 
Moon and Earth. The final colour television broadcast was made 
on the folluwing night after the spacecraft had passed the midway 
point of the journey to Earth, 101,000 nautical miles from 
splashdown. 




Figure 6-13. Recovery of Apollo II astronauts from tkt Command Module. 



Figure 6-14. The astronauts on hoard the recovery ship U.S.S. Hornet. 
They are wearing Biological isolation Garments. 




270 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

Early on the morning of July 24 the crew of Apollo 1 1 awoke 
and began preparations for the splashdown. Because of deteriorating 
weather in the nominal landing area, the aim point had been 
moved downrange 215 nautical miles where the weather was 
excellent. Visibility was 12 miles, wave height was three feet, 
and the wind was blowing at 16 knots. At 12.21 p.m. EST the 
Command Module of the spacecraft was separated Erom the 
Service Module with no complications and about 15 minutes later 
the Command Module entered the Earth's atmosphere. At 12.51 
p.m. EDT, the spacecraft splashed down 825 nautical miles 
southwest of Honolulu and 13 nautical miles from the prime 
recovery ship, the U.S.S. Hornet. Flotation bags were deployed 
to right the spacecraft and the crew reported that they were feeling 
fine and were in good condition. 

Following splashdown, the recovery helicopter dropped swimmers 
who installed a flotation collar to the Command Module. Then a 
large, seven-man raft was deployed and attached to the flotation 
collar. Biological Isolation Garments (BIGs) were lowered into 
the raft. One swimmer put on a BIG while the astronauts donned 
BIGs inside the Command Module. 

These biological isolation garments were worn by the astronauts 
until they entered the Mobile Quarantine Facility aboard the 
recovery ship. The garment is fabricated of a lightweight fabric 
which completely covered the wearer and served as a biological 
barrier. Built into the hood area was a face mask with a plastic 
visor, air inlet dapper valve, and an air outlet biological filter. The 
suits were one of many precautions to ensure that there were no 
adverse effects of lunar material upon terrestrial life. 

Within the Command Module, after the suits were on, the post- 
landing ventilation fan was turned off, the spacecraft was powered 
down, and the astronauts cgrcssed and assisted the swimmer in 
closing the hatch (Figure 6-13), The swimmer then decontaminated 
all garments, the hatch area, the collar and the area around the 
postlanding vent valves. The helicopter which had been hovering 
overhead lowered a specially designed scat for the Apollo 1 1 
crew and departed for the U.S.S. Hornet (Figure 6-14). 



IT. 




EXTERIOR VIEW 



l-'igure 6-15. Mobile Quarantine Futility. 



After landing aboard the recovery ship, the astronauts and a 
physician entered the Mobile Quarantine Facility. This facility was 
equipped to house six people for a period up to 10 days. The 
interior was divided into three sections — a lounge area, kitchen 
and sleep/bath area. It was powered through several systems to 
interface with various ships, aircraft and transportation vehicles. 
The shell was air and water light and air was filtered as it came 
through the vent. A negative pressure differential for biological 
containment in the event of leaks was provided. Specially packaged 
and controlled meals were passed into the facility where they were 
prepared in a microwave oven. Medical equipment to complete 
immediate post-landing crew examination and tests was provided 
(Figure 6-15). 



273 




PIE PIOCESSINfi SYSTEM ANIMAL TEST AREA PHYSICAL CHEMICAL EMISSION SPECTROGIAPN 

TEST SECTION 



— ■■! 



I 











- - 






Figure 6-16. Lunar Receiving Laboratory. 



President Nixon was aboard the recovery ship to greet the 

astronauts. He spoke to the Apollo 1 1 crew members by 

intercommunications in the quarantine facility and congratulated 
them for their extraordinary feat. 

The lunar samples that the astronauts collected were taken 
from the Command Module aboard the recovery ship, flown by 
helicopter to Johnston Island, put aboard an airplane and flown 
directly to the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at Houston, Texas. 
The flight crew, remaining in the Mobile Quarantine Facility, 
was transferred from the U.S.S. Hornet to an airplane in Hawaii 
which flew directly to Houston, arriving July 27. The astronauts 
were taken from the airplane to the Lunar Receiving Laboratory 
to begin a two-week quarantine period. 

The Lunar Receiving Laboratory was the final phase of the 
back-contamination programme. The laboratory had as its main 



274 



The Lunar Landing 

functions the quarantine and testing of lunar samples, spacecraft 
and flight crews for possible harmful organisms brought back from 
the lunar surface, and the protection of the lunar samples from 
contamination on Earth (Figure 6-16). 

Detailed analyses of returned lunar samples were done in two 
phases — time-critical investigations within the quarantine period 
and post-quarantine scientific studies of lunar samples repackaged 
and distributed to participating scientists. Thirty-six scientists and 
scientific groups were selected in world-wide competition on the 
scientific merits of their proposed experiments. These scientists 
represented some 20 institutions in Australia, Belgium, Canada. 
Finland, West Germany, Japan. Switzerland, United Kingdom and 
United Slates. Major fields of investigation were mineralogy and 
petrology, chemical and isotope analysis, physical properties and 
biochemical and organic analysis. 

The crew recreation area of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory 
served as quarters for the Apollo 1 1 flight crew and attendant 
technicians for the quarantine period during which the astronauts 
were debriefed and examined. Other occupants of this area were 
physicians, medical technicians, housekeepers and cooks. The 
crew reception area also served as a contingency quarantine area 
for people accidentally exposed to spills or vacuum system breaks. 
Both the crew reception area and the sample operations area were 
contained within biological barrier systems that protected the 
lunar materials from Earth contamination and protected the outside 
world from any possible contamination by lunar materials. 

Analysis of lunar samples was conducted in the sample operations 
area which was made up of vacuum, magnetics, gas analysis, 
biological lest, radiation counting and physical -chemical test 
laboratories. Lunar sample return containers, or "rock boxes", 
were first brought to the vacuum laboratory and opened in the 
ultra-clean vacuum system. After preliminary examination, the 
samples were repackaged for transfer, still under vacuum, to the 
gas analysis, biological preparation, physical-chemical test and 
radiation counting laboratories. The gas analysis laboratory 
measured amounts and types of gases produced by lunar samples, 
and gcochemists in the physical-chemical test laboratory tested ihc 



275 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

samples for their reactions to atmospheric gases and water vapour. 
Additionally, the physical-chemical test laboratory made detailed 
studies of the mincralogic, pctrologic, geochemical and physical 
properties of the samples. 

Other portions of the lunar samples travelled through the Lunar 
Receiving Laboratory vacuum system to the biological test 
laboratory where they underwent tests to determine if there is life 
in the material that may replicate. These tests involved introduction 
of lunar samples into small germ-free animals and plants. Some 
50 feet below the ground floor of the laboratory, technicians in the 
radiation counting laboratory conducted low-background radioactive 
assay of the lunar samples using gamma ray spectrometry techniques. 

On the morning of August 10, Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin and 
Michael Collins stepped out of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory 
with no evidence of any contamination that could harm people on 
Earth, thus ending the adventure that had begun nearly four weeks 
before. 

The remarkable and unerring voyage of Apollo 1 1 to the surface 
of the Moon and return was acclaimed by people throughout the 
world and will undoubtedly change the course of history of man 
just as other great discoveries of the past. Following in the wake 
of Apollo 1 1, eight more lunar landings were planned — each to a 
different and more challenging site. Perhaps these follow-on flights 
will not share the success of the first lunar mission. There may be 
setbacks and disappointments. However, now that man has learned 
to live and work on the Moon, there will be no turning back from 
the exploration and discovery of this new domain. 









276 






CHAPTER SEVEN 

Scientific Results of 
Apollo 11 and 12 
Missions 

By G. E. Mueller 

Scientists from many parts of the planet Earth who, several 
months previously, had received the first specimens ever brought 
back from another celestial body met in Houston, Texas, in 
January, 1970, to compare notes on their findings. 

In the dust-covered rocks taken from the Moon they had 
discovered extraordinary beauty. In the drab dust itself they had 
found a galaxy of colours; seen under the microscope, roughly 
half the lunar dust particles resembled ttny spheres, dumb-bells, 
teardrops and other globules of glass, ranging in colour from purple, 
green and yellow to wine red. By using the most sophisticated 
measuring techniques known to modern physics they had demon- 
strated that the Moon is an archive of information dating back 
long before the Earth took its present form. 

Perhaps the most challenging discovery was that the catastrophic 
event that coated the Sea of Tranquillity with molten rock coincided 
with formation of the oldest rock on the surface of the Earth, Yet, 
the conferees were told, even the very ancient rocks on Earth, 
some 3.5 billion years old, contain chemical hints that life already 
existed on this planet. 

What then was the relationship — if any — between the out- 
pouring of lava on the Moon and events on the Earth? Is it possible 
that life originated on the Earth during the first billion years of its 
existence, was wiped out (or almost wiped out) by a fearsome 
meteoric bombardment that also caused extensive melting on the 
Moon, and then was born again? 

It was the prospect of being able to answer questions such as 
these which sent man to the Moon on July 20, 1969. The activities 



277 




Figure 7-1. Deployment of Enrfy Apoltu 
Scientific Experiment Package. 

of Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin (the Apollo 11 astronauts) 
on the iunar surface consisted of collecting samples of lunar 
material, including two core samples from depths of from six to 
eight inches below the lunar surface, and discretely selected surface 
samples. They deployed the Early Apollo Scientific Experiment 
Package (Figure 7-1). This package included a solar cell powered 
seismometer designed to measure the seismic activity of the Moon, 
and to detect meteoroid impacts, lunar oscillations and tidal 
effects. The package also included a Laser Retro-Reflector, a 
passive device consisting of an array of 100 precision reflectors 
which is presently being ranged upon by Earth-based laser systems. 
This experiment will enable precision measurements to be made 
of the Earth-Moon distance, the motion of the Moon about its 
centre of gravity, lunar size and orbit, changes in the gravitational 



278 




Figure 7-2. Aldrin take} lunar core sample. Solar u-iiii! experiment in 

background. 



constant and the distance between continents on Earth. The 
astronauts also deployed an experiment to determine the com- 
position of the solar wind [Figure 7-2). 

The second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12. was 
launched on November 14, 1969, The Lunar Module Intrepid 
landed on the Moon four days later, and its crew of Commander 
Charles "Pete" Conrad and Lunar Module Pilot Allen Bean began 
to accomplish the objectives of the mission: perform geological 
inspection, survey and sample in a marc (sea) area; deploy and 
activate an Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP); 
develop man's capability to work in the lunar environment, and 
obtain photographs of candidate exploration sites. 

After taking a contingency and deploying the S-Band erectab'.j 
antenna, the Solar Wind Composition experiment and an American 



279 




Figure 7-3. Apollo 12 crewman deploying Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments 

Package. 



flag, the two astronauts removed the ALSEP from the Scientific 
Equipment Bay and deployed it about 400 feet from the Lunar 
Module (Figure 7-3). The ALSEP is a much more sophisticated 
array of experiments than those deployed on the Apollo mission. 
The ALSEP contains its own energy source — a Radioisotope 
Thermoelectric Generator which supplies nuclear electrical power 
for the six experiments in the array. The experiments included 
in the ALSEP were: ( I ) a Passive Seismometer to measure seismic 
activity; (2) a Magnetometer {Figure 7~4) to measure the magnetic 
field; (3) a Solar Wind Spectrometer to measure the strength, 
velocity and direction of the electrons and protons which emanate 
from the Sun and reach the lunar surface; (4) a Suprathernial 
Ion Detector to measure the characteristics of positive ions near 
the lunar surface; (5) a Cold Cathode Ion Gauge to determine 
the density of any lunar ambient atmosphere; and (6) a detector 

280 




Figure 7-4, A I Bean emplacing the Lttiuir Magnetometer. 

to measure the amount of dust accretion on the ALSEP to provide 
a measure of the degradation of thermal surfaces. The ALSEP 
array is expected to transmit scientific and engineering data on 
Earth for at least a year. After gathering additional samples and 
taking photographs the astronauts re-entered the Lunar Module, 
concluding the first extravehicular activity (EVA) of four hours 
and one minute. The second EVA, which lasted for three hours 
and 49 minutes, took the crew to the ALSEP deployment site, 
several craters, Surveyor III (an unmanned lunar lander which had 
been on the Moon for 31 months) and back to the Lunar Module. 

Let me now present some of the scientific results of the Apollo 
1 1 and 12 missions. 

It is the responsibility of the lunar science programme to assure 
that the best possible science work is carried out on the Apollo 
missions. These efforts have to be reconciled with the necessity to 



281 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

assure safety and operational success. Consequently, the landing 
sites of the first two missions, Apollo 1 1 last July and Apollo 12 in 
November, were selected after consideration of safety, operation 
simplicity and scientific interest. Both sites are near the Moon's 
equator in the "seas" or nutria, which are flat areas. The highlands 
offer lunar explorers the best chance of capturing the richest prize 
in planetary science — the record of the missing billion years in 
the solar system's history. But they are not close to the top of 
the list of targets for Apollo landings, because they present a 
treacherous terrain of jumbled rocks and steep slopes in which the 
radar of the Landing Module might be confused by multiple 
echoes, or the craft might come to rest in a dangerously canted 
position. If the selection had been guided by scientific considerations 
alone, one of the sites probably would have been in the more 
rugged highland areas. But for the first missions, any site promised 
a quantum jump in our knowledge of the Moon. 

Nevertheless, we are both surprised and extremely pleased that 
the scientific results of Apollo 1 1 and 12 are so very significant. 
In early January. 1970, a symposium was held at Houston to 
discuss the results of the first analyses of the data returned and the 
laboratory study of the samples. Taking part were more than 1000 
scientists, including 97 from 24 other countries. The results 
reported at that symposium generated considerable scientific interest. 

Before we ever began manned exploration of the Moon, we had 
accumulated a body of knowledge about its major characteristics. 
It is about one quarter the diameter of the Earth. No other planet 
in the solar system has a satellite so near it itself in size. Some 
scientists infer from this that the Earth and Moon bear a very close 
relationship, that perhaps they were once part of the same body, 
or that ihey were formed at the same time and in the same manner. 

The Moon has no atmosphere, as we know it. As a matter of 
fact, even with our best vacuum chambers we cannot approach 
the vacuum that exists naturally on (he Moon. The surface of 
the Moon reaches some 270 degrees Fahrenheit at high noon, and 
sinks to about minus 270 degrees in the long lunar night. 

As it rotates about the Earth, the Moon always keeps the 
same face towards the Earth. It is only in the last decade, from 



282 







Figure 7-5. Vltftr of a near full Moon, photographed from the Apollo 13 

spacecraft, 

lunar missions, that we have had any knowledge at all of the 
far side of the Moon. As can be seen, there is a very distinct 
difference in appearance between the near and far sides (Figures 
7-5 and 7-6). 

The far side surface is marked by craters of all sizes. The light 
areas are highlands or mountainous regions. The highlands arc 
known to be older than the lunar seas, for photographs clearly 
show that the material of the seas fill the natural basins in the 
rocks out of which the highlands arc formed and lap up against 
the "shores" of the highlands. For this to have happened, the 
highlands must have been present before the seas existed. The 
conclusion is strengthened by the fact that the high lands have a 
greater density of craters than the Sea of Tranquillity, indicating 
that they have been bombarded by meteorites for a long time. 

The dark regions on the lunar surface arc called maria or 

283 







Figure 7-6. View of the lunar farside 
from Apollo IS. 

seas. These maria are fiat, plain-like regions in which our two 
landings to date have occurred. They may be material that has 
flowed from I he interior of the Moon when the highlands were 
punctured by gianl meteorites. 

The major areas of interest in lunar exploration were established 
over the past decade, white wc were proceeding through the 
automated lunar programmes — Ranger, Surveyor and Lunar 
Orbiter. From the Surveyors wc learned that the surface would 
support manned landings and obtained initial data on the material 
and composition of the surface. With Lunar Orbilcrs we 
photographed the entire surface and discovered peculiar mass 
concentrations associated with the circular seas front studying their 
effects on the Orbiter trajectories. During this time, National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration was consulting regularly 
with the wider scientific community. 

The following table lists the principal scientific objectives of the 
exploration of the Moon: 

• Determine Age of Moon and Dates of Principal Events. 

• Determine Chemical and Mineral Composition. 

• Investigate Major Body Properties of the Moon. 

• Study Dynamic Processes — Past and Present. 

284 






Scientific Results of Apollo 1 1 and 12 

The first objective is to determine the age of the Moon and to 
date the principal events that have affected it. From the beginning 
of our space programme this question stood high on our list because 
we hoped to find on the Moon materials older than the 3t-billion- 
year age of the oldest rocks on Earth. That is, we hoped to 
uncover evidence of the lost history of the Earth. The early 
record of the Earth has been completely erased by our weather 
and atmosphere. We knew that changes occurred far more slowly 
on the Moon, due to its lack of atmosphere, so we hoped clues to 
our origin and early history might be preserved. The ages of 
materials taken from various parts of the Moon can supply evidence 
on its origin and perhaps even on the origin of the solar system. 

The second objective is to determine the composition of the 
highlands, the seas and, if possible, the interior. This composition 
can tell us about the environment in which the rocks were formed. 
We hope to correlate the results of the chemical and mineralogical 
analysis of materials with the age dating of samples from various 
places to understand the sequence of events in the ancient history 
of the Moon and how they fitted together. Thus we plan to 
obtain rock and soil samples from each site visited. 

The third objective is to understand the Moon's major structural 
body properties, such as whether it is layered like the Earth. The 
principal instrument here is the seismometer, which records moon- 
quakes and other vibrations of the lunar surface. We need to 
obtain data from several sites simultaneously to trace the way 
seismic waves travel through the Moon's interior and thus establish 
its structure. Another experiment in this area is the magnetometer. 

The fourth objective is to understand the dynamic processes 
that have acted upon and continue to act upon the Moon. The 
principal source of understanding here is the examination of the 
Moon's geology, at first hand or by study of photographs. In 
addition, the seismometer, the heat-flow measurement, the 
magnetometer and instruments measuring the solar wind can help 
considerably in this area. 

With these four objectives in mind, let us now consider the 
Apollo II and Apollo 12 results. The Apollo 11 landing site 
was in the Sea of Tranquillity in the eastern hemisphere, which is the 
left eye of the man in the Moon. The Apollo 12 landing was in 

285 




Figure 7-7. Apollo 12 Lunar Module "Intrepid" descending 
to landing site in the Uct'tin of Storms. 

Figure 7-8. Apollo 12 landing site. 




• • 




Figure 7-9. Apollo 12 crewman Pete Conrad inspecting Surveyor 111. 

the Ocean of Storms in Ihc western hemisphere. The Ocean of 
Storms forms a part of the misshapen nose of the man in ihc 
Moon (Figures 7-7 and 7-8). 

On the Apollo 1 1 mission, Armstrong and Aldrin collected about 
44 pounds of rock and soil samples, took several hundred high- 
quality photographs and outplaced three devices — a seismometer, 
a laser rctrorc Hector and a solar wind collector. On the Apollo 
12 mission, Conrad and Bean brought back about 75 pounds of 
lunar material and emplaced a much more sophisticated scientific 
station that included live instruments. They also brought back 
some parts of the Surveyor 111 spacecraft, which landed on the 
Moon in April. 1967, 31 months earlier {Figure 7-9) — the 
complete TV camera and the shroud; the painted and unpainied 
aluminium tubing which was a good indicator of micromctcorite 
impact; electrical cable and the soil scoop. The shroud on the 

287 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



Scientific Results of Apollo 11 and 12 






camera changed colour from white to tan. Scientists say that the 
colour is a dust on ihc surface of the shroud, and that they have 
not found any micrometeorite impact activity on the shroud itself. 
It is expected that meteorite impacts on the shroud would be 
found, but it now appears there was a low ebb of meteorite 
activity during the time that the Surveyor was on the Moon. 

Aluminium tubing does show some indication of pitting, but 
it is all on one side of the tubing, and indicates that it might be 
dust impact from the landing of the Lunar Module itself. Engineers 
and scientists will inspect the optical parts of the camera for any 
micrometeorite impact and look for radiation effects on the internal 
parts of the camera. 

The glass parts, on initial inspection, do not show any breaks 
at all. rather just some slight warping. 

The engineering analyses now under way will contribute 
substantially to the design of future long-life spacecraft, such as 

I he space station and automated planetary craft. 

The Ocean of Storms samples may be contrasted with those from 
Tranquillity Base in several ways: (1) While still old by terrestrial 
standards, the Apollo 12 rocks arc about one billion years younger 
than those of Apollo 11. (2) About half of the Apollo 1 1 material 
was microbreccia, as opposed to only two of the 45 rocks of Apollo 
12. (3) The rcgolith mantlerock at the Apollo 12 site is about 
one-half as thick as at the Apollo 11 site. (4) The amount of 
solar wind material in the Apollo 12 fines is considerably lower 
than in the Apollo 11 tines. (5) The crystalline rocks in the 
Apollo 12 collection display a wide range of both modal mineralogy 
and in primary textures, in contrast to the uniformity of the Apollo 

I I rocks. (6) The "nonearlhly" chemical character of the Apollo 
11 samples (high in refractory and low in volatile element 
concentrations) is shared by the Apollo 12 samples, but to a 
lesser degree. (7) The chemical composition of the fine material 
is the same as that of the crystalline rocks; this is not as pronounced 
in the Apollo 1 1 collection. 

Age Dating: Perhaps the most surprising, interesting and 
important results concern the very old age of the samples. The 
Tranquillity Base area is truly ancient. First, the dating of Apollo 

288 



1 1 soil samples by measurement of products of radioactive decay 
has established that the Moon may have been formed about 4.6 
billion years ago. Second, similar measurements for the returned 
Apollo 11 rocks indicate that many of them solidified about 3.7 
billion years ago. The highland areas are expected to be more 
than 3.7 billion years old. By contrast, as noted previously, the 
oldest material we have found on Earth solidified 3.5 billion years 
ago. 

Evidence collected prior to the Apollo landings had indicated 
that the solid matter of the Earth and the meteorites was formed 
about 4.7 billion years ago from a whirling cloud of gas. Thus 
the Moon appears to have been formed at about the same time 
as the Earth and the meteorites. Wc now expect to find on the 
Moon a record of events in the first billion years of the Earth and 
the other planets — a record that has been obliterated on Earth. 

The three major contending theories of the origin of the Moon 
are: ( 1 ) that it was formed at the same time, the same place and 
in the same fashion as the Earth; (2) that it was captured by the 
Earth; and (3) that it originated by breaking away from the Earth. 

The early evidence seems to decrease the probability of this last 
theory. If the Moon did break away from the Earth it did so 
at a very early stage of the Earth's development and by a very 
complex process. All three theories are still in the running. 
however. 

The Apollo 12 rock and soil samples were released from the 
Lunar Receiving Laboratory for the detailed study that was 
previously given to the Apollo 1 1 samples. The Lunar Sample 
Preliminary Examination Team has reported that some of the 
Apollo 12 rocks are about 24 billion years old — about a billion 
years younger than those from Apollo 1 1 . Thus, such an age 
difference would indicate a total of at least three periods of major 
activity, each separated by about a billion years, in which the seas 
were solidified from lava-like liquid. We can anticipate that other 
areas of the Moon will show still other ages and thus permit the 
development of a chronology of events in the early history of the 
Moon. 



289 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

Chemical and Mineral Composition: In the second area of 
interest,, the composition of the materials found at the Apollo 12 
landing site is also revealing much about the Moon and its history. 
Minerals identified in the Apoilo 12 samples are similar to those 
observed in the Apollo 1 1 materials. Glass, plagioclase, pyroxene, 
olivine, low cristobalite, ilmenite, sanidine, troilitc and iron metal 
have been positively identified. Spinel, tridymite, metallic copper 
and the iron analogue of pyroxrnagite were tentatively identified by 
optical methods. "Four new minerals have been discovered thus 
far. There is much more titanium and other heavy elements in 
the Apollo 11 samples than we find in Earth rocks. But for the 
most part, the mineralogists have been dealing with types of rock 
familiar to them. The significance of the compositions is what 
they tell about the environment in which the rocks were formed. 
Very little oxygen and little or no waler were present when the 
rocks at the Apollo 1 1 site were solidified. 

In looking for clues to the origin of life, extremely sensitive 
techniques were employed. To date no positive, unambiguous 
identification of life forms has been made. In view of the fact 
that the rocks and finely particulate remnants ("dust") of the lunar 
rcgolith from Tranquillity Base exhibited an extremely low carbon 
content, there seemed little or no possibility that the Moon had 
ever evolved a biosphere during the course of its history. This 
a priori conclusion has been confirmed by careful examination 
of rock chips (macrobreccia), thin sections (microbreccia) and 
dust (Figure 7-JO). Observations were made by bright field and 
dark field reflected light, by transmitted light and by scanning 
electron optics. Morphology and optical properties of discrete 
objects in the lunar material, at all levels of observation employed 
in this study, show total absence of structure that can be interpreted 
as biological in origin. The lunar fines examined in this work 
were virtually devoid of terrestrial contaminants. 

The dryness of the Moon is another factor which makes if 
unlikely that any form of life, primitive or advanced, exists on the 
Moon. Because of the weak gravitational pull of the Moon, any 
water which was trapped in the interior of the Moon in liquid or 
vapour form would have diffused to the surface and escaped, so 
that in the course of billions of years the outer layers of the Moon 

290 




Figure 7-10. Typical lunar basaltic thin section. 

probably became thoroughly dehydrated. Water is essential for 
the development of life as we know it. When the Earth was a 
young planet its surface contained an abundance of water, also 
an abundance of the basic molecular building blocks out of which 
all forms of life are constructed. The molecules — amino acids 
and nucleotides — immersed in the waters of the Earth, collided 
ceaselessly; now and then, the collision linked them into the large 
molecules — proteins, DNA and RNA — which arc the essence 
of a living organism. All the basic chemicals of living matter might 
be spread out in a thick paste on the Moon, and yet they could 
never unite to form ihc simplest living organism because they 
would be unable to move about and collide on its dry surface. 

The loose sediment seems the least likely place to discover any 
pre-existing forms of life due to the hostile conditions of soil 
turnover, vacuum, temperature and radiation present on the Moon. 



291 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

The breccia might provide some protection; however, no organized 
forms were observed here cither. 

Future Apollo missions call for drilling down to 10 feet beneath 
the surface. Material from that depth will be subjected to careful 
analysis to search for life forms. 

A wide variety of biological systems are now undergoing tests 
with lunar material to determine if there is any toxicity, microbial 
replication, or pathogenicity. Hislolical studies are being made 
to determine whether or not there is any evidence of pathogenicity. 
Other activities involve extensive in vitro study of the early 
biosamplc and of the regular lunar samples. 

Since we arc dealing with unknown materials, quite elaborate 
quarantine procedures were established on the first two missions. 
We exposed a variety of plants and animals to the lunar soil to 
check for deleterious effects. As you know, there were none. An 
unexpected result was the manner in which certain of the plants 
grew far belter when lunar soil was added. This unexpected turn 
of events is being carefully analyzed. The lunar soil may be 
acting to neutralize some growth-limiting factor secreted by the 
plant. The stimulation could be the result of a beneficial agent 
induced within the cells. Most probably, the stimulation is due 
to the lunar soil providing certain nutrients in a form optimal for 
plants to utilize. 

The "melting pot" in which the rocks were formed was very 
hot — from 1800 to 2200 degrees Fahrenheit. These temperatures 
are comparable to those of the volcanic chambers of Earth. The 
rocks are similar in many respects to the basalts — solidified lava 
— found on the floors of ocean basins on Earth. The rocks 
returned from the Apollo 12 site in the Ocean of Storms seem to 
be cousins to the Apollo 1 1 rocks, but they displayed a wider 
range of mineral constituents and size of crystals. We expect 
that detailed study of these differences will indicate more about 
the internal composition of the Moon. 

The mineralogists have found several other differences between 
the samples returned from the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 sites. 
About half of the Apollo 1 1 rocks were of the type known as 
breccias — which have been deformed by shock and partial melting. 



292 



Scientific Resufts of Apoflo 11 and 12 

Only two of the 45 Apollo 12 rocks were of this type. The Apollo 
12 samples also display a high content of titanium and other heavy 
elements, but to a lesser degree than those of Apollo 1 1. Finally, 
the Apollo 12 soil and microbrcccias were of similar chemical 
composition to one another, but both were different from Apollo 
12 rocks. All of the Apollo 1 1 samples were similar. 

Chemical analyses of the samples were carried out mainly by 
optical spectrographic techniques conducted inside the biological 
barrier. The major constituents of the samples are, in general 
order of decreasing abundance, Si, Fe, Mg, Ca, Al and Ti. Gold, 
silver and the platinum group elements were not detected in any 
samples. 

The chemistry of the Apollo 12 samples is not identical with 
that of any known meteorite, nickel in particular being strikingly 
depleted. The Apollo 12 material is enriched in many elements 
by one to two orders of magnitude in comparison with our estimates 
of cosmic abundances, and the maria material is strongly fractionated 
relative to our ideas of the composition of the primitive sohir 
nebula. 

The Apollo 12 site appears to be less gcomorphologicaily 
mature than Tranquillity Base, with a thinner regotith. The lower 
amount of solar wind material in the Ones, compared to those from 
Tranquillity Base, also suggests that Occanus Proccilarum (Ocean 
of Storms) mare material is younger than in Mare Tranquiili talis. 

The chemistry at the two mare landing sites is clearly related. 
Both sets of lunar samples show the distinctive features of high 
concentrations of refractory elements and low contents of volatile 
elements which most clearly distinguish lunar material from other 
materials. 

Thus, these materials were once exposed to extremely high 
temperatures. Now the question arises, is this typical of the whole 
Moon? Was the material from which the Moon formed baked 
by intense heat from the newly formed Sun? Is that why the Moon 
rocks seem virtually devoid of water and very low in hydrogen? 

Or is this a result of processes that took place on the Moon 
itself? ,Some scientists argue that the Moon has undergone sufficient 



293 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

internal heating and churning to generate a dense core. The 
surface material of the Moon is depleted in heavy substances, like 
gold. On Earth, where this is also true, the explanation is that 
the gold, along with iron and nickel, has largely sunk into the 
core. 

Other scientists point to evidence that the Moon cannot have an 
iron core like that of the Earth. In fact some proposed that the 
Moon, essentially, is a giant clump of debris, most of which has 
not undergone extensive alteration since gravity pulled it all 
together. 

Another proposal was that the Moon was formed from an early 
atmosphere of the Earth, rich in silicates vaporized when the Sun 
was far hotter than it is today. As these silicates cooled, they 
tunned a ring, like that around Saturn, whose particles were finally 
drawn together to form the Moon. 

The chief objection to this theory was that the resulting Moon 
should have been in orbit around the Earth's equator, like all 
other targe moons of the solar system. Instead, the orbit of the 
Moon is considerably tilted to the equator. Differing opinions 
such as these will undoubtedly undergo revision as further missions 
lo the Moon's surface are undertaken. 

In detail, there are numerous and interesting differences between 
the Apollo 12 and the Apollo II rocks. These include: 

1 ) Lower concentration of Ti, both in the rocks and the fine 
material of Apollo 12. 

2) Lower concentrations of K, Rb, Zr, Y, Li and Ba in Apollo 
12 rocks. 

3) Higher concentrations of Fe, Mg, Ni, Co, V and Sc in the 
crystalline rocks from Apollo 12. 

4) A significant variation in the Apollo 12 rocks among the 
elements which favour ferromagncsian minerals. The range 
of abundance was not nearly as great in the Apollo 1 1 rocks. 

5) The fine material at the Apolto 12 site differs from that 
at the Apollo 1 1 site in containing about half the titanium 
content, more Mg, and possibly higher amounts of Ba, K, 
Rb, Zr and Li. 



294 



Scientific Rest/its of Apollo 11 and 12 

The soil found at the Apollo 1 1 site presents a real puzzle. 
Some of it consists of small particles obviously broken from the 
larger rocks found there. But some of the particles arc entirely 
different. A few are pieces of meteorite debris. Others seem to 
be older than the large crystalline rocks and their composition is 
quite different from either meteorites or the rocks. A solution to 
this puzzle must await more detailed analysis of material already 
collected or to be obtained from future sites, 

The soil layer found at the Apollo 12 site, in the Ocean of 
Storms, appears to be about half as thick as that at the Apollo 
11 site. The Apollo 12 landing site lies within a ray of material 
ejected when the crater Copernicus was formed by impact. This 
crater is several hundred miles to the north. 

Lunar Soil Mechanics: The Apollo 12 regolith is generally similar 
to the regolith at Tranquillity Base. Similar penetrations of the 
Lunar Module footpads were observed under similar conditions, 
and bootprint depth was about the same. Also similar are colour, 
grain size, adhesion and cohesion of most of the soil samples. 

The mechanical behaviour of the lunar soil can be summarized 
as follows: 

1 ) Confinement of the loose surface material leads to a 
significant increase in resistance to deformation, which is 
characteristic of soils deriving a large portion of their 
strength from inlerparticle friction. The relatively small 
Lunar Module footpad penetrations of 2,5 to 7.5 centimetres 
and footprint depth of up to 5 centimetres correspond to 
average static-bearing pressures of 0.6 to 1.5 pounds per 
square inch. 

2) The soil possesses a small amount of cohesion. This was 
evidenced by the following observations: (a) it possesses 
the ability to stand on vertical slopes and to retain the 
detail of a deformed shape; the sidewalls of trenches dug 
with the scoop were smooth with sharp edges: (b) the fine 
grains stick together, and, in some cases, it was hard for 
the astronauts to distinguish soil clumps from rock fragments; 



295 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



Scientific Results of Apollo 1 1 and 12 



(c) the holes made by the core tubes were left intact upon 
the removal of the tubes; and (d) the core tubes did not 
tend to pour out when the core bit was unscrewed. 

3) Natural clods of fine-grained material crumbled under the 
astronauts' boots. This behaviour may be indicative of 
some cementation between the grains although in Lunar 
Receiving Laboratory (LRL) tests the soil grains were 
found to cohere again to some extent after being separated. 

4) Most of the footprints at the low leads imposed by the 
astronauts caused compression of the lunar surface soil, 
although in a few instances bulging and cracking of the 
soil adjacent to the footprint occurred. The latter observation 
indicates shearing rather than comprcssional deformation of 
the soil. 

5) At the LRL, the specific gravity of lunar soil was measured 
as 3.1, considerably higher than the average value (about 
2.7) for terrestrial soils. Based on the value obtained for 
the lunar soil and the measured bulk densities, the void 
ratio of the material in core 1 is 0.87 and in core 2 is 1.01. 
The respective porosities are 46.5 and 50. 1 per cent. 
Because of the disturbance involved in sampling, these values 
may not be representative of the material's properties in 
place. 

6) In the LRL, material liner than one millimetre size obtained 
from the lunar bulk samples was placed loosely in a container 
and the bulk density of the material was found to be 1.36 
grams per cubic centimetre. In a second test, the soil was 
compacted to a dense slate with a bulk density of 1.80 
grams per cubic centimetre. In the compact state, the 
bearing capacity of the material was determined by a small 
penetrometer. From these tests the cohesion of the material 
was estimated to be in the range between 0.05 and 0.20 
pound per square inch. The above experiments were 
performed in a nitrogen atmosphere. 

Two significant differences were observed by the Apollo 1 1 and 
12 crews. The Apollo 12 astronauts experienced greater loss of 
visibility due to soil erosion during the Lunar Module landing 

296 






than did the Apollo 1 1 astronauts. This was due to different 
soil conditions or to a different descent profile or to both at the 
two landing sites. The Apollo 12 astronauts were able to drive 
the core tubes to the full depth, approximately 70 cm for the 
double core tube, whereas the Apollo 1 1 astronauts were able to 
drive the tubes only about 15 cm. The Apollo 12 trenches were 
dug to a depth of 20 cm, whereas the Apollo 1 1 astronauts could 
only dig down about 10 cm. 

Investigations indicate that although the lunar soil differs con- 
siderably in composition and range of particle shapes from a 
terrestrial soil of the same particle size distribution, it does not 
appear to differ significantly in its mechanical behaviour. 

Body Properties: The third principal area of interest is the major 
structural properties of the Moon. The primary means of obtaining 
such information is by use of the instruments emplaced by the 
astronauts in the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package 
(ALSEP). 

The Apollo 12 ALSEP as well as one experiment from the 
limited Apollo 1 1 package are functioning at this time. Additional 
packages will be emplaced on later flights. 

The Apollo 1 1 seismometer, which may be compared to an 
extremely sensitive microphone, provided the first definite indication 
that the Moon is very quiet in comparison with the Earth. During 
its 21 Earth days or two lunar days of operation, this instrument 
recorded over 80 natural events, which may have been moonquakes 
or meteoroid hits. But this was much less than what would have 
resulted from seismic activity comparable to that of Earth, or 
from the anticipated rate of meteorite impact. In both missions, 
seismometers were able to record the footsteps of the astronauts as 
well as small thermal shifts within the Lunar Module and the 
outgassing of residual fuels. The seismometer emplaced on the 
Apollo 12 mission is hearing vibrations that indicate events similar 
to those heard by the Apollo 1 1 instrument. 

A major surprise of the Apollo 12 seismic experiment was the 
complex vibrations that followed the planned impact of the Lunar 
Module .ascent stage, 45 miles from the landing site. The impact 
caused the Moon to reverberate for almost an hour, rising to its 

297 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

peak seven minutes after the impact and then gradually subsiding. 
In our experience on Earth there is no precedent for such prolonged 
vibrations or for vibration* increasing in intensity for several minutes 
following a single sharp impact of that magnitude on a passive 
object. This is another bit of evidence pointing toward a very 
complex lunar structure, at least in the region near the Ocean 
of Storms. 

On the Apollo 13 mission, the S-IVB booster rocket impacted 
the Moon about 80 miles from the seismometer left by Apollo 12, 
with an equivalent force of 1 1.5 tons of TNT. The overall character 
of the seismic signal was similar to that of the LM impact signal 
from Apollo 12, but the combination of higher energy and greater 
distance between point of impact and seismometer gave a seismic 
signal 20-30 times larger than the LM impact and four times 
longer in duration. The impact signal was automatically radioed 
to Houston starting 30 seconds after the rocket casing hit. It 
rapidly built up from a modest level to its maximum, a pattern 
that surprised scientists. This part of the signal, at least, cannot 
be satisfactorily explained by scattering of seismic waves in a 
rubble material as was thought possible from the earlier LM impact 
data. It may indicate that the unknown events that melted the 
Moon's surface around 31 billion years ago were so great that 
they melted material at least 35 to 40 miles in depth. The sound 
waves from the crash apparent ly penetrated at least that deep 
before returning to the surface. Scattering of signals may explain 
the later pari of the signal. Several alternate hypotheses are under 
study, but no firm conclusions have been reached. One possibility 
is that the expanding cloud of material from the impact produces 
seismic signals continuously as it sweeps across the lunar surface. 
Whatever the explanation turns out to be, it will be of fundamental 
importance in explaining the origin and evolution of the Moon. 

The signals also seemed to show that if the Moon has a molten 
or once -molten inner core, it must be deeply buried. The 
seismometer recorded no variation in signals to indicate any 
boundary or area of differing material. 

To understand such phenomena fully, however, the geophysicists 
will need to examine the record of signals received at more than 

298 







Figure 7-11. Geologic map of Moon with Candidate Future Landing Sites. 



one site from such an impact. The study of data from a network 
of seismic stations may provide the understanding of how these 
vibrations travel through the upper layers of the Moon, making it 
possible to determine the internal structure (Figure 7-1 1). 

With this understanding, it may also be possible to explain the 
mystery of the so-called miss concentrations or mascons that have 
been found associated with some of the lunar seas. These were 
discovered by analysis of Lunar Orbiter trajectories. 

Lunar Orbiter 5, in particular, circuiting the Moon once every 
three hours and 1 1 minutes over a 10-day period, displayed 
unexpected orbital characteristics that have led to this most 
important discovery. Data received at the Deep Space Network 
tracking system on the Earth revealed the presence of a strong but 
initially unidentified influence that modified the observed orbit to 



299 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



Scientific Results of Apollo 11 and 12 



an appreciable degree. An analysis of the orbital data by scientists 
has revealed strong gravitational anomalies in much the same 
manner that a sensitive mine detector locates its concealed prey. 
It has become clear that very large concentrations of mass (or 
mascons) are situated at no fewer than seven sites on the lunar 
nearside. When (he spacecraft passed close to these buried masses, 
the resultant lunar gravitational attraction it experienced was 
abruptly and drastically modified, thereby changing the subsequent 
path in much the same manner as if engine thrust had been applied. 

The gravitational variations caused by the mascons amount to 
about one per cent of total lunar gravity. This suggests that 
individual mascons may represent as much as 1/50,000 of the 
Moon's total mass. The full extent of the mascons has yet to be 
determined. 

Another unexpected result was the density of the Apollo 1 1 
rock samples, ranging from 3.2 to 3.4 times the density of water. 
This is very close to the average density of the Moon as a whole, 
which is 3.34 times the density of water. If these samples are 
representative of surface densities throughout the Moon, they 
indicate that heavier materia! is not greatly concentrated at the 
centre as is the core of the Earth. The density of Earth rocks varies 
from about 2.5 times that of water at the surface to an estimated 
10 at the core. 

A related surprise was the discovery of an unexpected magnetic 
field by the Apollo 12 magnetometer. The field is faint — about 
30 gammas, a few thousandths of that of the Earth, but five to 
10 times that predicted by theory. No such field has been detected 
by our Explorer 35 spacecraft launched in 1967 and placed in an 
orbit that approaches within 475 miles of the Moon. Nor was the 
field discovered by the Soviet lunar landers, possibly because it 
was below the sensitivity of their magnetometer. If the field 
encompassed the entire Moon, it should have been detected by 
Explorer 35. Thus it seems likely to be local to the Ocean of 
Storms. 

Remanent magnetization has been found in some of the rocks 
returned from the Moon. This suggests that the ancient Moon may 



300 






have had a magnetic field at least 10 times that detected by the 
Apollo magnetometer, or that the Earth and the Moon were 
close enough at one time for the Earth's magnetic field to be 
induced into the still-hot lunar rocks. 

Dynamic Processes: The fourth area of interest is that of 
dynamic processes that have been and arc at work on the Moon. 
It is now evident that impact has played a major role in forming 
the craters and soil of the Moon. In the returned rocks and soil 
particles we have found considerable evidence of strong shock and 
deformation by external forces. Analysis of photographs shows 
that impact is the most ready explanation of the formation of 
craters that range in size from as large as the Imbrium Basin, 600 
miles in diameter, all the way down to tiny pits a fraction of an 
inch in diameter on individual grains of lunar soil. Constant 
bombardment has been responsible for creating much of the lunar 
soil and for ploughing and turning over the top few feet of the 
surface at a very slow rate. The initial results from Apollo 1 1 indicate 
that the turnover and erosion at Tranquillity Base were even slower 
that previously believed. Individual rocks have lain near the 
surface there as long as 500 million years, while erosion progresses 
at about one inch in 25 million years. 

Of course our information on when most of these impacts 
occurred is still inadequate. When we do learn it will be of 
considerable assistance as we attempt to put together the pieces 
of the jigsaw puzzle that will disclose the Moon's early history and 
this history will have significance on Earth. If the Moon underwent 
a severe bombardment by large objects early in its history, it is 
likely that the Earth was also affected. Recognizable remains of 
such a bombardment cannot be found on Earth, but our oceans, 
continents and atmosphere may have resulted from such events. 

A major question still remains in determining how to recognize 
those craters on the Moon that have been formed by volcanic 
processes. We now know these processes have had an important 
influence at some time in the Moon's history. The indications 
thus far are that the dynamic history of the Moon is quite complex, 
with both "hot" and "cold" periods and perhaps times when it 
was hot in some regions and cold in others. 



301 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

Still another dynamic process is the solar wind (a steady rain 
of solar particles) streaming from the Sun and striking the Moon's 
surface at the rale of 36 million helium atoms per second on every 
square inch. This solar weathering is thought to contribute to 
the darkening of the lunar soil. The results of analysis of samples 
returned on the two missions differ in that the solar wind 
composition of the Apollo 12 soil is considerably lower than that 
of Apollo 1 1. This difference is consistent with the age differences 
determined by radioactive dating. It is hoped thnt the analysis of 
the solar wind content of lunar material will provide a record of 
the increases and decreases in the Sun's activity over the last three 
or four billion years. If so, it may be possible to understand the 
influence of solar activity on the Earth's climate through correlation 
with past ice ages and tropical periods. This will require considerable 
effort, however. The experimenters arc still in the initial phase of 
their work to interpret the results of the solar wind composition 
experiment on Apollo 11. 

The Moon as a Space Platform: Finally, there is one area of 
experimentation of particular relevance to our environment here 
on Earth. The laser retroreflector left on the Moon at Tranquillity 
Base has functioned perfectly. By continued ranging on the reflector 
array, three observatories in this country have been able to 
determine the relative Earth - Moon distance to far greater 
accuracy than ever before. One of these observatories has made 
relative Earth -Moon distance measurements to an accuracy 
of one foot. Further ranging is expected to reduce the uncertainty 
to about six inches. Distance measurements of this accuracy 
will supply precise information on lunar orbital motion and 
librations — periodic oscillations of the Moon. They can also 
lead to understanding of fluctuations in the Earth's rotation rate, 
measurement of the drift of the continents of the Earth and study 
of the variations in the wobbling of the Earth's rotational axis. 
There arc indications that the wobbling of the Earth's axis is 
associated with major earthquakes. Thus the understanding of 
this relationship may make it possible to understand their causes 
and to develop a mechanism for predicting them. 

One other point is worth mentioning with regard to the laser 



302 



• 






Scientific Results of Apoilo 1 1 and 12 

retroreflector. It is there for anyone to use. No special permission 
is needed from the United States government to operate it. It 
is simply a mirror device that will reflect certain types of laser 
beams back to any place on Earth from which they may be 
transmitted. Thus it is conceivable that observatories elsewhere 
in the world may be conducting experiments with this device 
without informing us. Of course, NASA is happy to provide 
information on how to utilize the reflector to scientists of other 
countries who wish to do so. We would hope that they would 
publish their results in the open literature, just as scientists in this 
country are doing. 

Other International Aspects: A number of distinguished foreign 
scientists have been active in the sample analysis. Since the Apollo 
1 1 mission we have received many other requests from overseas 
to join in the work. A number of additional countries are included 
in the allocation plan for Apollo 12 samples. We have carried 
one Swiss experiment on Apollo 1 1 and Apollo 1 2 and we 
anticipate carrying other experiments from other countries on other 
missions.* The lunar exploration programme lends itself especially 
well to international co-operation, both in terms of data analysis 
and in participation as an experimenter. We hope to make this 
programme an outstanding example of how the National Aero- 
nautics and Space Act can foster international scientific co-operation. 



• An agreement was reached in 1969 between the School of Physics of the 
University of Sydney and NASA on their joint participation in the Apoilo 
Dust Detector Experiment (DDE) and the Charged Particle Lunar 
Environment Experiment (CPLEE). The DDE was put on the Moon on 
Apollos II and 12 and will also be placed there by Apollos 14. 15 and 
16. CPLEE. which measures the energy distribution, time variations and 
direction of proton and electron fluxes on the Moon, will be placed 
there by Apollo 14. The data will be sent to the School of Physics for 
the one- to two-year active life of the experiments. — Ed, 

303 



CHAPTER EIGHT 

The Impact of Space 
on Planet Earth 

By G. E. Mueller 

Throughout recorded history, the great civilizing influences have 
been advances in transportation and communications and the 
discovery of new territory. Our expedition into space is essentially 
the combination of all three — the operation of man-carrying rocket 
powered vehicles, the perfection of communications between Earth 
and deep space, the opening of the solar system to manned explora- 
tion and the new-found capability to walk upon the Moon. 

Some idea of the magnitude of the potential results might emerge 
if we could contemplate the mind-boggling thought of the readiness 
of the airplane, and television at the time of the discovery of the 
Western Hemisphere! Using that assumption as a point of 
reference, we can reasonably expect that the eventual resulting 
changes in our way of life as a consequence of space activity may be 
more fundamental than any which have occurred in the history 
of man. For the multiplier effect of these factors operating 
together can be expected to produce results which are difficult 
to imagine. 

Tf one would extrapolate from these evidences which are presently 
apparent in each of the sciences and technologies which have been 
substantially altered by our venture into space, the conclusions 
would be truly incredible. 

Experience teaches that while near-term prognostication is usually 
extravagant, our glimpses of the more distant future are frequently 
far too conservative. 

It is also hazardous to try to set dates for specific developments 
for a whole regime of activity may be delayed by the lack of one 
element, one breakthrough. However, we have learned, on our 



304 




Figure 8-1. 



Thirtean-frame sequence taken of tltr Moon after Apollo 10 
trart\-Eartlt insertion. 



way to the Moon, how to discover on schedule, so that the lags 
in development which we have experienced in the past may not 
occur in the future. On this premise it may not be unreasonable to 
anticipate the most spectacular results of the intensive scientific 
and technological labours of the past decade. 

Two new territories arc immediately available for investigation — 
near-Earth space and the lunar surface (Figure 8-1). These can 
and are being explored with equipment prepared for the Apollo 
Programme. 

Continuing landings on the lunar surface are impacting the 
sciences of astronomy, geology, geodesy, radiology, meteorology, 
volcanism, biology and physics. Over a thousand scientists gathered 
;it the Manned Spacecraft Centre in Houston in January of this 
year to discuss their preliminary findings after cursory examination 
of the samples returned by Apollo 1 1 . Samples from Apollo 12 
differed so that additional expeditions are of vital importance to 
the scientists. 

In ncar-Earth space over 50 experiments arc scheduled in the 
Skylab Programme which will give us fundamental information 
about this planet as well as the essential knowledge concerning 
the actions of certain earth processes, and the behaviour of some 



305 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

materials in the weightless vacuum of space. This Programme, 
making use of equipment manufactured for Apollo, will be a pilot 
programme for the Space Station of the future. The inter- 
relationship of men and machines in space will be studied over 
significant periods and fundamental information will be applied 
to the Space Station. 

However, today 1 will talk about those impacts of the space 
adventure which arc already evident. 

The Apollo Programme marshalled the largest work force ever 
gathered to execute a peaceful project. Over the eight years of its 
preparation, from the announcement of the national goal of a 
lunar landing by President Kennedy in May, 1961, until the launch 
of Apollo 11 on July 16, 1969, more than half a million people 
were engaged in this Programme at one time or another. 

This strong and effective team was composed of men and 
women from government, industry and the academic community. 
Practically every science and technology was involved, from botany 
to zoology — from electrical engineering to glass making. And all 
of them were forced to think, to grow, to change because of the 
new and stringent requirements which the building of the capability 
to operate in space demanded. 

There emerged from the necessary new mixture of disciplines a 
kind of cross-fertilization between engineering and science, a new 
kind of rapport between people whose experience and backgrounds 
were completely dissimilar — a melting pot, if you will, which has 
produced a new breed of scientist, technician and manager. Some 
of the remarkable results are well illustrated by the co-operative 
work being done today as engineers and doctors work together to 
design revolutionary medical equipment, of which I will speak later. 

Because of the high cost of all space activity, let us first look at 
economic results. It is important to begin by realizing that all of 
the money was spent on Earth — there" is not, as yet, any monetary 
system in space. Most of the funds were used for wages and 
salaries which were, in turn, used for food, clothing, shelter, 
education, travel, recreation and investment. Quite a lot was spent 
for fundamental research, and went eventually toward the mainten- 
ance of our schools and universities. Another portion bought the 



306 



Australian 



Figure 8-2. 
track ins station. 




** 



facilities which house the various elements of this many faceted 
programme. And these facilities, in many cases, can and are being 
used for purposes other than space support. 

While all funds came out of tax dollars, many of them did, in 
fact, return to the national treasury in the form of tax payments 
made by companies and individuals. Although most of the highly 
qualified technologists and scientists who worked on the space 
programme would in any case be gainfully employed, there was 
a fairly large number of people who were called upon to man the 
Centres across the South .vho would, except for the creation of 
these facilities, have remained as subsistence farmers — not 
significantly contributing to their own or the national good. This 
fact is particularly pertinent in the states of Florida, Louisiana and 
Mississippi. 

Major contractors for the Apollo Programme included 22 
large aerospace and electronics manufacturers. They sub- 
contracted work to over 20,000 companies in every State in the 
nation. Some funds were used internationally, especially, as here 
in Australia, for tracking stations (Figure 8-2). The manufacturing 
companies found it necessary to create new and very sophisticated 

307 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

facilities in order to produce the exotic hardware which would 
carry men to the Moon and back. As a direct result of these 
needs, the whole aerospace industry was updated and upgraded. 
New factories and new equipment replaced less sophisticated 
installations, so that the United States now has the most modern 
aerospace industrial plant in the world. 

The expertise which was demanded by the space programme 
very quickly began to be applied to other products as factories 
adapted their experience with new systems and equipment to both 
civilian and military products. Profits from this kind of activity 
showed up in our international balance of payments, when, during 
a period when the balance was weighted against the U.S., techno- 
logical exports were 10 times higher than imports. The items 
included in such a list are patent licence fees, highly specialized 
equipment, management services and computer rentals. 

Another direct consequence was the creation of new industry. 
One of the first and most closely related to the space programme 
is the business of manufacturing and handling the cryogenic fuels 
which power the launch vehicles. The demands of space for these 
fuels has caused that industry to grow very rapidly. Because these 
chemicals were needed in such large quantities, they were produced 
economically and are now being used in many industries. New 
companies have also been formed to produce and market hundreds 
of individual items which stem from the technologies developed 
in response to space needs. They include paints, medical instru- 
mentation, specially treated foods, fireproof fabrics and other non- 
metallic materials, sports equipment, hand tools, lubricants, many 
new metal alloys and other composites. 

The pervasiveness of this new space-generated technology is 
demonstrated by the range and variety of the thousands of products 
which have been described. I shall discuss only a few. 

The Saturn V launch vehicle, the world's largest flight article, 
has been called the most sophisticated engineering project in the 
history of man (Figure 8-3). Containing over 5.6 million parts 
in its systems, it produces 7i million pounds of thrust at lift-off and 
sends a payload of 98,000 pounds into Earth orbit. 

This vehicle is the most significant step in the direction of the 



308 



T 




Figure 8-3. 
The Sal urn V launch vehicle. 

continuing exploration of our solar system, and may well provide 
us with the first stage of the eventual transportation system which 
will permit our investigation of the planets. 

At the other extreme, space has produced one of the world's 
smallest manufactured items, the integrated circuit. A silicon 
chip less than a tenth of a square centimetre in area can now 
hold a complete logic circuit or register. Its intricacy can only 
be seen through a powerful microscope, but its utility is almost 
unlimited. In addition to radio and computer components, the 
reliability of these circuits is enabling designers and manufacturers 
to apply electronic circuits to new and old products. There are 
those who think that these tiny chips may have as much influence 
upon our economy and upon our daily lives as the giant booster 
which allows us to leave the Earth. 

Presently most important to the total society are the effects of 
the space expedition upon the educational system. Although no 
one would have said so at the time, Sputnik probably did more 
to revolutionize educational philosophy than any other single event. 
It focused attention upon the fact that most elementary and 
secondary schools in the United States were still geared to the 
nineteenth century while the world was racing into the twenty-first. 



309 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

There was an almost immediate reaction which brought science 
and mathematics to the fore, along with astronomy and physics. 
Second-graders were being introduced to the "new Maths" while 
their siblings in secondary schools learned calculus and physics 
which had formerly been confined to college curricula. Engineering 
assumed a more important role in secondary schools and universities. 

While it can generally be stated that all major research and 
development programmes raise the educational level, there is no 
doubt that in the U.S.A. the space programme surpasses anything 
previously done in this regard. There are specific reasons for this. 
First, it was understood at the outset that in order to develop the 
capability to operate in space, a great deal of new knowledge 
would be required. Therefore an orderly procedure for enabling 
universities to search for this new knowledge was set up. Second, 
the kinds of information essential to the programme had to come 
from a greater number of scientific and technological regimes. 
Therefore a broad spectrum of studies was affected which included 
the fundamental sciences concerned with man and his behaviour. 
In addition these other subjects would be involved: nuclear power, 
metals, lubricants, propellants, sealants, gases, aerodynamics, com- 
munications, navigation, geology, geodesy and astronomy. 

From 1959 through 1968, Project Research, which is one aspect 
of the NASA university programme, received S479.9 million while 
the Sustaining University Programme received $203.9 million, for 
a total of $683.8 million. Work with the universities is broken 
down into these two major sections. About 70 per cent of NASA 
funds a'located to universities has been by the Project Research 
method. This system which supports the research of principal 
investigators within universities is serving both NASA and the 
schools well. These programmes ulso involve large numbers of 
faculty and graduate students and generate about three out of 
four of the space science publications for all NASA programmes. 

In the decade of the 1960s Research Laboratories were built 
under NASA grants at 34 institutions. Facilities include Space 
Sciences Laboratories, Materials Research Centres, Biomedical 
Laboratories and Propulsion Research Laboratories. 



310 






• 



impact of Space on Planet Earth 

Important research has already been carried out in these facilities. 
Equally important, research opportunities are being provided in 
these institutions for advanced work toward doctoral degrees in 
many disciplines. A substantial portion of young men and women 
who have already received their doctoral degrees under the NASA 
pre-doctoral training programme did their graduate research in these 
facilities. 

More than 10 per cent of all funds supporting Project Research 
has been invested in these installations which are available for 
continuing education and research. 

Scientific experiments performed in space represent an area of 
significant accomplishment. More than 98 per cent of balloon- 
borne experiments, more than 40 per cent of sounding rocket 
experiments, and more than 50 per cent of satellite experiments 
flown on NASA vehicles, had principal investigators or co- 
investigators in our universities. A large share of the significant 
discoveries in space science were made in university originated 
experiments. 

Presently NASA supports about 1 3,000 project oriented research 
grants and contracts in universities. For example, 32 universities 
in 21 States are now working with NASA on various aspects of 
the Earth resources satellite programme. 

The Sustaining University Programme accounts for about 30 
per cent of NASA funds allocated to universities and provides 
support to institutions rather than to principal investigators. Many 
of its objectives, increasing the supply of trained manpower, 
increasing university involvement in aeronautics and space, 
broadening the base of confidence and consolidating closely related 
activities, have been achieved. 

Over 4000 doctorates have been earned by trainees in the 
Sustaining University Programme for pre-doctoral traineeship 
grants. These have been made to 152 universities. More than 
half of these highly trained scientists and engineers are remaining 
in the universities and will continue to make a meaningful contri- 
bution to the nation through education and research for years to 
come. This very specific work with universities has had a significant 
influence on the level of education throughout the United States. 

311 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

For primary and secondary schools, teachers are supplied with 
relevant information in useful formats, which the teacher may use 
at his discretion. In addition, publications arc provided which 
relate aerospace results to various subjects. These are useful to 
curriculum planners as well as textbook writers. NASA's teacher 
educational services arc used by approximately 25,000 teachers 
annually. Congresses of student scientists as well as Science Fairs 
encourage young people in their scientific interests. One of the 
most exciting of all educational projects is the Spaccmobilc, a 
travelling exhibit, manned by qualified speakers, which has been 
seen by millions of people cither live or on TV throughout the 
U.S. Improvement of educational facilities and curricula is among 
the more visible benefits from the space programme. 

People everywhere have already come to accept, without surprise, 
the communications satellites which bring us live TV from every- 
where, and have improved and reduced the cost of overseas 
communications. 

But we have not yet seen the use of the many-channelled large 
broadcast satellite in synchronous orbit. This development will 
permit tailored educational programmes for urban centres and for 
remote rural areas. It gives promise of surmounting the barriers 
now associated with communications and education in many parts 
of the world. India has completed negotiations for the experimental 
use of a satellite for educational purposes. Beginning in 1972, 
5000 Indian villages will receive direct broadcast from a satellite 
hovering above the sub-continent. Each village in the experiment 
will have its own inexpensive receiving equipment. If this test 
is successful, India may expand the system to reach the rest of 
her 100,000 villages. 

Arthur Clarke, author and scientist, estimates the cost of 
educating people by this method at slightly more than $2 per 
pupil per year. 

Since 1958 when America initiated its space activity, more than 
a billion children have been born into the world — the first generation 
of the space age. Because of the space programme you young 
people are learning a new science, a new cosmology, and you will 

312 




impact of Space on Planet Earth 

have a new view of man and his destiny in the universe. Although 
the dramatic flights to the Moon appear to us a revolutionary victory 
of man over the gravity of the Earth and the vacuum of space which 
have confined him to his native planet, space flight will become a 
commonplace to you and your colleagues. 

Ycu young people can look ahead confidently to new oppor- 
tunities and great advances which will be made in the 2 1st 
century when you will be in your 'thirties and 'forties. You will 
be the first generation to know the Earth as a whole and you will 
be able to relate technology, science and philosophy as a unified 
experience, common to all men of the Blue Planet, Earth. 

But perhaps the most significant aspect of the space adventure 
to you is its promise that you will, yourselves, participate in the 
pioneering stages of this great exploration. For men will be going 
into space in increasing numbers and for a vast number of reasons 
as this new frontier opens. 

One of the areas of interest to everyone which has been most 
forcefully impacted by the space programme, particularly Apollo, 
is the biomedical. We at NASA had to know on a real-time basis, 
while it was happening, how fast the hearts of the astronauts were 
beating, how much oxygen they were using, how their muscles 
were reacting to the stresses imposed by their tasks in a weightless 
environment. And these evaluations had to be made without 
restricting the activity of these space test pilots. So medical doctors, 
biologists and engineers worked together to perfect a new system to 
relay information from a biosensor attached to the body of the 
astronaut to a computer, to data screening equipment, and through 
the Apollo communications network to the medical team at the 
Manned Spacecraft Centre at Houston, Texas — from 200 miles — 
or 800 miles or from a quarter of a million miles out in space. 

A recent adaptation of this system is being used in many cities 
to increase the efficiency of hospitals. Radio-equipped ambulances 
transporting a heart attack victim use spray-on electrodes to attach 
biosensors which transmit an electrocardiogram to the hospital 
emergency staff (Figure 8-4). When the patient arrives both 
staff and equipment are ready to administer the indicated treatment. 



313 




Figure 8-4. Biosensor attached to licttrt attack victim in ambulance trans- 
mits an electrocardiogram to hospital emergency staff. 

Since more ihan 60 per cent of deaths resulting from heart attacks 
occur within one hour, the value of speed is evident. The spray-on 
electrodes can be used to monitor a patient after he has returned 
home, so that he can communicate an electrocardiogram to his 
doctor by telephone. 

An exciting new development is the result of the work of scientists 
at Stanford University and NASA researchers. A system for 
studying the actions of the heart from the exterior by means of 
sonar, or ultrasound, replaces another NASA developed procedure 
in which a thin catheter is inserted into one of the heart chambers. 
The new system is stifl experimental but is expected to accomplish 
important diagnostic work without either danger or discomfort to 
the patient. 

For the first time well men are being examined over long and 
continuous periods while they perform complex tasks, while they 



314 






impact of Space on P/anet Earth 

eat, sleep, rest and relax. I venture to say that we already know 
more about the well human being today than we have ever known 
before. And we arc only at the beginning of our exploration of 
men in space. 

Very significant information will be coming from the Skylab 
Programme when men stay in space for as long as 56 days at a 
time. But even our relatively few manned flights have produced 
enough knowledge to have created new concepts of medical 
procedures and equipment. You have heard of some of them. 

The precision which we associate with the flights of Apollo is 
the result of precise testing and measuring. In our search for 
exact analysis of rockets and thrusters, we developed some 
instruments so sensitive that they have naturally found application 
in medicine. One of the remarkable adaptations is the breathing 
sensor. This is a delicate instrument which examines the breath 
coming through a tracheotomy tube which is inserted into the 
wind-pipe in certain operations. Formerly a nurse would need to 
be in constant attendance to monitor the tube. Now, integrated 
circuitry notes infinitesimal differences in temperature of the air, 
and actuates a visual or audible alarm at the nurse's station if any 
change occurs. 

Electronic sensors that were used to monitor astronauts during 
Mercury and Gemini flights have been adapted to continuously 
and simultaneously measure the pulse and respiration rates, 
temperature and blood pressure of up to 64 patients in a hospital 
and provide continuous display of this information at a central 
control station. This single development promises to revolutionize 
hospitals throughout the world. It is being incorporated in new 
hospitals everywhere. 

Anyone who has stayed in bed for two weeks or more knows 
how difficult it is to walk again with unused muscles. It is much 
worse for those who have been bedridden for months or years. 
If these people could get to the Moon they would find it easy to 
move about in the lunar gravity as their muscle strength returned. 
That not being possible yet, they can use the Lunar Gravity 
Simulator at a NASA Centre in Virginia. The simulator has been 
adapted and is being tested for this purpose at the Texas Institute 
for Rehabilitation and Research (Figure 8-5). 



315 




& 




Figure 8-6. "Sight Switch" mutinied 
on eyeglass frame can he flicked bv 
a mere movement of an eyeball. 



Figure 8-7. The Muscle Accelero- 
meter, adapted from a momentum 
transducer developed at the NASA 
Ames Research Centre, California. 



Figure 8-5. Lunar Gravity Simulator. 

A paralyzed person can now operate a motor-driven wheel chair, 
turn the pages of a book, change a TV station or call for help — 
all with a switch which can be operated by the movement of his 
eyes (Figure 8-6). The switch operates on the principle of infra- 
red reflection from the eyeball. 

The "clean room" techniques developed by NASA for assembly 
of small components and those used at the Lunar Receiving 
Laboratory to prevent contamination arc being adapted for use in 
hospitals. 

A muscle motion measuring device has evolved from the 
equipment designed to measure the force of meteors. It is so 
sensitive that it can measure the heartbeat of an embryo chick 
inside the egg shell. It can detect the muscle tremor of Parkinson's 
disease long before il becomes visible (Figure 8-7). 

For several years NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been 



316 



using digital computers to enhance the clarity of television pictures 
of the Moon and Mars transmitted from spacecraft. Although the 
original pictures were surprisingly sharp considering the circum- 
stances, technical limitations of the camera and electrical distortion 
encountered in the transmission reduced the clarity desired. By 
processing the photos in a digital computer, details that were 
obscured in the original became apparent. 

In 1966. this technique was applied to medical and biological 
X-rays, with promising results. Doctors were able to observe 
clarity of detail that would otherwise be lost or overlooked. 
Computer enhancement of X-ray photos currently continues under 
development (Figure 8-8). 

Laser technology developed originally for defence and space 
use is being adapted for delicate and precise use in medicine. 
Aerospace engineers have been working since 1962 with medical 
research teams to find new ways to use lasers in "knifeless 
surgery" and as diagnostic tools. 

317 



VIDEO DATA PROCESSING 



IV 

IP1CTWE 



SKULL X-MYS 







r 



BEFORE 



Figure 8-8. Photographs of the human skull and the surface of Mars 
before and after the application of digital filtering techniques. 

Lasers are being used with outstanding success in eye surgery, 
and are being evaluated in dermatology, organ repair, amputation 
and in microbiological studies. Such surgery can be painless and, 
in many cases, practically bloodless. As a diagnostic tool, the 
microscopically small point of focus of a laser beam might be used 
to lift painlessly and instantaneously a minuscule particle of skin 
from a patient's arm. Or by passing the beam through a hypodermic 
needle, the laser can sample tissue inside the body. 

A transducer developed for the Manned Spacecraft Centre to 
measure the impact of the Apollo spacecraft Command Module 
during water landings is being used in the titling of artificial limbs. 
The transducer is smaller than a dime and weighs less than an 
ounce. The sensing diaphragm is stainless steel and the whole unit 
is waterproof. It will respond to changes in pressure, and is not 
affected by temperatures between freezing and 12Q°F. 



318 






Impact of Space on Planet Earth 

Of course you have heard about the wheel chair that climbs 
stairs and walks in sand, and about the computerized clinics that 
take the health history of a patient and set it up for easy reference 
by the doctor. There is an interesting experiment now going on 
in the state of New Mexico where the medical backgrounds of a 
large but widely scattered rural population are being compiled and 
computerized so thai a few doctors will be able to remotely treat 
a great number of patients. 

All of these are rather like the tip of an iceberg in that (hey 
are only the most obvious developments. In this time of rapidly 
multiplying populations, the systems which have been invented 
for the maintenance of astronaut health are going to be applied to 
the health of people on the ground. 

One of the most important of all aids to man will play an 
important role in public health aspects as well as many others — 
man's newest and most universally applicable tool, the computer 
(Figure 5-9). Computers have been so improved and developed 
to meet the demands of the space programme that our spacecraft 
can be directed on a perfect course through the vast and empty 
reaches of space, all the way to the Moon — all the way to Mars 
and the farther planets. This most capable servant has grown 
from a system which made one million calculations a minute only 
a few years ago for the Mercury flights to the Apollo computer 
complex which now produces 50 times that many — 50 million 
a minute, 80 billion calculations in a day. As computer capability 
has grown it has been adapted to serve most of industry and is 
now a S20 billion annual business in the United Stales alone, 
employing one in every 100 of the entire work force. NASA's 
investment in the development of computers amounts to almost 
three quarters of a billion dollars. 

It is difficult to categorize such a useful tool, for it has application 
in almost everything we do. It will, of course, play a major role 
in the prevention and cure of pollution, as well as the management 
of health, education, slum clearance, traffic regulation, in shun, 
wherever large numbers of units or more than a few kinds of 
considerations must be accommodated. While the computer is 
certainly not a direct product of our space activity, its development 



319 




Figure 8-9. Overall view of the Mission Operation* Control Room, in the 

Mission Control Centre at Manned Spacecraft Centre, daring television 

transmission from Apollo li mission. 

has been so markedly accelerated by [he requirements of Apollo 
and other space programmes that we might almost claim it as a 
step-child. There is no question that computer capability has been 
one of the principal building blocks of our space capability, or that 
it will continue to be central to most of man's activity in the- future. 
One might also say that engineering has also been so forcefully 
impacted by the needs of space that it is indeed a new technology. 
The requirement for the Saturn V for the Moon voyages demanded 
a kind of scale and perfection which had never existed before — 
not even in our most sophisticated aerospace products. The 
standards normally associated with commercial or military products 
had to be increased a hundredfold for the manufacture and 
testing of the five and a half million parts of the Saturn launch 
vehicle (Figure 8-10). And these systems worked with remarkable 
reliability. On the epochal flight of Apollo 11, only one 



320 



Figure 8-10. Saturn V first stage for the Apollo 8 manned mission being 
erected at the Veltit If Assembly Building. 

mechanical part failed, the non-critical timer in the Lunar Module. 
I'hat mission achieved a reliability of 99.99996 per cent — a 
truly unbelievable accomplishment. 

Except for Apollo 6 and Apollo 13, on which there were 
mechanical problems, the Satum vehicle performed with outstanding 
perfection. The engineering which created them had, therefore to 
be of a higher order than that ever practised before. That quality 
of workmanship has become a new way of working for thousands 
of people who spent years building these spacecraft. It can 
reasonably be expected that they will carry their work habits over 
to whatever other equipment they manufacture 

The chemically fuelled rocket engine, first demonstrated by 
Robert Goddard in 1927 and significantly improved during World 
War II by the Germans, has been brought under control, both as 
to performance and to stability, and man-rated. 



321 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

The rocket engines used on the Saturn family of launch vehicles 
have performed with amazing perfection. Ten Saturn Is, each 
using eight LOX/Kcrosene engines and six LOH/H- engines; 
five Saturn IBs with eight LOX/ Kerosene 200,000 pound thrust 
engines and one 200,000 pound thrust LOX/H. engine and eight 
of the giant Saturn Vs, the world's largest flight equipment — each 
using five one million pound thrust engines and six two hundred 
thousand pound thrust LOX/H 2 engines — have all sent their 
payloads out of our atmosphere with almost perfect dependability. 
Including Mercury and Gemini flights, the total is 41 successful 
launches in 41 attempts. 

These engines, therefore, are a new highly dependable source 
of power. The high pressure LOX/H. reusable engines now being 
developed will produce 400,000 pounds of thrust with a specific 
impulse of 450 seconds or more. This technology is expected to 
be used in the second generation of space vehicles, the space 
shuttles, which will provide economical reusable transportation 
between Earth and Earth orbit. 

Requirements for construction of the Saturn vehicles advanced 
the state-of-the-art in welding and joining as well as in metallurgy. 
The need for high-strenglh, lightweight metals brought forth a 
new honeycomb structure. A new aluminium casting alloy called 
M-45 was created and is now being used in industry because of its 
superior strength and ductility at cryogenic temperatures. 

Liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen flow rates of 10,000 gallons 
per minute were desired for the rapid loading of the Saturn V. 
These rates were 10 times higher than any previously achieved. 
Liquid hydrogen is transferred through a 10-inch diameter vacuum 
jacketed line by pressurizing the 850,000 gallon storage tank lo 
60 pounds per square inch. Liquid oxygen, which is too heavy 
for efficient high speed transfer using only prcssurization, required 
the development of a 10,000 gallon per minute pumping system. 
We do not know that these techniques have yet been used for any 
other purposes, but the know-how is developed and may well be 
applicable to irrigation, transportation or water pollution problems. 

Innovation and invention characterized the Apollo Programme 
and created many outstanding examples of new technology. A 

322 



t~ t: 



7.V' 



Figure 8-11. 

Intvf>ruled The mm! 
MkroiMU'or'ue Varment. 

good example is the astronauts" space suit (Figure 8-11). Because 
it contains all essential elements, it has been called the "world's 
smallest manned spacecraft". To build it, a new fabric has been 
developed — teflon coaled fibrcglass cloth which is non-flammable 
in a pure oxygen atmosphere at temperatures up to I20Q"F. It 
is used for the exterior cover, as well as for other layers where 
strength and wear resistance arc of importance. 

This is only one of the developments which resulted from the 
need for fireproof materials in the Apollo Command Module. Over 
3200 nonmctallic materials were tested and the information which 
was developed has been computerized so that any manufacturer 
can easily ascertain the II am inability characteristics of materials 
which he contemplates using. Reference was made to this informa- 
tion during the preparation of cabin furnishings for the new Boeing 
747. As this information becomes more widely used it can be 
expected lo have a beneficial effect upon the furnishing of public 
places as well as upon consumed goods. One important manu- 
facturer of bedding is already using for mattress filling the same 
material which was developed for the astronaut couches. Fire 
fighter suits are being manufactured of the same fabric which is 
used for the outer layer of the space suit. 



123 








\ 



Figure 8-i2. 

Liquid Cooling Garment. 



Fourteen layers compose the integrated thermal micrometeorite 
garment, which, as its name implies, protects ihe astronaut against 
the hazards of temperature as well as the possibility of micro- 
meteorite penetration during extravehicular activity. The new 
materials which constitute these layers arc alternately kapton, 
aluminized kapton and Beta cloth, under the teflon coated super 
Beta cloth outer layer. 

The suit proper is composed of the Liquid Cooling Garment, 
the gas bladder for pressure control, and the restraint layer. The 
Liquid Cooling Undergarment and the insulation provided by the 
covering garment arc designed for extravehicular activity. 

The Liquid Cooling Garment is already being used in some 
hospitals for temperature control of patients with very high fevers 
(Figure 8-12), The pressurizing equipment in the space suit has 
also been used in hospitals as a medical aid. 



324 



Impact of Space on Planet Earth 

The helmet with its extravehicular visor assembly completes the 
pressure vessel of the miniature spacecraft. It is composed of a 
non-breakable polycarbonate which is optically clear. The layers 
of the visor can attenuate visible radiation including the ultra-violet 
and infra-red ends of the spectrum to protect the eyes of the 
astronauts from damage. 

Even before the refinements which were incorporated into the 
Apollo helmet were accomplished the Gemini helmet was adapted 
for an interesting and life-saving use (Figure 8-13), Children 
with respiratory ailments were difficult to treat since keeping them 
in bed prevented doctors from properly analyzing their response to 
activity. The Gemini helmet, fitted with the necessary medical 
equipment, not only solved that problem but also cheered the 
children, who arc usually ardent space fans. 

Prcssurization and oxygen arc supplied through connections on 
the front of the suit. During extravehicular activity, including 
exploration of the lunar surface, the back-pack carries expendables, 
communications equipment and all other units necessary to life 
support. 

The Portable Life Support System, carrying all of the expendables 
needed by the astronauts, as well as their air conditioning system, 
can sustain the astronauts for four hours on a single filling. It 
can then be resupplied from the Lunar Module with an additional 
four hours of supplies. 

The control unit for this Portable Life Support System is easily 
available to the astronauts as are its gas connectors. Equally 
accessible is the biosignal conditioner which transmits coded 
information from the biosensors to the medical team at the 
Manned Spacecraft Centre at Houston while the astronauts are in 
space. 

The communications carrier, located in the helmet, provides 
radio contact through the Apollo spacecraft to the Flight Controllers 
at Houston, by means of the Apollo tracking system. 

The oxygen purge system is able to maintain oxygen pressure 
in the event of a tear. 

In this space suit we have brought to use many materials, 
devices and techniques which might otherwise have spent many 
years awaiting application. It is thus that space needs have forced 

325 




Figure 8-13. The Gemini helmet is 
being used in the treatment of 
children Kit It respiratory a i lit wills. 



Figure 8-14, The crawler-transporter 

carrying Apollo 8's 363-foot-high 

Saturn V space vehicle to lite launch 

pad. 



the development and application of new technology. Most of the 
complex systems and fabrications contained in the suit have not yet 
been adapted for any other use, primarily because many are under 
continuing development. 

Unprecedented feats of engineering were accomplished to 
support the great space adventure. Among them were the mobile 
launcher, a 12 million pound. 405 foot tall structure built so that 
it could be transported while carrying an Apollo Saturn V vehicle. 
The launch platform base is 135 feet wide, 160 feet long and 25 
feet deep, divided internally into two levels which contain checkout 
equipment, a full computer and a telemetry terminal. Since the 
launcher is exposed to the rocket exhaust of the 7.5 million pound 
!h rust first stage, special attention was required in the design to 
protect the equipment from the extreme thermal, vibration and 
acoustic environments. 

The crawler-transporter (Figure 8-14 ), which carries the 
assembled launch vehicle from the Vehicle Assembly Building to 



Impact of Space on Planet Earth 

the launch pad, was adapted from technology originally developed 
in the field of strip mining; however, adaptation of this type of 
vehicle to the task of transporting the Apollo Saturn V space 
vehicle imposed many new requirements, which presented 
challenging problems to the design engineers. 

The crawler-transporter's load carrying capacity is 12 million 
pounds. With this load it can traverse a 500 foot horizontal curve, 
and climb a five per cent grade at one mile per hour in a 46 knot 
wind measured at the top of the 405 foot Mobile Launcher. The 
requirements were complicated even more by restricting the rate 
of turn per individual crawler track to 10° per minute, limiting 
value of 2.6 feet per second and maintaining the Mobile Launcher 
level in the horizontal plane within 1/12 of a degree at all times 
even while negotiating the S° slope. 

In 1966, the American Society of Civil Engineers presented the 
"1966 Outstanding Civil Engineering Achievement Award" for 
Kennedy Space Centre's Launch Complex 39. 

The most prominent feature of Launch Complex 39 is the 525- 
foot tall Vehicle Assembly Building (Figure 8-15). This building 
was built to stringent requirements, which included a capability to 
withstand 125 miles per hour hurricane winds and a minimum 
deflection of the building under high winds. The particular modular 
truss structure employed also provides flexibility for accommodating 
internal structural changes that might be required for future space 
vehicle configurations. 

Although the engineering award was a tribute to the design and 
construction engineering teams who overcame difficult and 
frustrating problems, the most challenging aspect of constructing 
the complex fell to the engineering management team, whose 
innovations in project time phasing resulted in an "on-time" 
completion of the facility from which man's first journey to the 
Moon would be made. 

This concept of identifying and measuring progress towards 
critical milestones was a characteristic of the total Apollo 
Programme. These milestones were constantly and carefully 
monitored by project offices at the Centres and by the Headquarters 
Office in Washington. Time management and time saving were 



.126 



327 




Figure 8-15. The 525-loot-iatl VthicU Assembly Building is the most 
prominent feature e-j Launch Complex 39. 



the essential elements involved in accomplishing the lunar landing 
at the lowest cost estimated for its completion. 

Another of the critical engineering problems was thermal 
protection. The velocity of the spacecraft entering the Earth's 
atmosphere on its return from the Moon is 24,500 miles per hour. 
At that speed, friction created by contact with the air results in 
temperatures on the spacecraft of approximately 50(H) F. 
Temperature environments during other parts of the flight vary 
from minus 150 F to plus 150 'F. Therefore, heat shield 
technology was essential to the success of the lunar mission. The 
aerodynamic heating, predictions involved both basic heating 
distribution on the blunt end of the spacecraft and the effects on 
windows, hatches and other protuberances. 

Brazed stainless steel honeycomb core sandwich material was 
selected as the minimum weight support for the thermal protection 
system, the ablator. However, the conventional material was too 
sensitive at the minimum spacecraft temperature of minus 150"F, 
so a new alloy was created for which vacuum melting techniques 

.128 






Impact of Space on Planet Earth 

were required. One ablative material met the requirements for 
total thermal protection but density reduction of that material as 
well as the nonporous nature of the structure made it necessary 
to develop new application techniques. Filled honeycomb core 
was found acceptable but new processes were again needed to fill 
the 350,000 cells of the comb. Thus, with the manufacture of the 
heat shield for the spacecraft, several new materials and processes 
were developed so that another of the "impossible" problems could 
be solved. 

All of the research and development in thermal protection 
performed to date for Apollo will provide the fundamental know- 
ledge for the development of protective materials and systems for 
the reusable space shuttle. 

It became clear, early in the Apollo Programme, that an 
important element would be a reliable electrical power system of 
reasonable weight for the Command and Service Module. The 
fuel cell was an interesting candidate because it offered an attractive 
energy density ratio, but it had yet to be developed for practical 
applications. 

The decision to proceed with development of the Apollo fuel 
cell power plant was made on the basis of a 250 watt demonstration 
power plant (Figure 8-16). An important consideration was the 
fact that fuel cells require less weight in the spacecraft than batteries. 
Development began early in 1962, and in August, 1965, the unit 
passed its qualification tests. A comparable system performed 
well in operational tests in Gemini flights and the decision for the 
development of this technology was vindicated. 

The fuel cell is now under study by 27 natural gas companies 
co-operating in a $20 million research and development programme. 
It gives promise of supplying total home power for lighting, heating, 
cooling and air purification — and eventually for total waste 
disposal. Since the only product of the fuel cell is distilled water, 
it becomes an attractive candidate as a power source in the very 
near future when pollution control will be a pervading influence. 

Certainly, when we are searching for ways to clean the air in 
our cities we may find that much of the basic research on air 
purification has already been done — in support of perfecting the 
Apollo spacecraft. 

329 




Figure 8-16. 
CSM fuel cell 
cryogenic storage. 



Electronics and electrical engineering have been mure funda- 
mentally affected by the demands of space activity ihan almost any 
other regimes. The NASA Communications Network, which 
provides voice, television and telemetry over a quarter of a million 
miles to the Moon, consists of several systems of diversely routed 
communications channels including communications satellites, 
common carrier systems and high frequency radio facilities. Both 
narrow- and wide-band channels and some TV channels arc used. 

A primary switching centre, located at Greenbelt, Maryland, 
and intermediate switching and control points located at Canberra, 
Madrid, London, Honolulu, Guam and Kennedy Space Centre in 
Florida, provide centralized control of the message and switching 
operations of the more than 600 computers that relay commands 
to the spacecraft and bring telemetry back to Houston. 






Impact of Space on Planet Earth 

During the launch, the Kennedy Space Centre is connected 
directly to the Mission Control Centre, Houston, Texas, and to the 
Marshall Space Flight Centre, Huntsville, Alabama. 

After launch, all network tracking and telemetry data centres 
at Greenbelt for transmission to Houston via two 50,000 bits-per- 
sccond circuits used for redundancy and in case of data overflow. 

Two Intelsat communications satellites are used for Apollo, 
The Atlantic satellite services the Ascension Island Unified S-Band 
station, the Atlantic Ocean ship and the Canary Islands site. 

The second Apollo Intelsat communications satellite over the 
mid-Pacific services the site at Carnarvon, Australia, and the 
recovery ships in mid-ocean. All these stations are able to transmit 
simultaneously through the satellite to Houston. The space 
programme requirement for Intelsat services has stimulated that 
commercial enterprise, the first major transfer from space to the 
private sector. 

We have all seen initial results of the basic changes which have 
occurred in satellite relayed TV broadcasts from the Moon and 
from Mars. The Manned Spaceflight Network can realty be 
considered as a pilot system for future communications networks 
which will operate throughout our solar system. 

Microminiaturization, forced upon the space programme in its 
early years by the high cost of putting payloads into orbit, has 
turned out to be one of the first space products to be assimilated 
into our daily lives. Its use is evident in everything from medical 
instrumentation to electric razors, from transistor radios to tiny 
tape recorders. 

Apollo is the largest and most complex programme that has 
ever been accomplished. It has been compared to the building of 
the Pyramids of Egypt, the harnessing of atomic power, and the 
building of Boulder Dam — all rolled into one. And because of 
its size and complexity, because it depended upon constant change 
and constant invention, it was undoubtedly the most difficult 
programme which will ever be undertaken. I say the most 
difficult, because what we have learned in Apollo we can now 
apply to any of the problems which will have to be solved in the 
future. 



330 



331 




Figure 8-18. Manned Spacecraft Centre. Site I. 



Figure 8- IV. Manned Spaceflight Centre Headquarters 

in Huntxville, Alabama. 



Apollo was done, as it had to be. by the development and 
employment of new methods and materials as well as the judieious 
use of the old. Government, science and industry were so blended 
that they worked as a single cohesive organization for the 
attainment of man's most ambitious goal — the landing on the 
Moon. 

New management techniques had to be invented which would be 
strong enough to maintain the pace and the perfection which the 
programme demanded, and still be resilient enough to withstand 
accident and to accommodate change {Figure 8-17). It was as 
important to plan for opportunities afforded by success as for the 
setbacks which would be inevitable in connect inn with any research 
and development programme. 

Hardware was being man u fact u red in almost every state in the 
nation. Millions of parts had lo be factory tested, certified "man- 
rated" and then shipped to Cape Kennedy where they would be 
integrated into the total system. 

S3 2 





Figure 8-20. Members of 'Apollo Executives' Croup" visit Pad 37. 



Three major centres and a score of smaller ones, each under 
the direction of strong and innovative people, needed to be 
carefully focused upon the goal — the lunar landing {Figure 8-18). 
A total systems approach was obviously necessary. A pattern of 
project management was instituted which Fortune Magazine 
recently called a "management revolution" (Figure 8-19}. 

Apollo offices were set up at each Centre as well as on the 
premises of the major contractors, much as airline technical offices 
are installed in the plants of major suppliers of equipment. These 
project offices monitored design, schedule, cost, performance and 
quality control and formed a separate network headed by the 
programme offices in headquarters in Washington. Communication 
lines between all offices remained open ;u all limes. Visibility of 
all problems at the earliest possible moment was essential to prevent 
their escalation. 



Impact of Space on Planet Earth 

A most experienced group of individuals, the chief executives of 
the manufacturing companies which were producing the bulk of 
the hardware, served as members of the "Apollo Executives' Group" 
which acted both as an advisory board and, at the same time, 
became an effective communications link between Apollo manage- 
ment and their own companies (Figure 8-20). The dedication of 
these men was one of the greatest assets of the program me and a 
continuing source of real help to me. 

In another area of equal importance, the Science and Technology 
Advisory Committee was formed. This group of 15 renowned 
scientists, led by Dr. C. H. Townes, included three Nobel Laureates 
as well as Dr. Lee Du Bridge, now Science Adviser to President 
Nixon. Their constant interest and thoughtful watch over the 
scientific and new technological developments were responsible for 
a great part of the success of the programme, both in science and 
in execution. 

The intimate association and involvement of all participants in 
the conduct of Apollo can be expected to set a useful precedent 
for other large programmes, both in the private and the public- 
sectors. 

It was the intent of the Apollo Programme not only to create 
the capability to land men on the Moon and return them safely 
to Earth, but to do it within the time and cost constraints 
originally set. Therefore tight scheduling was obligatory for getting 
the job done in a timely fashion and was the major factor in cost 
savings. Toward this objective a new concept was introduced — 
"all-up" testing. Instead of the incremental testing which had 
been used in previous research and development programmes, each 
part was thoroughly tested on the ground, and then the whole 
system was assembled and tested all together in the first flight of 
this totally new equipment. 

Thus, the first Saturn V flight tested for the first time the first, 
second and third stages of the Saturn rocket as well as the guidance 
system, and in addition simulated the flight out to the Moon and 
back with the Command and Service Module. This simulation 
provided the first lest at lunar re-entry velocities of the spacecraft 
heat shield as well as the first test of the Apollo recovery forces. 



334 



335 




Figure 8-21. 



Apollo 8 astronauts on board U.S.S. York/own. 
Frank Barman, lames Level!, William Anders. 



From left: 



This successful mission allowed the third Saturn V to be manned 
and the first lunar flight (Apollo 8) to be carried out on this first 
manned test of the Saturn V (Figure 8-21 ) . 

One of the consequences of this highly successful activity was 
the fact that after Apollo 1 1, additional equipment for many more 
trips to the Moon remained. And the programme goal, the first 
lunar landing, was carried out within the time specified. 

Another vital result is the fact that we have learned those 
management techniques which will, in the future, facilitate the 
management of research and development projects. Accurately 
scheduled invention was as essential as accurately scheduled 
production. Every one of the millions of elements which comprised 
the whole of this vast enterprise had to be co-ordinated with every 
other. It was as if every single note played by every instrument 



Impact of Space on Pfanet Earth 

in a symphony concert would have had to be written, the 
instrument invented, the artist trained and all blended together 
to create the perfect whole. 

In our efforts to manage the already badly damaged ecology of 
our "spaceship Earth", we are going to draw heavily upon the 
lessons which we learned in Apollo. Solutions to the problems of 
air and water pollution and of solid waste disposal are of such 
magnitude that they will require the most sophisticated total systems 
management techniques as well as the adaptation or invention of 
equipment more complex than we have yet seen. The experience 
and many of the researches and developments conducted for Apollo 
will provide the foundation upon which to build. 

Our present marked concern with the condition of our environ- 
ment is undoubtedly attributable in some degree to the Apollo 
Mights. Man's first view of the Blue Planet as a whole has 
stimulated universal realization that the Earth is indeed a closed 
ecology. 

This is only one of the cultural and philosophical results of 
man's first venture beyond the pull of the Earth's gravity and 
outside the protective shield of its atmosphere. With the 
completion of the first lunar landing, the whole future of mankind 
was irrevocably changed. The limitations which have confined him 
throughout history are removed. Slowly, over the centuries, men 
have pushed their horizons outward. With each advance in 
transportation, communications and territory, men have moved 
their degree of civilization a little farther forward until now the 
whole planet is becoming the concern of every man — quite a 
contrasting concept to the tribal or local concerns which motivated 
most of our ancestors. 

Such a revolutionary change must, of necessity, have repercussions 
of profound social nature. Breaking the bonds of Earth must 
increase man's confidence in his own ability, but this new condition 
may also increase his sense of insecurity as he finds no safe haven 
in which to isolate himself. This will, indeed, be the time for 
daring, for exploration, for new concepts and new thinking about 
man and his place in the universe. The landing on the Moon 



336 



337 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

will, in my view, have more significance on the future course of 
history than any previous discovery or event. 

Never again will celestial bodies be unattainable. That mythology 
which has been our heritage will now be replaced by real knowledge, 
constantly increasing, and far more wondrous than the imaginings 
of the ancients. All children will learn at the mother's knee that 
the silver disc in the sky has already been visited by man — and 
that the next flight is scheduled for some near date. 

We can expect to find changes in our language and in our 
poetry as men eliminate those classical references which arc no 
longer applicable. We are already seeing some cultural effects 
of the space adventure as theatre, cinema and painting begin to 
reflect the absence of barriers in our real world. 

The manner in which the Apollo Programme was performed 
has special meaning as the world rapidly becomes more populous 
than ever before. Great explorations have in the past been carried 
out by individuals, or by small groups headed by one man — 
Columbus, Magellan, Peary — . but with Apollo we have seen, 
for the first time, the full strength that resides in an organization 
of hundreds of thousands of people in all walks of life dedicated 
to a single peaceful goal. The realization that men can effectively 
operate together for difficult achievements is both timely and 
appropriate. 

Attraction to the mysterious and the unattainable has always 
been man's deepest and most basic motivation, and properly so, 
for only through his understanding of natural forces and his ability 
to adapt them to his needs has man improved his Earthly condition. 
New knowledge has brought new freedoms which have punctuated 
the evolution of the race. 

It took four billion years for life to venture onto the land from 
the sea. Four hundred million years passed before man first 
appeared on Earth. Only four thousand years ago man developed 

his first real transportation system — the sailing ship and with 

this as an aid he has populated the Earth. 

Now we have taken another great evolutionary step in entering 




I '-mure 8-22. 



Recovery of Apollo II crew after splashdown in the Ptuiln 
Ocean . 



into a new environment. We now have a transportation system which 
will take men to the planets. Soon we will bring our life forms 
throughout the solar system. I believe that we will press forward, 
and that we will take those steps in the days ahead that will permit 
us to aim for the stars in thj future. 



We have made a beginning 
[Figure S-22). 



you will continue the work 



338 



339 



CHAPTER NINE 



Future Apollo 
Missions, Apollo 14 
Through 19 



By L. B. James 



INTRODUCTION 

Man lias left the Earth, visited and explored another celestial 
body 400.000 kilometres away, and returned safely (Figure 9-1), 
This will stand as the greatest and most far-reaching achievement 
of our time. History will refer to our generation as the one that 
ushered in the Space Age, and, in the course of a single decade, 
not only opened up vast reaches of space to man's machines, but 
made them accessible to man himself. A movement has been 
started which will not stop, and which will in the course of time 
extend man's domain throughout the solar system. 

Prior to the inception of the Apollo Lunar Exploration 




Figure 9-1. 

The Moon. 



Future Apollo Missions 

Programme, considerable information regarding the nature of the 
Moon was obtained from telescopic observations, from unmanned 
satellites and from early Apollo missions. 

The Ranger and Lunar Orbiter Programmes increased photo- 
graphic resolution 46 to J 52 metres on the near side of the Moon 
and 46 to 460 metres on the far side. Detailed views of the 
selected sites have resolution to three feet. Surveyor and Luna 
Programmes indicated a basalt-like composition for the mare. 
Data from Luna II indicated that any lunar magnetic held must 
be less than 1/ 10,000th that of the Earth. Data from Explorer 
35 satellite suggests a surface magnetic field of even less strength. 
By tracking spacecraft in lunar orbit, the lunar orientation and 
rales of change and the physical librations arc now known to about 
198 metres. 

Tracking data from the Lunar Orbiter scries and Apollo missions 
indicate the presence of mass concentrations in the Moon and 
variations in its shape. These anomalies arouse curiosity regarding 
their origin and, since their distribution is not well known, pose 
operational problems (trajectory perturbations) for low orbital 
attitudes. 

The broad objectives of the Apollo Lunar Exploration Programme 
are: to understand the Moon in terms of its origin and evolution; 
to search its surface for evidence related to the origin of life; and 
to apply new data on the differences and similarities between the 
Earth and Moon to the reasonable prediction of dynamic processes 
that shape our planet. 

The specific objectives supporting these broad objectives are 
as follows: 

• Investigate (a) the mare and highland lunar surface features, 
(b) the impact, volcanic and mountain -building surface processes, 
and (c) the regional problems such as marc-highland relation, the 
major basins and valleys, the volcanic provinces, the major faults 
and the sinuous rilles. 

• Collect and completely characterize lunar material samples 
by detailed analyses on Earth, including rock identification, 
chemical composition and rock dating. 

• Determine the gross structure, processes and energy budget 



341 






Pioneering in Outer Space 

of the lunar interior by measuring seismic activity, heat flow, and 
disturbance in the Moon's axis of rotation with long-lived surface 
instrumentation. 

• Survey and measure the lunar surface from orbit about the 
Moon with metric and high resolution photography and remote 
sensing, tying together local studies into a regional framework. 
Provide detailed information for science planning of surface 
missions, and lunar-wide control of surface position and profile. 

• Investigate the near-Moon environment and the interaction 
of the Moon with the solar wind; map the gravitational field and 
any internally produced magnetic fields; and detect atmospheric 
components resulting from the neutralized solar wind and 
micrometeorite flux-impact effects by long-term monitoring with 
lunar orbiting satellites. 

• Return uncon laminated samples to Earth for analysis of 
biologically related organic*, such as prebiotic material, fossil life 
forms, and micro-organisms, and determine their origin; conduct 
in-situ analyses of lunar samples for biological material; and 
relate these data to a comprehensive theory on the origin of life 
by comparison with the Earth and planets. 

• Determine how geological processes work on the Moon in 
the absence of an atmosphere, fully exposed to the soiar wind and 
with one-sixth the force of Earth gravity, in order to gain a much 
deeper understanding of the dynamic processes that shape out- 
terrestrial environment. 

The early Apollo lunar landing missions have shown that man 
can readily adapt to the work effectively in the lunar environment. 
Samples of lunar material have been returned to Earth for analysis 
and passive seismic experiments and laser retrorefiectors were 
emplaced on the Moon for monitoring from the Earth (Figure 9-2). 

In order to achieve the goals and objectives of the lunar 
exploration programme, it is necessary to expand the limited 
landing site accessibility, staytimc, payload and mobility capabilities 
developed in the early Apollo Programme. Eventually the entire 
lunar surface must be made accessible for landing sites; the 
staytimc must be extended from days to weeks; astronaut mobility 
must be improved to the extent of at least 10 kilometres radius 



342 



r 




Figure V-2. 
ALSEP deployed 
tin Moon. 



with science payloads of several hundred pounds; increased payloads 
to support the longer staytimc and provide adequate scientific 
equipment are necessary; the ability to return larger payloads of 
lunar material for laboratory examination on Earth is needed; 
and finally, the capability must be expanded to conduct a broader 
spectrum of experiments. 

LUNAR EXPLORATION RATIONALE 

While demonstrating a capability for landing and returning men 
safely from the Moon, w^ have obtained a wealth of scientific dsta 
frtmi the first two manned lunar landing missions. The future 
Apollo missions wilt give much more emphasis to increasing 
scientific return from the remaining missions in the approved 
programme. 

Existing Apollo hardware is available to carry out seven more 
missions to the Moon. In re-establishing the schedule under the 
Space Programme's reduced budget situation, we determined that 
the interval between missions will be about six months for the next 
five years. The longer intervals will be consistent with careful 

343 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



scientific analysis of the findings and feedback of the results into 
plans for the future missions. At the present time, Apollo 14 is 
scheduled for 1970; Apollo 15 and 16 in 1971; Apollo 17 in 
1972. Then we plan a two-year interval in which the scientific 
community can develop plans for two additional missions, using 
Apollo 18 and 19, currently scheduled for 1974. 

In this stretchout of the schedule, we are preserving maximum 
flexibility for the scientists developing plans for those missions. 
However, it is still questionable whether the total of nine manned 
lunar landing missions will provide an adequate sample of the 
diverse surface of the Moon, to allow an integrated view of basic 
lunar characteristics. With numerous improvements, the later 
missions will allow us to exercise the full capability of the Apollo 
system to get maximum scientific and technological return. 



LUNAR SURFACE EXPERIMENTS 

From the beginning of our space programme, the age of the 
Moon has stood high on our list of questions because we hoped 
to find material on the Moon older than the 3±-billion-year age 
of the oldest rock on Earth. That is, we hoped to uncover evidence 
of the lost history of the Earth. Theory resulting from telescopic 
observation and pictures taken by automated spacecraft and Apollo 
missions indicated that the lunar seas overlie the highlands. Thus, 
the highlands arc thought to be older than the seas. Therefore, 
the scientists are eager to obtain samples from the highlands as 
soon as possible. The age of materials taken from various parts 
of the Moon can supply evidence of its origin and perhaps even 
the origin of the solar system. 

The composition of the highlands, the seas and their interior can 
tell us about the environment in which the material was found. 
We plan to correlate the results of the chemical and mineralogical 
analysis of material, with the age-dating of samples from various 
places to understand the sequence of events in the history of the 
Moon. 

To understand the Moon's major structural body properties, 
such as whether it is layered like the Earth, we will emplace 
additional seismometers to record moonquakes and other vibrations 

344 



Future Apollo Missions 

of the lunar surface. We need to obtain data from several sites 
simultaneously to trace the way seismic waves travel through the 
Moon's interior and thus establish its structure. 

We need to understand the dynamic processes that have acted 
and continue to act upon the Moon. The principal source of 
understanding here is the examination of the Moon's geology, at 
first hand and by study of photographs. The scisniomciur, 
magnetometer, heat-flow experiments, and instruments measuring 
the solar wind have helped considerably in this area. 

Apollo 11 and 12 missions visited and sampled the eastern and 
western mare regions. Apollo 1 1 landed in the Sea of Tranquillity 
in the eastern hemisphere, which is the left eye of the man in the 
Moon. Apollo 12 landed in the Ocean of Storms in the western 
hemisphere, which forms a part of the misshapen nose of the 
man in the Moon. Both sites were in relatively flat regions and 
had suitable landing sites near the Moon's equator. 

The Moon has a surface area of about 37,955,000 square 
kilometres, about the same size as the North and South American 
continents. On Apollo II, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin 
walked in an area about the size of a suburban backyard. On 
Apollo 12, Pete Conrad and Alan Bean explored something like 
two city blocks. Thus one can understand the need to be cautious 
about drawing firm conclusions from so limited an examination. 

On Apollo II, the astronauts collected about 20 kilograms of 
rock and soil samples, took several hundred high-quality 
photographs and emplaced a seismometer, a laser rctrorefiector and 
a solar wind collector on the lunar surface. On Apollo 12, the 
astronauts brought back 34 kilograms of lunar material and 
emplaced a much more sophisticated scientific station that included 
five instruments. They also brought back some parts of the 
Surveyor III spacecraft which landed on the Moon 31 months 
earlier. 

It is important to emphasize that the information gathered from 
the previous flights has triggered many new ideas and avenues 
of thought. Many of the contending theories were advanced years 
ago. The difference is that today the new information has 
established important limiting factors that must now be fitted into 
the jigsaw puzzle of the origin and evolution of our solar system. 



345 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



Future Apollo Missions 



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Equally important is that many of the missing pieces of the puzzle 
can be found on the Moon. 

Table I lists the lunar surface experiments with tentative mission 
assignments. The experiments listed for Apollo 16 through 
Apollo 19 are tentatively assigned for planning purposes only. 

Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package 

The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), 
placed on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts (Figure 9-3), is 
designed to provide the scientific community with unprecedented 
knowledge of the lunar environment — especially in the areas of 
geology, geophysics, geochemistry, particles and magnetic fields. 

One of the most interesting questions to be explored with the 
ALSEP instruments wifl be whether or not the Moon evolved in 
the same pattern as is now believed for Earth, On Earth, rock 
formations include granite and basalt, both with an almost 



Figure 9-3. Si 'dated ALSEP Deployment. 



«w * 






7 






■ 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



bewildering variety of mineral combinations. The lunar geophysical 
information we have thus far does not permit scientists to determine 
whether similar lunar differentiation exists. 

The extent of layer exposure that exists on the Moon is also of 
scientific interest. On the Earth, this exposure results from erosion 
and man's excavation. Exposure may occur on the Moon in regions 
of faulting and may provide scientists an opportunity to study the 
layering of the rock as it occurs in depth. It is only with this 
exposure and the use of the ALSEP instruments (particularly the 
seismic instruments) that scientists are able to determine lunar 
subsurface characteristics. 

The ALSEP seismic instruments will allow a study of the 
internal structure and present tectonic activity of the Moon. Two 
principal sources of natural seismic energy expected on the Moon 
are moonquakes and meteoroid impacts. 

If there are moonquakes, the compressional and shear velocity 
structure of the Moon may be revealed with a precision dependent 
upon the number and type of recorded seismic events, and 
distribution of the quakes. Scientists may then be able to answer 
such basic questions as: ( 1 ) Is the internal structure of the Moon 
radially symmetrical as Earth, and, if so, is it differentiated? (2) 
Does the Moon have a core and a crust? and (3) Is the Moon's 
core fluid or solid? 

The role of the unexpected must not be under-rated. A series 
of scientific experiment instruments successfully deployed and 
operating on the lunar surface may reveal heretofore unexpected 
and perhaps inexplicable information. Indeed, the course of 
extraterrestrial exploration and our understanding of the forces 
in the universe may change dramatically as the ALSEP experiments 
report their data. 

Objectives will be achieved through the use of a number of 
scientific experiment instruments and their supporting subsystems. 
While in operation on the Moon, the ALSEP system will be self- 
sufficient and use a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for 
electrical power. 

The ALSEP system consists of two subpackages and a fuel 
cask assembly. The two subpackages are mounted within the 
scientific equipment bay of the lunar module for transit to the 

348 



■j;:i»:->' 



Figure 9-4. 
Locution of ALSEP 

within Lunar Moduli'. 




tiiI>m^kKU 



Moon (Figure 9-4). The subpackages occupy a volume of 
approximately 425 cubic decimetres and, together with the fuel 
cask assembly and lunar hand tools, weigh approximately 127 
kilograms. The fuel cask assembly is part of the electrical power 
subsystem. 

Passive Seismic Experiment. The Passive Seismic Experiment 
(Figure 9-5) is designed to determine the natural seismicity of 
the Moon. Seismic energy is expected to be produced on the 
Moon by tectonic disturbances and meteoroid impacts. Knowledge 
of moonquakes is essential for definition of the strain regime of the 
Moon. It is also important to know the location of quake 
epicentres, thus permitting correlation of seismic events with 
surface features. In this way, insight into the origin of visible 
features on the Moon may be achieved. Analysis of the form 
and characteristics of seismic waves will provide data on the 
physical properties of the lunar interior. Subsurface materials 
will differ in compressibility, rigidity and temperature. These 
differences will cause variation in seismic wave velocities and 
character, from which the material characteristics may be inferred. 



349 



<* 



"V 






i&. 




#* 



Figure 9-5. Passive Seismic Experiment. 

Finally, this experiment will permit study of the free oscillations 
and tidal deformations of the Moon and provide data on the gross 
physical properties of the Moon. The passive seismic experiment 
is a portable nine-kilogram package which has a shape similar to a 
drum rounded on one end. The astronaut places the instrument 
on a smalt levelling stool 10 feet from the central station, manually 
levels the instrument and deploys its thermal shroud. The shroud 
(or radiation shield) minimizes temperature fluctuations within 
the instrument. 

If the Moon should prove to be seism ically dead, then active 
seismic surveys must be used to obtain information concerning 
characteristics of the lunar interior. 

Active Seismic Experiment. The Active Seismic Experiment 
(Figure 9-6) provides information for determining the structure, 
thickness, physical properties and elasticity of surface and shallow 
depth materials of the Moon. The active seismic experiment uses 

350 







WRTAR PACKAGE 



Figure 9-6, 
Active Seismic Experiment. 

explosive devices detonated at various distances to measure the 
elastic properties of lunar subsurface material to a depth of 
approximately 150 metres. Seismic energy will be transmitted 
through lunar subsurface material and detected by a geophone 
array. 

The active seismic experiment contains the seismic energy sources 
and the detection system. Two energy sources will be employed: 
a mortar box assembly, from which four explosive grenades will 
be launched to detonate at various distances up to 1500 metres 
from the geophone detectors, and a "thumper" assembly containing 
21 explosive Apollo standard initiator cartridges which will be 
activated by the astronaut at specified locations along the geophone 
line. The detection system is a linear array of three geophoncs 
together with amplifier systems and electronics. 

The thumper assembly is used for investigation of material 
characteristics within a 23-mclrc depth of the lunar surface. The 
upper section contains electronics for the firing mechanism, the 
cartridge barrel and contact points. The lower section is a hollow 
cylinder containing a plate which couples the energy source to the 
lunar surface and imparts seismic waves to surface materials for 
detection by the geophones. 

551 



I 



IHUMPf 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



Future Apotto Missions 



The mortar box contains four explosive grenades to be activated 
by Earth command near the end of the one-year operation on the 
lunar surface. It contains electronics and grenade-launching rockets 
and is designed to minimize the effects of recoil. Since it is 
necessary to know the distance from the gcophone array at which 
the grenade is detonated as well as the lime of detonation, the 
design provides for measurement of grenade launch angle, grenade 
launch velocity, and time of flight. 

Refraction velocity surveys by the active seismic instrument will 
be used to study the subsurface relations between the maria and 
the highlands, possible internal layering within the maria and the 
existence and nature of isostalic lunar topographic features. On 
a smaller scale, data on the thickness, strength and the variation 
of physical properties with depth in a possible surface fragment al 
layer is pertinent to a full interpretation of the fine structure of 
the lunar surface. It is also possible that surface-bearing strength 
and the degree of hardening subsurface materials may be inferred 
from active seismic refraction data. A controlled active seismic 
survey will also be of particular importance in the search for water 
on the Moon. Local concentrations of ice may be present on the 
lunar surface — beneath (he depth of penetration of the diurnal 
heat wave. A seismic velocity survey will be used to detect the 




Figure 9-7. 

Magnetometer. 






presence or absence of buried ice layers on the Moon, at landing 
sites some distance from the equator. 

Magnetometer. The lunar surface magnetometer (Figure 9-7) 
measures the magnitude and direction of the surface magnetic field 
of the Moon and changes in the field direction up to a frequency 
of about one cycle per second. The placement of this ALSEP 
instrument on the Moon is such that the equatorial magnetic field 
is determined. Magnetic fields connected with interplanetary space 
should show periodic variations; fields associated with the Moon 
will be stationary during the lunar rotation. 

As the solar wind sweeps the interplanetary magnetic field against 
the Moon some of this field should diffuse into the interior in a 
manner roughly analogous to heat flow. By studying the surface 
manifestations of this interior field during lunar day and night, 
it may be possible to infer the electrical conductivity and magnetic 
permeability of the lunar interior. These quantities must depend 
upon the composition of the Moon and its internal temperature, 
and therefore arc related to the origin and thermal history of that 
body. If the Moon has a small core of iron-like material, magnetic 
field lines diffusing in from the solar wind should "hand up" on 
the core and impede the diffusion. It is possible, then, to imagine 
a lunar magnetic field streaming out through the Moon on its dark 
side, raising the possibility of utilizing the magnetometer for 
determining deep structure in the Moon. Other approaches to the 
problem of the interior composition are found by examining the 
propagation of electromagnetic disturbances which originate in 
the solar wind and are carried through the Moon. The response 
of the Moon should be that of a negative-gain conductor. 

An additional purpose of this experiment is to monitor the 
passage of the Moon through the magnetic tail of Earth. It will 
obtain specific information of the interaction of the solar wind with 
the lunar surface and record whether the process results in the 
generation of plasma waves and produces some compression of 
the interplanetary field during the impacting of the solar plasma. 
Lastly, the site-surveying property of the magnetometer instrument 
allows detection of plasma currents and the presence of subsurface 
magnetic materials such as meteorites. 



353 





^ nit* "%•••*■ **>.*■■.*■■_ 5o/ar Wind Experiment. 

Solar Wind Experiment. The Solar Wind Experiment (Figure 
9-8) measures medium energy ranges of the solar wind particles. 
The solar wind is a flow of electrons, protons and other charged 
particles from the Sun. The nature of the interaction of the solar 
wind with the Moon is an intriguing problem in basic plasma 
physics. This interaction is different from that with Earth's 
magnetic field, and cannot be predicted theoretically with any 
certainty. Because of these uncertainties, the solar wind instrument 
is equipped to accept fluxes from all directions above the lunar 
horizon and has a wide range of sensitivities down to fluxes much 
smaller than an undisturbed interplanetary solar wind. 

The structure and propagation velocity of the solar wind can be 
studied by measuring the time intervals between the observations 
of sudden changes in solar wind properties at the Moon and at 
Earth. The time intervals are expected to be as long as 15 
minutes, depending on the relative positions of the Sun, Moon 
and Earth. The measurements of the solar wind experiment will 
permit knowledge to be gained about the length, breadth and 
structure of the magnetic turbulent wake of Earth. 

The solar wind experiment will measure the number of charged 
particles impinging on it, and their energy up to 1330 electron 



354 








it 



Figure 9-9. 
Suprathermal Ion Detector. 

volts for electrons and to 9780 electron volts for protons. The 
direction of these particles will be obtained by observing which of 
seven sensors (each sensitive to an overlapping portion of the 
lunar sky) indicates their flow. 

Suprathermal Ion Detector. The Suprathermal Ion Detector 
Experiment (Figure 9-9) will measure the flux, number, density, 
velocity and energy per unit charge of positive ions in the vicinity 
of the lunar surface. 

The experiment uses two curved plate analyzers to detect and 
count ions. The low-energy analyzer has a velocity filter of 
crossed electric and magnetic fields. The velocity filter passes ions 
with discrete velocities and the curved plate analyzer passes ions 
with discrete energy, permitting determination of mass as well as 
number density. The second curved plate analyzer, without a 
velocity filter, detects higher energy particles, as in the solar wind. 
The experiment is emplaced on a wire mesh ground screen on the 
lunar surface and a voltage is applied between the electronics and 
ground plane to monitor any electrical field effects. 

Cold Cathode Gauge Experiment. The Cold Cathode Gauge 
Experiment provides data pertaining to the density of the lunar 
ambient atmosphere. Of particular interest will be any variations 

355 








Figure 9-10. Heal Flow Experiment 



of the particle density associated with the lunar phase of solar 
activity. This instrument will study the effects of foreign material 
left by the LM and the astronauts, and rate of loss of contaminants. 
When the astronaut deploys the Ion Detector package, he 
amoves the Cold Cathode Gauge and cniplaccs it three to live 
feet away from the Ion Detector. An electrical cable connects the 
cold cathode gauge instrument to the Ion Detector. 



Future Apollo Missions 

it is possible to reconstruct the temperature profile of the subsurface 
layers of the Moon and to determine whether the melting point 
may be approached towards its interior. 

The Heat Flow Experiment consists of two sensor probes and a 
common electronics package. Two li-centimctre diameter, thrce- 
mctrc holes will be drilled into the lunar surface by the Apollo 
astronaut. This will be accomplished by a specially designed heat 
flow drill. A two-section probe approximately 115 centimetres 
long will be lowered into each of the two holes. The probes 
contain sensors to measure absolute temperature and temperature 
difference. Thermal conductivity is investigated by measuring 
absolute and differential temperatures while actuating small electric 
heaters in the probes. 

The Apollo Lunar Surface Drill allows the astronaut to implant 
heat flow temperature probes below the lunar surface and to 
collect subsurface core material. 

The Lunar Surface Drill is designed as a system which can 
be removed as a single package from the ALSEP pallet and 
carried to the drilling site. There it will be used to drill two holes. 
The holes are cased to prevent cave-in and to facilitate insertion 
of probes of the heat flow experiment. The subsurface core 
materia] from the second hole will be retained in the drill siring 
and returned to Earth in a sample return container. 



Figure 9-1 1. Charged Particle Lunar 
Environment. 



Heat Flow Experiment. The Heat Flow Experiment (Figure 
9-/0) measures the lunar temperature profile at depths up to three 
metres and the value of the Moon's thermal conductivity over the 
same depth. From these measurements, information may be 
deduced regarding the net outward flux of heat from the Moon's 
interior and the radioactive content of the Moon's interior compared 
to that of the Earth's mantle. It will also provide data from which 

356 



7 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



Future Apollo Missions 



Charged Particle Lunar Environment Experiment* ■ The Charged 

Particle Lunar Environment Experiment (Figure 9-H) wifl study 
the energy distribution and time variations of proton and electron 
fluxes in 18 energy intervals over the range of about 50 to 150,000 
electron volts. 

The lunar surface may be bombarded by electrons and protons 
of the solar wind. This wind is caused by the expansion of the 
outer gaseous envelope of the Sun into interplanetary space. 
Because the solar wind is supersonic and the Moon is a large body, 
it is possible that, at times, there may be a standing shock front of 
the solar wind between the Moon and the Sun. The detailed physical 
processes occurring at such a shock front are largely not understood, 
and they are of considerable interest in fundamental plasma 
research. If there is such a shock front near the Moon, the 
Charged Particle Experiment will detect the disordered or 
thcrmalizcd fluxes of electrons and protons on the downstream side 
of the shock front. 

At times of the full Moon, when the Moon is in the "magnetic 
tail" of Earth, the Charged Particle Experiment will detect the 
accelerated electrons and protons that cause auroras when they 
plunge into the terrestrial atmosphere. These acceleration processes 
arc not understood, and their simultaneous observation near Earth 
and the Moon is essential for detailed study. The Charged Particle 
Experiment will also measure the lower-energy solar cosmic rays 
occasionally produced in solar eruptions or flares. 

Dust Detector*. The Dust Detector will measure the accumulation 
and effect of lunar dust accretion over the ALSEP central station. 
The package is mounted on top of the central station sunshield 
with the photocells facing the ecliptic path of the Sun. Each cell 
is protected by a blue filter to cut off ultraviolet wavelengths 
below 0.4 micron and a cover slide for protection against radiation 
damage. Attached to the rear of each photocell is a thermistor to 



* Both these experiments were developed by Dr. Brian O'Brien of the 
School of Physics. University of Sydney, who, as principal investigator, will 
analyze the data in Sydney, This work will be supported in part by the 
Science Foundation for Physics within the University of Sydney. — Ed. 

358 









monitor the individual cell's temperature. The temperature of 
each photocell, compared to the anticipated value for exposure at 
a given solar angle, is a measure of dust accretion and insulating 
values. 

Communications. The ALSEP telemetry system consists of 
two distinct links. The Earth-lo-Moon link (the up-link ) provides 
for remote control of ALSEP command functions such as experiment 
mode selection, transmitter selection, change of subsystems, data 
rates and subsystem operation flexibilities (turn-on, turn-off, etc.). 
The Moon-to-Earth link (the down-link) provides for the 
transmission of scientific and engineering data from the ALSEP 
subsystems to Earth receiving stations. 

ALSEP communications arc through a helical antenna 
attached to the central station. This type of antenna obtains high 
gain over a moderately narrow beam width. When deployed on 
the lunar surface, the antenna will be aimed at Earth using a sun 
compass and adjustment knobs. The data subsystem is located 
in the base of the central station. 

Command data (up-link) arc received by the helical antenna 
and go to the command receiver which demodulates the input 
carrier signal and provides a modulated subcarrier output to the 
command decoder. The different data transmission frequencies 
will be used to permit simultaneous operation of three separate 
ALSEP systems. 

The data subsystem is the "nerve centre" of the ALSEP system. 
It accepts the experimental subsystem scientific and engineering data 
and encodes the data for phase modulated radio frequency signal 
transmissions to Earth. The data subsystem also receives command 
data from Earth and decodes and distributes the commands to the 
ALSEP subsystems. The data subsystem is capable of the 
simultaneous reception of commands and the transmission of data. 
As a backup measure to help ensure a one-year operation. 
redundant transmitters and data processor components are included 
in such a way that, by command, the output of either data processor 
may be connected to either transmitter. 

Electrical Power System. The Electrical Power System provides 
all the electrical power for ALSEP system operation on the lunar 



359 




Pioneering in Outer Space 



300 FT BASED ON 
LM ASCENT BLAST WITH 
100% SAFETY FACTOR 



PASSIVE SEISMIC 



MAGNETOMETER 



1 COLD CATHODE ION GAGE 
Figure 9-12, ALSEP Deployment. 
surface for a period of at least one year. The major components 
include the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator, the Fuel 
Capsule Assembly and the Power Conditioning Unit which is 
located in the central station. The supporting components include 
the graphite LM fuel cask, the fuel cask mounting assembly, and 
the fuel transfer tool. 

The Fuel Capsule Assembly uses the nuclear fuel Plutonium 
238 and produces 1500 watts of thermal energy. When the fuel 
capsule assembly is combined with the generator assembly to form 
the SNAP 27 Radioisotope, Thermoelectric Generator at least 63 
watts are converted by thermocouples from thermal energy to 
electrical energy and supplied (at + 16 VDC nominal) to the 
Power Conditioning Unit. 

Deployment. (Figure 9-12) As one of the initial ALSEP 
deployment tasks, the astronaut transfers the fuel capsule from the 
cask to the generator. The fuel cask mounting assembly is tilted 
for access to the cask and the fuel transfer tool is used to effect 
a transfer. Thermal equilibrium (i.e., full power) of the 
Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator is reached in approximately 
H hours. 



360 






t 




Figure V-13. 
A ISEP Stiliptiiknge. 

The conditions of the lunar environment during ALSEP 
deployment by the Apollo astronauts (temperature extremes, 
vacuum, a one-sixth gravitational pull, and extreme light intensity) 
are moderated by the extravehicular mobility unit consisting of a 
pressure suit, thermal overgarment, a helmet with multiple visors, 
and a portable life support system. Development of the extra- 
vehicular mobility unit is independent of ALSEP. However, the 
extravehicular mobility unit characteristics influenced the design of 
ALSEP handling features. 

ALSEP is inoperative during its trip to the Moon. After landing, 
it is deployed and activated by a series of astronaut tasks together 
with a series of Earth commands to the data subsystem from the 
manned space (light network. Deployment begins with ALSEP 
subpackages 1 and 2 (Figure 9-13) arc separately removed from 
the storage equipment bay and lowered to the lunar surface. The 
astronaut opens the storage equipment bay door on the lunar 
module, removes the package restraints, and grasps a deployment 
lanyard which is attached to a boom and one subpackage. Pulling 
the lanyard extends the boom and allows the package to be with- 
drawn from the storage equipment bay and lowered to the surface 
in a continuous motion. The other subpackage is similarly 
unloaded. 



361 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

The radioisotope fuel capsule is next transferred from the fuel 
cask lo the generator mounted on subpackage 2. This is accom- 
plished by rotating the fuel cask to a horizontal position, removing 
its dome and withdrawing the fuel capsule with the fuel transfer 
tool. Using the fuel transfer tool as a handle, the astronaut inserts 
the capsule into the generator locking it in place with a twisting 
motion which also frees the transfer tool. 

The Apollo astronauts then carry the ALSEP some 91 metres 
from the LM to the final deployment site. The primary transport 
mode uses the antenna mast attached to the two subpaefcages to 
form a "barbell". A simple, slip-fit, trigger-actuated lock secures 
the mast to the subpackages. The alternative "suitcase" carry mode 
makes use of individual handles on the subpackages. 

During the traverse, the astronauts determine the most desirable 
site, about 91 metres from the LM, to locale ALSEP. They look 
for a smooth area, large enough to accommodate the planned 30- 
metre separation between the magnetometer and the Suprathermal 
Ion Detector; a level site, free from rubble. 

The 91 -metre distance assures that there are no destructive LM 
ascent blast effects on ALSEP and also reflects the need to keep 
the astronaut at all times within a safe distance for return to 
the LM in case of failure in his oxygen supply. 



1 




Figure 9-14. 
ALSEP Central Station. 






Future Apollo Missions 

At the end of the traverse, the astronaut deploys the Radioisotope 
Thermoelectric Generator by removing all other equipment from 
subpackage 2 and placing it in its upright position. The Radioiso- 
tope Thermoelectric Generator-to-central station interconnecting 
cable is connected to a receptacle located on subpackage 1. 

Subpackage I, which contains the central station {Figure 9-14), 
is deployed by placing it in an upright position three metres from 
subpackage 2, removing the experiments from the sunshield, raising 
the sunshield, and installing the antenna. 

Experiments arc removed from the sunshield by using a 
Universal Handling Tool to release the tic-down fasteners and to 
lift the experiments to other locations. 

LUNAR ORBIT EXPERIMENTS 

In the Command Module cameras and other small experiments 
arc carried on each mission. On Apollo 16 through Apollo 19 
a substantial orbital experiment payload will be carried in the 
Service Module. 

Table II lists the experiments that have been approved for 
flight on the CSM in lunar orbit. Orbital experiments will comple- 
ment and extend information gained from the lunar surface science. 
For example, compositional analysis can be accomplished from 
lunar orbit through radioactivity detection and spectral reflectivity 
measurements, radar sounders can probe the subsurface nature of 
volcanic features which the astronauts have examined; measure- 
ments will be obtained in the fields of geochemistry, imagery, 
geodesy, temperature, subsurface profile, particles and fields, and 
transient atmosphere. 

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS 

During the past year (September, 1969 to 1970) NASA asked 
the scientific community to propose experiments to be carried on 
the later Apollo missions. This request stimulated the submission 
of 99 orbital experiment proposals and 42 surface experiment 
proposals. The number that can be selected exceeds, by a consider- 
able amount, our ability to carry them. Thus, only the very best 
can be developed. However, with the schedule stretchout, we 
will be able to introduce some of these new experiments when this 
is indicated by the results coming in from the missions. 



363 



Pioneering in Outer Space 
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364 



Future Apollo Missions 

APOLLO LANDING SITES 
Landing Site Selection 

The difference between Apollo 1 1 and 1 2 results proves that 
the Moon is very different at different places on its surface. It 
is to a number of these different places that we want to go if we 
are to understand the age, composition processes and structure of 
this celestial body. 

The criteria for selection of the lunar landing sites includes the 
following significant factors: 

• Scientific interest and uniqueness — its own characteristics 
and how they relate to those of the rest of the Moon with 
regard to providing answers to scientific questions. 

• Scientific variety — the number of varied features which 
could be explored in the vicinity of the landing site. 

• Instrument networks — the selenographic location as a part 
of a viable network of scientific instruments (primarily 
seismic), 

• Photography, i.e., data availability— sufficient high resolu- 
tion photography of the site and its landing approach to 
determine landing feasibility capabilities and to verify 
scientific interest. 

• Match to capability — the ability of the Apollo system and 
programme of missions to achieve a landing site and of the 
surface exploration to achieve scientific objectives. 

The placement of seismic detectors in such a way as to form 
networks for locating and measuring lunar seismic activity is a 
very significant part of the scientific exploration programme. The 
ground rules used for the development of seismic networks for 
this programme are that the ALSEP design lifetime goal is one 
year with a maximum lifetime of two years. Acceptable seismic 
networks require three concurrently operating stations where the 
included angle between any two of the three legs of the triangle 
is greater than five degrees (Figure 9-15). 

Spacecraft orbital tracks over the lunar surface must be 
considered in mission planning because of the requirements to 
perform photography of subsequent landing sites and to plan the 
orbital science programme. The extent of nominal mission 



365 



Pioneering in Outer Space 




Figure 9-i5. Seismic Net Coverage. 



coverage is determined by the landing site location, the launch 
date, dependent trajectory characteristics, and the nominal mission 
timeline. After LM/CSM docking, subsequent coverage is limited 
by the SPSAV which can be provided for plane change if LM 
rescue manoeuvres are not required and by the amount of remaining 
consumables. 

The manoeuvre is executed no earlier than 17 hours after LM 
ascent and no later than four hours before trans-Earth injection. 

• The A V for Lunar Orbit Plane Change 2 (LOPC 2) is 
152 metres per second. This manoeuvre can be performed 
at any point in the parking orbit and results in a plane 
change of about 5.5 degrees. 

• Trans-Earth Injection (TE1) can be targeted to the originally 
planned flight time and inclination. Preliminary studies 
indicate that the maximum TEIAV penalty for high latitude 
landing sites is about 76 metres per second. It is usually 
less than 21 metres per second for equatorial sites. 

• For plane changes of less than 5.5 degrees, the area 
covered, the A V required for plane change and the maximum 
TETAV penalty are all reduced proportionally. 

The surface area of the Moon covered on each mission is 
determined by the landing site location and launch date dependent 




Figure 9-16. Future Landing Sties. 



trajectory characteristics. Since the landing site and mission 
sequence assignments are preliminary, the precise area of surface 
coverage cannot be defined at this time. The objectives of orbital 
surveys are best satisfied by maximizing surface coverage and/or 
overflying targets of specific interest. The flexibility to select one 
of these options on each mission is available with the LM rescue 
budget after a nominal rendezvous sequence is completed. 

Site selection (Figure 9-16) must meet both the geological and 
geochemical objectives of the lunar exploration. The geophysical 
objectives require a specilic mission assignment plan, particularly 
for the construction of seismic networks. Other scieniilic objectives 
do not call for much that would contradict this rationalization. 

With these considerations in mind, prime landing sites (Table 
III) have been selected by the Group for Lunar Exploration 
Planning. The list of prime landing sites will be reviewed 



366 



367 



Pioneering in Outer Space 




Figure 9-17. Frit Monro Formation, 

periodically by the Group for Lunar Exploration Planning and 
updated through recommendations to the Apollo Site Selection 
Board. 

Table IV summarizes the salient geological, geophysical, and 
gcochcmical characteristics of these landing sites. 

Landing Site Description 

Apollo 13 — Fra Minim Formation. The Fra Mauro Formation 
{Figures 9-17 and 9-18), an extensive geologic unit covering large 
portions of the lunar surface around Mare Imbrium, has been 
interpreted as the ejecla blanket deposited during the formation of 
the Imbrium basin. Sampling of the Fra Mauro Formation may 
provide information on ejecta blanket formation and modification, 
and yield samples of deep-seated crustal material, giving information 
on the composition of the lunar interior and processes active in 
its formation. Age dating the returned samples should establish 
the age of prcmare deep-seated material and the time of formation 
of the Imbrium basin, thus providing important points on the 
geologic time scale leading to an understanding if the early history 
of the Moon. 



368 




Figure 9-18. Fra Monro Formation, 

Table III 
RECOMMENDED APOLLO LANDING SITES 



Flight 


Mission 


Landing Site 


Apollo 13 


H-2 


Fra Mauro 


Apollo 14 


H-3 


Littrow 


Apollo 15* 


H-4 


Davy Crater Chain or Censorinus 


Apollo 16 


J-l 


Copernicus 


Apollo 17* 


J-2 


Descartes or Tycho 


Apollo 18 


J-3 


Marius Hills 


Apollo 19 


J-4 


Had ley Apennines 



* A decision on the landing site for Apollo 15 and 17 will be 
made after photography from previous Apollo mission has been 
analyzed. 



369 






Pioneering in Outer Space 
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370 



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Figure 9-19. Lit I row, 
Apollo 14 — Littrow. The Littrow area landing site {Figure 
9-19) lies on the eastern edge of Marc Screnitatis in the vicinity 
of a series of straight rilles and wrinkled ridges oriented parallel 
and sub-parallel to the edge of the basin. A mantling material of 
very low albedo as well as a topographic bench lie in the vicinity 
of the landing site. Analysis of material from Mare Serenitatis will 
provide geochemical and age data which can be related to results 
from Apollo II and 12 to show compositional and age differences 
from different maria. Investigation of the wrinkled ridges should 
provide an understanding of the composition, origin and significance 
of these widespread mare features. The dark mantling materia! 
appears to be younger than most other features in the site. It is 
probably among the youngest of lunar surface materials and may 
record the latest stages in the process of basin filling in Mare 
Screnitatis. 



371 




Apollo IS — Censorinus. Censorinus (Figure 9-20) is a small 
(3.5 kilometre diameter) bright crater of probable impact origin 
located in a segment of the highlands just southeast of Mare 
Tranquillitatis. The composition and age of highland materials 
and mechanics of crater formation at a young crater are among 
the primary objectives of a mission to the edge of the continuous 
ejecta blanket of Censorinus. Study of the distribution, structure 
and morphology of the ejecta material should provide information 
relating to the mechanics of crater formation. Sampling of the 
landing area will not only provide data on the composition of the 
highland surface material, but should also provide information 
about shallow highland material excavated by the event which 
produced Censorinus. Since the crater Censorinus is relatively 
very young, possible age dating of the event producing the crater 
will provide an important point on the lunar time scale. Age 



372 



dating of the highland material sampled at this site will serve to 
clarify an understanding of the relationship of this area to the 
extensive marc regions. 

Apollo 15 — Davy Crater Chain. The Davy Crater Chain 
(Figure 9-21) is a probable volcanic crater chain crossing the 
highland-mare boundary slightly northwest of the crater Alphonsus. 
The chain of craters, several of which are thermally anomalous, 
stretches some 60 kilometres from Davy C, located in plains 
material, to Davy G on an upland plateau. Since the craters 
forming the Davy Crater Chain are analogous to terrestrial mare- 
type volcanic craters which often bring up deep mantle material, 
the primary objective of this landing site concerns the acquisition 
of material from deep within the lunar interior. A landing near 
the point where the crater chain crosses into the highlands should 



373 




x*-^v- 




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nflfl 



Figure 9-22. Marita Hills. 
Figure 9-23. Marius it ills. 




Future Apollo Missions 

also provide samples of the plains material on the floor of Davy 
Y, a widespread unit in highland basins and highland material. 
Acquisition of these materials will provide data on the physical 
properties oE the lunar interior as well as on the characteristics and 
age of several widespread geologic units. 

Apollo 16 — Marius Hills. The Marius Hills {Figures 9-22 
and 9-23) are a series of domes and cones located northwest of 
the crater Marius near the centre of Oceanus Procellariurn. The 

morphologic units which comprise these hills are analogous in 
form and sequence to terrestrial volcanic complexes which display 
a spectrum of rock compositions and ages. The various geologic 
units suggest that a prolonged period of volcanic activity has 
occurred in the Marius Hills area and that magmatic differentiation 
has produced a spectrum of rock types and a series of volcanic 
landforms displaying characteristic structural relationships. 



Figure 9-24. Descartes. 






z&- 



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■**■•■ 





.^*? 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

Therefore, the primary objectives of a mission to the Marius Hills 
are to study the spectrum of geologic units in order to establish 
the extent and age of possible magmatic differentiation and to 
determine the structural relationships of volcanic landforms in the 
maria. 

Apollo 17 — Descartes. The Descartes landing site (Figure 
9-24) lies in the central lunar highlands several hundred kilometres 
west of Mare Nectaris, and is the site of hilly, grooved and 

furrowed terrain which is morphologically similar to many terrestrial 
areas of volcanism. 

The Descartes area is also the site of extensive development of 
highland plains material, a geologic unit of widespread occurrence 
in the lunar highlands. The primary objectives of a mission to 
this site would be the examination and sampling of a highland 
volcanic complex and of the plains material. Knowledge of the 
composition, age and extent of magmatic differentiation in a 
highland volcanic complex will be particularly important in 
understanding lunar volcanism and its contribution to the evolution 
of the lunar highlands. Comparison of this highland volcanic 
complex lo mare volcanic complexes such as Marius Hills will 
provide a sample of u wide spectrum of lunar volcanic activity. 
An understanding of the composition and age of the highland plains 
material will add to our knowledge of the processes which modify 
large areas of the lunar highlands. 

Apollo 17 — Tycho. The crater Tycho (Figure 9-25) is an 85 

kilometre diameter very young crater of probable impact origin 
located in the southern lunar highlands. Bright rays from Tycho 
spread across the near side of the Moon. A mission to the northern 
crater rim of Tycho would land in the vicinity of the Surveyor VII 
spacecraft. Among the principal objectives would be the 
investigation of the composition of the highlands and of features 
associated with a young large impact crater. The origin and nature 
of the ejecta, flows and associated volcanism located on the crater 
rim are of interest in this regard. Since Tycho is approximately 
four kilometres deep, the ejecta material should provide samples 
from deep within the highlands. The composition and age of this 
material will provide important information about the formation 



376 




and evolution ot the lunar highlands. Establishment of the age 
of the relatively young event which produced Tycho will add an 
important point to the lunar time scale. 

Apollo 18 — Copernicus l*eaks. Copernicus (Figures 9-26 and 
9-27} is a relatively young, very large bright- rayed probable 

impact crater approximately 95 kilometres in diameter and located 
just south of Marc lmbrium. A mission to the floor of the crater 
Copernicus, four kilometres below the crater rim, would have as 
its primary objectives the examination of the central peaks and the 
crater Moor material. The central peaks, which rise up lo 800 
metres from the crater floor, probably represent deep-seated 
materia], which is of importance in determining the internal 
characteristics of the Moon. Examination of the domes and 
textured material of the crater floor will provide an understanding 



377 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

of the process of crater floor filling and help clarify the role of 
volcanism in post-event crater modification. Age determinations 
of the central peak material, the crate ring event, and the subsequent 
crater fill material will provide a time scale of importance in 
understanding the origin and modification of large impact craters. 

Apollo 19 — Had k\ -Apennines. Rima Hadley {Figures 9-28 
and 9-29) is a V-shaped lunar sinuous rillc which parallels the 
Apennine Mountain front along the eastern boundary of Marc 
Imbrium. The rille, an elongated depression, originated in an 
area of associated volcanic domes and generally maintains a width 
of about one kilometre and a depth of 200 metres until it merges 
with a second rillc approximately 100 kilometres to the north. 
The origin of sinuous rilles such as Rima Hadley is enigmatic but 
is probably due to some type of fluid flow. The Apennine Mountains 
rise up to two kilometres from the area of Rima Hadley and contain 
ancient material exposed during the excavation of the Imbrium 
basin. The determination of the nature and origin of a sinuous 
rillc and its associated elongated depression and deposits will 
provide information on an important lunar surface process and 



X.i j SHVICT. HO&QU MODmCATICMS 
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i-t'sure 9-30. Commtmd Service Module and Lunar Module Modifications. 



380 



Future Apollo Missions 

MODIFIED | 71 POITAILE LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM IPLSS1 



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381 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

may yield data on the history of lunar volatilcs. Sampling of 
Apenninian material should provide very ancient rocks whose 
origin predates the formation and tilting of the major mare basins. 
These few landings on the lunar surface might be compared to 
making nine landings at various sites on North and South America, 
which is about the same land mass. One would not expect to have 
more than a token knowledge of that area under the circumstances. 
We know that these initial explorations are insufficient to give us 
in-depth knowledge of the vast area of the Moon. We expect 
these early expeditions to guide us to the most interesting sites. 

SPACECRAFT MODIFICATIONS 

NASA is planning to modify the spacecraft, astronaut space suits, 
and life support systems to allow increased lunar surface staytime 
and improved astronaut mobility for Apollo 16 through 19 
(Figures 9-30, 9-31 and 9-32). The modified Lunar Module 
will be called the Extended Lunar Module and will be able to land 
more weight on the Moon than the current LM. Part of this 
extra weight capacity will be used to transport the manned Lunar 
Rover Vehicle. The modifications are required to satisfy the 
mission requirements; to provide the capability for flight missions 
up to 16 days total duration with a lunar stay time up to 54 
hours; to deliver a heavyweight LM (up to 16,760 kilograms 




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. 



Future Apollo Missions 

manned) to a 1 1 1 X 5 kilometre lunar orbit; and to provide the 
capability to carry and operate a scientific instrument payload 
through the addition of a general purpose scientific instrument 
module with interfacing subsystem modification, including Extra- 
vehicular Activity recovery of stored scientific instrument module 
data. 

LUNAR ROVER VEHICLE 

NASA is developing a Lunar Rover Vehicle (LRV) (Figure 
9-33) to transport two astronauts as they explore the lunar surface. 
Four operational vehicles are being readied, the first of which is 
scheduled to be flown on the Apollo 16 lunar mission in late 1971. 

The four-wheel vehicle will provide transportation for the 
astronauts and their tools, scientific equipment and lunar samples 
collected during traverses. It will be manually operated by one 
of the astronauts, and will not be capable of automatic control. 

Figure 9-33. Luntir Rover Vehicle. 




Pioneering in Outer Space 



The driver will operate the vehicle much as he would on Earth, 
using a pistol grip hand control rather than a steering wheel. The 
vehicle will be able to travel at variable speeds up to 1 6 kilometres 
per hour on a relatively smooth surface. 

Simplicity, in both design and operation, is one of the most 
important features being emphasized in the development and 
construction of the vehicle. 

The Lunar Rover will be about 3.2 metres long, 1.8 metres 
wide and have a 2.2 metre wheel base. The four wheels will be 
individually powered by electric motors. The Rover's power 
source will be two primary (non-rechargeable) batteries. 

The LRV will weigh no more than 181 kilograms, including 
tie-down and unloading systems. It will carry a total weight of 
438 kilograms, which will include the two astronauts and their 
life support systems (181 kilograms for each man and his 
equipment) plus 45 kilograms of scientific experiments. It must 
also be able to carry up to 32 kilograms of lunar soil and rock 
samples. 

The delivery date of the first opera lional vehicle is compatible 
with the completion of improvements to the Apollo spacecraft and 
astronaut equipment, which, with the LRV, will extend the lunar 
staylime and give exploring astronauts much greater mobility — 
two basic requirements for increasing the scientific value of the 
Apollo Lunar Exploration Programme, 

The operational lifetime of the LRV on the Moon, according 
to current plans, will be 54 hours during the lunar day. It will 
be able to make any number of short trips up to a cumulative 
distance of 120 kilometres. Because of the limitations of the life 
support systems, the vehicle's range will be restricted to a radius 
of about five kilometres from the Lunar Module. 

The LRV will be delivered to the Moon in the "cargo section" 
(descent stage) of the Extended Lunar Module {Figure 9-34). 
The LRV wit! be stowed in the stage's quadrant number one with 
its four wheels folded over its chassis. Deployment will be semi- 
automated; one astronaut must be able to quickly and easily deploy, 
activate, check and operate the vehicle. 



384 



Future Apollo Missions 
LUNAR VEHICLE DEPLOYMENT 



[tl RELEASE FROM 
LM QUADRANT 




Figure 9-34, Lunar Raver Deplnyimnl. 



The LRV will be designed to negotiate step-like obstacles 30 
centimetres high with two wheels in contact at zero velocity and 
be able to cross crevasses 70 centimetres wide with two wheels at 
zero velocity. The fully loaded vehicle will be able to climb and 
descend 25 degree slopes. A parking brake will be provided that 
can stop and hold the LRV on slopes up to 35 degrees. 

The vehicle will have ground clearance of at least 35 centimetres 
on a flat surface. Pitch and roll stability angles will be at least 
45 degrees with a full load. The turn radius will be no more than 
one vehicle length (less than 3,3 metres). 

The driver of the LRV will be seated so that both front wheels 
are visible during normal driving. Mirrors will be used for rear 
vision. The driver will navigate through a simple (dead reckoning) 
navigation system that will determine the direction and distance 
between the LRV and the Lunar Module, and the total distance 
travelled at any point during a traverse. 

385 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

The LRV will have no communication equipment on board. 
Television cameras, when carried on the vehicle, will be self- 
contained cargo. All communication will be between the 
astronauts' spacesuit equipment and the Lunar Module or Earth 
based controllers. 

Design and operating procedures will ensure crew safety from 
hazards such as solar glare from reflecting vehicle surfaces, lunar 
surface roughness and vehicle instability. 

The Manned Lunar Rover Vehicle will greatly increase 
astronaut mobility, thereby enlarging the scope of lunar exploration. 
The results will give greater scientific returns from the Apollo 
missions. 

SUMMARY 

In the future improved transportation systems will make going 
to the Moon relatively inexpensive. We will want to put a 
laboratory into lunar orbit which will be the base of operation 
for crews of scientists who will visit the lunar surface by means of 
a shuttle system, bring their samples back to the lunar orbiting 
laboratory for examination, and return again for samples from 
another site. 

When a reasonably good evaluation of various kinds of surfaces 
has been obtained, it may be advisable to establish a base on 
the Moon to continue exploration or exploitation, depending upon 
what we find. 

Within the next decades we should be able to make three 
vehicles operational. A space shuttle to operate between the 
Earth and Earth orbit, a nuclear powered shuttle to operate 
between an Earth orbiting space station and the lunar orbiting 
laboratory, and another vehicle to fly between the lunar orbiting 
laboratory and the lunar surface. 

Transportation has always been the key to new dimensions in 
man's progress. With the rocket engined launch vehicles we 
have taken the first step into space. With the tri-shuttlc system, 
we may be able to explore the entire solar system. 

386 



CHAPTER TEN 

The Skylab 
Programme 

By L. B. James 

The next developmental step in the exploration of space is the 
establishment of a place for men to live and work in this new 
territory. Proceeding in an orderly manner from the development 
in the Apollo Programme of the capability 'to operate outside the 
Earth's atmosphere, the Skylab Programme is composed, primarily, 
of equipment which was developed for the lunar landing programme. 
Because the testing methods used in Apollo were eminently 
successful, back-up equipment was not required for many of the 
planned tests. Therefore, it is now available for the conduct of 
this follow-on project which will be the first experimental space 
station (Figure 1 0-1). 

Apollo Programme planning and management provided not 
only against unanticipated setbacks, but also for unexpected 
opportunities to move forward. It became evident some time 
before the successful flight of Apollo 11 that all of the launch 
equipment and spacecraft might not be required to make the lunar 
landing. Looking toward this eventuality, plans were begun to 
take full advantage of such a circumstance, should it arise, and the 
Skylab (then called Apollo Applications) Programme was described. 
Work has continued and today we are preparing for the first of 
four Skylab missions in the latter part of 1972. 

As we have ventured into space we have begun to learn of some 
of the marvels which are available there, and to design the ways 
to make use of them. Some conditions are unique while others can 
only be duplicated on Earth at great expense and with considerable 
difficulty. Hard vacuum is attainable on Earth but it is a costly 
condition to imitate and does not approach that to be found 200 
miles above our planet. 

387 




Figure 10-1. Sky lab Programme Cluster Configuration. 

Weightlessness can be created here, but for only a few seconds 
in an aircraft performing a Keplerian trajectory. It is also created 
for a few seconds by means of what the American colonists knew 
as a "shot-tower". The sterility of space is a goal of laboratories 
and pharmaceutical manufacturers, but it is an expensive condition 
to create. 

The one unique quality of near-Earlh space is its role as a 
vantage point for looking at this planet. This is a condition 
which we can not even try to imitate (Figure 10-2). 

This particular characteristic has already begun to add to our 
knowledge. For the first time the true shape of the Earth is 
known — and the science of geodesy has accommodated to this new 
fact. For some time it has been known that different conditions 
on Earth, and different substances, give off differing amounts of 

388 






liguri' 10-2. The Earth photograph- 
ed from Apollo Id. 



Figure 10-3. The Earth. 



heat and reflect different parts of light. From an aircraft, using 
filtered photography, different crops growing in adjacent fields can 
be identified. The chemical and mineral content of the soil is 
also detectable from altitude. 

Soon after Gemini astronauts began to qualify as the world's 
greatest photographers, scientists began to look closely at the 
beautiful pictures which were being returned from space. Not only 
were these some of the most colourful and exquisitely composed 
photographs ever taken, they were also revealing facts about the 
Earth which had not been known before (Figure 10-3). 

A remarkable finding was that instead of details on Earth being 
blurred from a distance of hundreds of miles, they were indeed 
sharper than photos taken from high flying aircraft. The 
"remarkable eyesight" attributed to some of the astronauts was also 
a characteristic of the cameras they carried. From a photograph 
taken from 200 miles above the surface of the Gulf of Mexico, 
a shrimp fisherman was able to pick out the beds from which 
his crop came. And he could tell from looking at one space photo 
why the shrimp had moved from their accustomed place to a new 
location — water pollution, which was clearly evident in the 
picture. 

389 



TIME VARIABILITY OF EARTH RESOURCES PHENOMENA 




Figure 10-4. Photograph of the 

Western desert of Egypt taken from 

Gemini, 



An Egyptian geologist, working at the University of California, 
saw a picture of the Western desert of Egypt which was taken 
from Gemini. He knew the area well, having worked there before 
coming to the U.S. It caught his attention that earth formations 
indicated three times as large an area of mineral interests as the 
size of the land already being mined {Figure 10-4). 

Hydrologists and oceanographers were excited by the space 
photographs. They were amazed at the clarity which showed the 
ocean floor as it had never been seen previously. They rightly 
reasoned that thermal sensors, reporting from space, would reveal 
the varying temperatures of the waters of the world. Their theories 
were confirmed on subsequent flights, and thermal maps of the 
oceans are in preparation. These will not only be of great scientific 
value, but fishermen will be interested, for fish follow plankton, and 
plankton follow warm water (Figure 10-5). 

An earth fault has been seen on a photograph taken from 
Apollo that shows the same characteristics as those faults which are 
coincident with rich oil bearing lands. But this fault is in the 
northeast of Africa, where oil has never been found. 

Mineralogists have realized that different minerals give off 
different amounts of heat, and that if these measures can be 
identified, prospecting by means of space-carried heat sensors would 

390 



Figure 10-6. Earth Resources Survey. 



be a practical possibility. The scientific development of such 
instruments is under way, and it is hoped that initial equipment 
will be ready for use on the first Space Workshop in 1972. 

It has been estimated by a research organization that a few 
satellites in synchronous orbit, using multispectral photography, 
could assess the world's crop of food grains, oats, corn, wheat and 
rice. This essential information could be used by planners to 
manage food resources. For the first time it would be possible to 
prevent famine by the proper management of the world's food 
(Figure 10-6). 

Of course, we are all already accustomed to the cloud-cover 
reports which are relayed from Earth orbiting satellites every day. 
Most of the countries of the world are making good use of 
these facilities which are easily accessible to them by means 
of inexpensive receiving stations. With more sophisticated 
meteorological equipment now under construction, we can expect 
to be appraised of forthcoming weather as much as two weeks in 
advance. Even today, Great Britain reports an annual saving in 
agriculture alone of $20 million by using cloud-cover predictions. 

391 




Figure 10-7. Cloud-Cover. 



Figure 10-8. Urban Area. 



With two weeks in advance weather information, savings would 
be accrued by farmers, the construction industry, all forms of 
transportation, resorts, expositions, and the retail business — and 
school holidays could be arranged for bright sunny days (Figure 
10-7). 

Understanding and predicting the weather are the first steps 
toward doing something about it. For the first time in man's 
history this is going to be possible. Throughout the millennia he 
has provided against the weather — now for the first time he will 
be able to use knowledge of the weather to his advantage — and, 
eventually, to control it for his benefit. 

Satellites have been making comprehensive maps of clouds, day 
after day for years, and they have also been making superb maps 
of the terrain. Some boundaries in South America have been 
definitized for the first time by means of mosaics of photographs 
taken from space. Cartographers have estimated huge savings in 
map making by the use of satellites, for these pictures from space, 
covering hundreds of thousands of square 'miles, are considerably 
cheaper than multiple aircraft flights, and orders of magnitude less 
costly than ground based measuring techniques. Space photography 
has, indeed, revolutionized the map making business. 

Not only the borders and natural formations of Earth can be 
clearly seen from space, but most of the man-made characteristics 

392 









The Skylab Programme 

are equally discernible. Smog, for instance, and polluted water 
arc easily distinguished. And urban areas give off more heat 
than rural ones, as well as showing man's distinctive straight lines 
of construction. Planners can easily identify urban growth from 
space photographs (Figure 1 0-8). 

Apollo 9 carried the world's first controlled multispcctral 
photography experiment into space. With hand-held cameras, the 
astronauts took simultaneous pictures with photographs being taken 
of the same terrain with the same lighting conditions from high 
and low flying aircraft. In addition, multispectral photographs 
were obtained through four different filters from synchronized 
cameras mounted on the spacecraft. Immensely valuable work 
was done which will be incorporated into the Skylab Programme, 
and into the unmanned Earth Resources Satellite which is also in 
preparation. 

Using aircraft, it is possible to survey a considerable amount 
of land on a single flight. However, a good many flights would 
be required to survey a whole state — or a whole country. From 
space, it is possible to see almost all of Australia at one time. An 
early Gemini flight actually took a picture which encompassed 
most of your vast country. So you can readily see that taking 
filtered photographs from space can have some significant value 
(Figure 10-9), 



Figure iO-9. 
Australia's Northern 
Territory as photographed 
from Gemini. 





PURPOSE 

DEVELOP MULTISPECTRAL PHOTOGRAPHY FOR USE IN 
STUDYING EARTH SCIENCES. 

SIGNIFICANCE 

MULTISPECTRAL PHOTOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES HAVE BEEN 
SUCCESSFULLY EMPLOYED IN SURFACE MATERIAL IDENTI- 
FICATION. SPECTRAL REFLECTION DIFFERENCES CORRE- 
LATE CLOSELY WITH EARTH COMPOSITIONAL AND TEXTURAL 
PROPERTIES. 



Figure 10-10. Six Camera Multispectral Photography Experiment. 






Research into the equipment and the systems for using our 
platform in space to measure the crops of the world, to ascertain 
areas of blight in time to take corrective action, to measure snow 
cover in order to predict floods, to find the schools of fish which 
follow warm currents, to ascertain what lies beneath certain kinds 
of geological faults, to map the inaccessible areas of the Earth — 
these are among the principal purposes of Skylab. We expect to 
learn enough about multispectral photography from space and the 
rapid transmission of information to the Earth so that automated 
satellites can be put to work on a long-lime basis, to orbit the planet 
every 90 minutes and report their findings back to Earth 
automatically. 

The Skylab Multispectral Photographic experiment will add to 
our knowledge of how multi-band photography may be effectively 
applied to Earth sciences. Photographs will be made of selected 

394 






The Sky/ab Programme 

ground sites using six Itek electric cameras with synchronized 

shutters. Each camera will use a different film and/or filler 
combination to allow photographs to be obtained in selected 
spectral bands of visible and near 1R portions of the electromagnetic 
spectrum. The multispectral photographs will be analyzed by 
experts studying oceanography, water management, agriculture, 
forestry, geology, geography and ecology. The orbital path of the 
Saturn Workshop I will permit Earth resources survey coverage 
of the entire contiguous United States (Figure 10-10). 

The use of Skylab to initiate the development of these capabilities 
can be expected to materially hasten their utility. Testing such 
systems by the trial and error method of putting unmanned satellites 
into orbit, waiting for return of information and then producing 
new equipment, correcting and improving the old, is a time and 
money consuming process. Skylab will have a set of equipment 
with some options and modifications for a test programme, perhaps 
in the breadboard stage so that the crew can carry out some of 
the essential developmental steps on sensors. In a single mission 
they can be expected to accomplish what would have required 
several years and many launches of automated equipment. Thus 
this programme can not only lessen the cost of equipment 
development but can also bring Earth sensing activity into 
practical use at a much earlier date. 

The Sun will also be a prime target for observation in the Skylab 
Programme. The experiments to be conducted by astronaut- 
astronomers are the most exciting of the more than 50 experiments 
to be performed. Approximately 32,000 times as much energy 
as the human race is now using bombards the Earth each year from 
the Sun. Therefore, it can be to our great advantage to learn as 
much as possible about the Sun, not only for the scientific value 
of such fundamental research, but also in the hope that eventually 
some portion of the Sun's energy may be harnessed for man's use 
— either on Earth or in space. It was, after all, the fundamental 
research of scientists at the turn of the century which eventuated 
in the harnessing of nuclear energy in the service of man. 

The Apollo Telescope Mount is being developed in the Skytab 
Programme to be used by man for performing high resolution 
studies of solar phenomena. The Apollo Telescope Mount consists 

395 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

of a structural rack, an experiment package containing a number 
of large solar telescopes and auxiliary equipment and subsystems 
for providing power, stabilization, communications and other 
supporting functions. The Mount employs a three-axis stabilization 
and control system utilizing control moment gyros to maintain the 
entire Workshop in a solar inertial mode and a vernier gimbal 
arrangement to maintain experiment orientation to within ±2.5 
arc seconds of any point within a 40 arc minute square centred 
on the solar disc. 

The Apollo Telescope Mount experiment package accommodates 
five separate experiments for studying solar phenomena (Figure 
10-}}). These astronomical instruments are the largest, most 
advanced devices ever designed for performing solar research from 
an orbiting spacecraft. They permit measurements of the Sun's 
radiation with a combination of high spatial, spectral and time 
resolution never before achieved. Special emphasis is placed on 
observation of those portions of the Sun's emissions which are 
invisible to ground observatories because of apsorption in the 



APOLLO TELESCOPE MOUNT 

SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENTS 






EXPERIMENT 
HMOS 


ORGANIZATION 


PRINCIPAL 
INVESTIGATOR 


INSTRUMENT 


PURPOSE 


SOS? 


HIGH ALTITUDE 
OBSERVATORY 


DR. G.NEWKIRX.IR. 


WHITE IIGHT 
CORONAGRAPH 


MONITOR THE BRIGHTNESS. FORM 
AND POLARIZATION OF THE SOLAR 
CORONA IN WHITE LIGHT. 


SOS? 


NAVAl 
RESEARCH 

LAB ORATORY 


Ml ID. PURCELL 


CORONAL 
SPECTROHELIQGRAPH 


MAKE HtCH-SPATIAL RESOLUTION 
MONOCHROME IRIC SOLAR IMAGES 

IN THE 160-610 ANGSTROM RANGE 


CHRO MO SPHERIC 
SPECTROGRAPH 


RECORD SOLAR S PECTRA IN THE 
800-MB ANG SI ROM RANGE WITH 
HIGH SPECTRAL RESOLUTION 


SOM 


AMERICAN 

SCIENCE AND 

ENGINEERING 

CO. 


DR. R.GIACCONI 


X-RAY 

SPECIROGRAPHtC 

TELESCOPE 


STUDY SOUR FLARE EMISSIONS 
IN THE SOFT X RAY WAVELENGTHS 
L?-W ANGSTROMSI 


SOM 


HARVARD 

CGUEGE 

OBSERVATORY 


OR. L GOLDBERG 


UV SCANNING 

POIYCHROMATOR 

SPECTROHEL IOMETER 


PHOTOELKTRICALLY RECORD HIGH 
RESOLUTION SOLAR IMAGES AND 
STULFY EMISSION SPECTRA Of SELECTED 
FEATURES OF SOLAR DISC 


SOX 


GOODARD 

SPACE 

FlIGHT CENTER 


MS I r .vi..iws 


HI -RESOLUTION 
X-RAY TELESCOPES 


OBTAIN TINE-HISTORIES OF THE 
DYNAMICS OF THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE 
IN X RAYS IN THE 3 LOO ANGSTROM 
RANGE 



Figure 10- H. Apollo Telescope Mount Scientific Experimems. 



396 






The Skylab Programme 

Earth's atmosphere. With the control, power, thermal and 
communications subsystems necessary to exploit the full capabilities 
of these powerful research instruments, this equipment becomes a 
true solar observatory. 

The Apollo Telescope Mount utilizes man on board to perform, 
in space, activities characteristic of those used in carrying out solar 
research programmes at ground-based observatories. 

On-board displays will permit astronauts to visually scan the 
Sun to locate targets of high scientific interest. They will assist 
in the alignment and calibration of the instruments, point them 
to the appropriate targets, using an on-board television monitor, 
make judgements of operating modes, and generally conduct a 
comprehensive programme of solar investigation geared to maximize 
ihe scientific return of the mission. The crew will be prepared to 
perform any possible failure circumvention activities to preserve the 
Apollo Telescope Mount's scientific success, and will be directly 
responsible for retrieval of film from cameras by means of 
extravehicular activity. Thus the primary solar data will be 
returned to Earth for postfiight analysis by the scientists who have 
designed the experiments. 

The majority of the data from the Apollo Telescope Mount 
experiments will be recorded on photographic film, enabling the 
collection of large quantities of precision information. The 
advantages attendant to the utilization of film exploit the full high 
resolution potential of the large instruments (Figure !0-12). 

To complement the photographic mode, the Apollo Telescope 
Mount communication systems include high transmission rate 
telemetry channels which provide important data to the ground in 
real time. A television system permits ground observers to monitor 
periodically the same displays of solar information available to the 
astronauts. Voice channels will insure good communication 
between the Apollo Telescope Mount crew and the scientists on 
the ground, and a teleprinter will provide an additional com- 
munications link from the ground up to the Skylab (Figure 10-13). 

The Apollo Telescope Mount experiment pay load consists of 
two X-ray telescopes, an extreme ultraviolet spectroheliograph, an 
extreme ultraviolet spectograph, an extreme ultraviolet scanning 
spectrometer, and a white light coronagraph. 

397 





WHITE LIGHT CORONA 



K-AIPHA fUlL CHSC 



r\vm 



UV 5KCTHA 



a 




X-RAY FULl DISC 



XUV SPK1RCWCLIOGRAMS 
Figure 10-12, Data from the Apollo Telescope Mount Experiments. 
Figure 10-13. Apollo Telescope Mount. Neutral Buoyancy Testing 










ZERO-G (NEUTRAL BUOYANCY) TESTING 
OF ASTRONAUT EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY 
MSFC TEST TANK 



The Skyfab Programme 

The spectrograph^ grazing incidence X-ray telescope will 
obtain photographs of the Lime variation of solar activity-related 
X-ray emissions in Lhe 2 to S and 44 to 60 angstrom range with 
2 arc-second spatial resolution and spectral resolution of a fraction 
of an angstrom. 

X-ray telescopes, using similar focusing techniques, will photo- 
graph the solar X-ray distribution over the complete solar disc and 
near corona in the to 33 angstrom region. Both X-ray experiments 
provide a complementary and comprehensive investigation of the 
results of extremely high temperature ionization of the elements 
present at considerable heights above the Sun's photosphere. 

An XUV spectrohcliograph in the 150-650 angstrom range 
is designed to photograph images of the solar disc with good spatial 
and spectral resolution. Another instrument, an XUV spectrograph, 
will photographically record line spectrograms of the solar radiation 
between 900 and 3900 angstroms from small selected areas on 
the disc and across the limb into the corona. 

A scanning UV spectrometer will obtain photoelectric scans in 
the 300-1300 angstrom range of 5 X 5 arc minute selected areas 
on the disc with good resolution. Though overlapping in spectral 
range, some instruments perform complementary measurements 
with one instrument yielding precise quantitative intensity 
information with only moderate spectral resolution and another 
providing qualitative intensity measurements with very high spectral 
resolution. 

The white light coronagraph will photograph the brightness, 
form and polarization of the solar corona between 1.5 and 6 solar 
radii from the Sun's centre. Measurements somewhat comparable 
to these can be made from the ground only during the rare and 
extremely brief total solar eclipse transits. 

In addition to the five basic experiments, an XUV disc monitor, 
an X-ray monitor, a corona display, and two H-Alpha telescopes 
provide a display of the Sun to the astronauts, permitting them to 
select the most interesting area for study and to point the 
appropriate instruments accordingly. 

399 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



Two related unmanned scientific instruments were launched on 
Aerobee Rockets from the White Sands Missile Range, November 
4, 1969, as part of the Apollo Telescope Mount Programme to 
verify design and evaluate performance characteristics. One 
rocket carried a one-hatf scale model of the spectrohcliograph 
intended for flight on the Apollo Telescope Mount, and the other 
carried an instrument similar in many respects to the solar X-ray 
telescope. These instruments were launched during a Class I 
bright flare with excellent operational and scientific results. The 
information obtained on solar emission intensity, filter performance, 
film response, exposure time, etc., has been fed directly back into 
the development of the Apollo Telescope Mount instruments, which 
arc now in the prototype phase. The Apollo Telescope Mount 
programme was able to achieve highly successful results from 
the simultaneously launched rocket flights. The solar X-ray 
telescope, for the first time, obtained a cinemagraphic record of 
the early phase of a solar flare. The extreme ultraviolet 
spectrohcliograph, for the first time, obtained high quality filmed 
XUV spcctroheliograms of the same event. A TV camera carried 
aboard one rocket provided ground observers with the first real-time 
views ever obtained of the Sun in the XUV wavelength band. 
These development flights arc just the prelude to the complete and 
detailed investigation of the Sun and its physical processes which 
the Apollo Telescope Mount programme will pursue, beginning 
in 1972. 



Among the 50-odd experiments to be performed on board 
Sky lab are some which are of very special interest. Included are 
three examinations of circadian rhythm. One is the study of the 
parameters of the circadian rhythm of a sprouting potato tuber 
in Earth orbit. These measurements will be compared with 
identical measurements made on similar samples in laboratories on 
Earth. In order to arrive at these facts the potato tuber will be 
maintained in a controlled environment and the oxygen consumption 
and temperature changes will be monitored. Pressure and 
temperature will be sampled periodically over the 28-day period 
and results will be returned for comparison with the control sample 
on Earth. 



41)0 



The Skylab Programme 

Also in this basic study is one concerning the "temperature 
compensation" in the circadian rhythm of an insect. For this 
purpose, the rate of hatching of the vinegar gnat will be measured 
at different temperatures in space. The pupae of the gnats will be 
hermetically sealed. Measurements will be compared with those 
made at sea level. 

Pocket mice will also be used in corresponding study of the 
same phenomena. The stability of the circadian rhythm of a 
mammalian system under space flight conditions will be studied by 
observing the body temperature, heart rate, and animal movement 
of six pocket mice, housed separately in individual cages in total 
darkness. The atmosphere will be supplied and controlled to 
simulate an Earth atmosphere. 

The conduct of these three experiments in the Skylab Programme 
is expected to shed some light on this rather mysterious phenomenon 
of inhabitants of the planet Earth, which makes them subject to a 
2 4 -hour cycle. 

Naturally, the most sophisticated study of this subject will 
result from the astronauts' observations of themselves and of each 
other. Biomedical data, either accumulated in the Workshop or 
telemetered to the Manned Spacecraft Centre at Houston will add 
to the information. 

As each flight in the Apollo Programme was designed to be 
more complex than the last, and to perform experiments which 
would be important to the conduct of later missions, so, each of 
the missions in the Skylab Programme will perform tests of 
systems and equipment which may be useful on a later flight. 
In addition to the study of the physiological and psychological 
reactions of the astronauts, and the evaluation of present equipment, 
some experiments will check out experimental equipment which is 
designed for later use. 

A foot-controlled manoeuvring unit which may be a valuable 
tool for extravehicular activity will be examined in the weightless- 
ness of the Workshop. The principal advantage of such a 
mechanism is that it would allow the crews to move about in space 
with their hands free to perform work tasks. Another similar test 
will evaluate the usefulness of a hand-held manoeuvring unit 
similar to the backpack type used in Gemini. Both of these pieces 



401 




POWER SUPPU 



Figure 10-14. Astronaut Manoeuvring Equipment Experiment. 



of equipment will be thoroughly checked oul inside the Workshop 
which has adequate volume for this type of testing. It either is 
successful, or can be modified, it may welt be used on later space 
missions (Figure 10-14). 

One of the fundamental researches which will be conducted 
concerns the effects of zero gravity on the flamm ability of 
non-metallic materials in the spacecraft environment. Under 
closely controlled conditions, within an enclosed chamber with a 
vent to space, information will be obtained on the ignition of 
various non-metallic materials, flame propagation and extinguish- 
ment characteristics in order to build a basic understanding of the 
behaviour of fire in weightlessness. 

To evaluate some of the exciting theories concerning the 
behaviour of materials in the space environment, experiments will 
be carried out which may eventuate in perfect ball bearings, large 
perfect crystals and exotic material compositions. Learning how 



402 



MATERIAL PROCESS ZONE 




CONTROL PANEL 



VIEWING PORT 



Figure 10-15. Manufacturing Process Chamber. 

to produce such things will involve five separate tasks (Figure 
70-75). 

1. Metals Melting. Metal samples of various alloys of varying 
thickness will be melted and returned to Earth for examination. 

2. Spherical Casting. Several specimens of a representative 
material will be melted and allowed to solidify. 

3. Exothermic Heating. Several specimens of stainless steel tubing 
will be joined using a bra2e alloy. The heat source for the 
process will be exothermic material. 

4. Fibre Whisker Reinforced Composites. Several specimens of 
a powdered composite material with fibre whiskers implaced 
in the material will be melted and allowed to solidify. 

5. Growth of Single Crystal. A sample representative material 
will be melted, seeded and allowed to grow into a single crystal. 
All of the products of these experiments will be returned to 
Earth for examination. 



403 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

All of these tasks wiil be performed in a materials melting 
facility which will include an electron beam welding gun, a power 
supply and a control panel. Provisions will be made for astronaut 
access, for removing and replacing the experiment specimens, for 
viewing ports to permit visual observation and data recording by 
cameras, and for connecting the chamber to a vacuum port. 

The heat source for the metals melting and spherical casting 
tasks will be the electron beam gun. The heat source for the 
exothermic healing and the fibre whisker reinforced composites 
will be exothermic material. The heat source for the growth of 

single crystals will be electric heaters. 

The Skylab Programme consists of three missions, the first crew 
of three will spend 28 days in the Workshop, the second three-man 
crew will be scheduled for 56 days as will the third crew. On these 
missions we hope to establish man's long duration tolerance lo the 
space environment by means of the extensive medical and 
habitability experiments which are planned. 

The first step in the programme is placing the Skylab in Earth 
orbit. The largest module of this cluster is the Orbital Workshop, 
containing living quarters and experiment areas. This central 
structure is derived from a third stage of the Saturn V launch 
vehicle completely modified on the ground. Within its 10,000 
cubic- foot fuel tank, a three-man crew of scientists-astronauts will 
have a bedroom with three separate sleeping compartments, a food 
preparation and recreation area, a bathroom, and a large area 
in which to conduct more than 50 experiments. The total available 
living and working space will be equivalent to a small three- 
bedroom house — vastly larger than the restricted cabins of present- 
day spacecraft (Figure 10-16). 

The nerve centre of the orbital cluster is the cylinderically 
shaped Airlock Module attached to the forward end of the Work- 
shop. It contains the communications, environmental control and 
electrical power systems required to operate the entire cluster and 
to provide a shirt-sleeve environment for the crew. The airlock 
also provides the hatch for extravehicular activities, such as 
retrieving film from the ATM, which precludes the need to 
deprcssurize the entire cluster. Though it is a new structure, the 

404 




Figure 10- 16. Saturn Workshop I. 
Figure 10-17, Multiple Docking Adaptor. 



ATM FILM VAULT 

AIRLOCK MODULI/ 
MDA INTERFACE 



*a *• - iTt in 




UNLOADING FROM SUPER GUPPY AT MSFC 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

Airlock Module utilizes many components developed in the Gemini 
Programme, 

Attached to the Airlock is the larger eylindrically shaped Multiple 
Docking Adaptor. This unit, as its name implies, provides for 
leakproof docking of the spacecraft to the Cluster, so that the crew 
can pass back and forth between the two without any need for 
depressurization. The Multiple Docking Adaptor also houses 
other vital equipment such the control and display panel for the 
Apollo Telescope Mount (Figure 10-17). 

The structure of the Apollo Telescope Mount was described in 
some detail earlier. 

It is presently planned to launch Skylab (Orbital Workshop, 
Airlock Module, Multiple Docking Adaptor and Apollo Telescope 
Mount) into a 235 nautical mile orbit of 50° inclination to the 
equator using the first two stages of the Saturn V as the launch 
vehicle. This will permit viewing all of the United States and will 
also cover most of the heaviest areas of population of the world. 
Because of the inclination, Skylab will also have a view of 
Australia. 

After the Workshop is inserted into orbit, the solar panels, 
which will provide on-board power, will automatically deploy. 
The Telescope Mount will position itself for operation which 
requires that it swing around to face the Sun. The solar panels 
to power the Telescope will then deploy and the system will 
become stabilized in the solar inertia! mode, so that its instruments 
will face the Sun intermittently throughout the life of the Skylab 
missions. 

Making use of a Command and Service Module prepared for 
the Apollo Programme, the crew will be launched from Cape 
Kennedy by a Saturn IB launch vehicle a day after the Workshop 
has been put into orbit. In the Command Module, the three-man 
crew will rendezvous and dock with the Workshop, using the 
multiple docking adaptor for this purpose. After all equipment 
and materials have been checked for readiness, the crew will enter 
the Workshop for their 28-day stay. During this period the 
Command and Service Module will be powered-down to await 
the entrance of the crew and return them to Earth. The Apollo 




Figure 10-18. Airlock Structural Text Article. 



Command Module is now undergoing some minor modifications to 
fit it for its role in the Skylab Programme. Principal among these 
is the addition of a back-up deorbit capability for the return to 
the surface of the Earth (Figure 10-18). 

The investigations of man's reactions to long-duration space 
flight are a primary objective of the Skylab Programme. There 
will be a number of medical questions to be answered, including 
the measurement of physiological responses to measured amounts 
of work, examination of eating and sleeping habits and cycles, and 
the assessment of mineral balance. The mineral investigation will 
be done by carefully measuring the mineral intake of the astronauts, 
and collecting all waste material from them for return to Earth for 
analysis. In this manner we expect to evaluate the effect of zero 
gravity on such things as the calcium content of the bone structure. 

A cardiovascular study involves the use of a lower body negative 
pressure, pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight. A device tests the 



406 



407 



LITTER CHAIR WITH CONTROL EQUIPMENT 



cs 




JNCriONAL PROTOTYPE UNIT 



Figure 10-19. fn-Flight Lower Body Negative Pressure Experiment. 



cardiovascular system reflexes which normally operate to regulate 
regional perfusion pressure in distribution of blood throughout the 
body as man changes his posture on Earth. This is a vitally 
important measurement of cardiovascular system response. The 
in-flight measurement will allow us, for the first time, to establish 
the onset, the rale of progression, and the severity of adverse 
functional changes in the protective reflex responses. This pro- 
cedure requires a medically trained observer as a member of the 
flight crew. The cardiovascular investigation also includes 
obtaining a vectorcardiogram during given workloads on a bicycle 
ergorneter (Figure 10-19). 

Investigations in the area of haematotogy and immunology are 
directed toward determining the effects of space flight on the 
physiology of the formed blood elements, the fluid compartments 
of the body, the haemostatic mechanism, selected aspects of humoral 
and cellular immunity with reference to microflora! alterations, and 



408 



Figure 10-20. Human Vestibular Function Experiment. 



the frequency of leukocytic chromosomal aberrations. Four pre- 
and post-flight experiments will be conducted in this general area. 
Blood will not be drawn from astronauts in-flight. 

In the area of neurophysiology, two investigations arc planned to 
evaluate central nervous system responses, and changes, if any, as 
a function of space flight. The first, a human vestibular experi- 
ment, is an extension of studies initiated during the Gemini 
Programme. The objectives are to investigate the effects of 
weightlessness and sub-gravity states on the perception and the 
organization of personal and extrapersonal space and to establish 
the integrity of the vestibular apparatus during prolonged 
weightlessness (Figure 10-20). 

For the first time in space, energy expenditure will be measured 
by comparing metabolic rate of the astronauts during rest, during 
calibrated exercise using a bicycle ergorneter, and while performing 
operational-type tasks. 

409 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

To provide supporting and ancillary information to these experi- 
ments, we plan on being able to "weigh" men and materials in 
zero g. This "weighing" will be accomplished by the use of two 
mass measurement devices with ranges appropriate for small masses 
and for man. 

An experiment support system is being developed to provide 
electronic, fluid, and electrical, and in specific instances, mechanical 
interfaces with the medical experiments. 

Through the minute observation and constant surveillance of 
three well men, working under highly unusual circumstances and 
in a strange environment for one period of 28 days and two 
periods of 56 days each, we expect to learn a great deal about 
the actions and reactions of well people. 

Habitability studies will be of major importance on all of these 
missions and are expected to develop the techniques and the 
equipment necessary for long duration stay in the large space 
stations which we envision for the future, and for the long journeys 
which will be necessary for planetary exploration. Developments 
now under way will result in equipment and procedures for bathing, 
for preparing foods, for exercising and for sleeping. 

The large working area of the Workshop is divided by a floor, 
making two stories. Because of the lack of gravity there is no 
up or down, so astronauts will move about upon the "floor" or 
the "ceiling" with equal ease. Many of the experiments, as well 
as all of those concerned with intravehicular activity, will be 
conducted in these areas. 

At the conclusion of the 28-day period, the first crew will enter 
the Command and Service Module, which has been in a quiescent 
state, docked to the Workshop. They will have prepared the 
Workshop to remain in orbit with systems powered-down, ready 
to be reactivated by the next crew. The Command and Service 
Module will then separate from the docking adaptor and return to 
Earth for recovery in the Atlantic. 

The second in the series of Skylab flights is currently scheduled 
to be launched approximately three months after the launch of the 
first mission. Three crewmen, again using a modified Apollo 



410 



The Skylab Programme 

Command and Service Module and a Saturn IB booster, will be 
launched into orbit to rendezvous and dock with the Workshop 
which will have remained in a standby condition. 

This crew may consist of one astronaut who is an astronomer, 
and one who is a medical doctor as well as a third astronaut who 
may have some other scientific speciality. 

Their mission will be planned for a period of 56 days. However, 
we must bear in mind that all of these missions arc open-ended, 
in that the crews can return at any time. It is possible that 
discoveries will be made of such overwhelming importance that it 
will be decided to bring the crew back early — or in the event of 
some anomaly, the same decision may be taken. However, it is 
hoped that the 56-day missions will go far toward establishing 
man's tolerance for the space environment as well as producing 
valuable scientific results. 

Experiments begun on the previous mission will be continued, 
and others, more complex, will be started. Two film retrievals 
from the Telescope, using extravehicular activity, will be made, 
and a longer and more detailed examination of the Sun will be 
undertaken. Preliminary results from the ■ photographs and 
measurements made on the previous mission will contribute to the 
work which wilt be scheduled for this flight, not only on the Apollo 
Telescope Mount, but also in medical, habitability and other 
scientific studies. 

One month after the return and recovery of the crew of this 
flight, a third crew will enter the modified Apollo Command and 
Service Module and be launched aboard a Saturn IB into orbit to 
rendezvous and dock with the quiescent Workshop. Again, the 
medical, habitability and solar observation work will take place, 
building upon what will have been learned in the two previous 
missions. 

Another experiment of considerable interest is the examination 
of the feasibility of a "gravity substitute" bench. In space there 
is no position reference, no down or up, and, while in theory 
materials would stay in one position, practically they do not. 
Therefore we are studying two different methods for holding 



411 




purpose 

to explore aw assess the kmb of alternate 
solutions and aids fofl gravity substitution a] 
applied to a nork station. 

significance 

hake a positive contribution to umts msk adapt- 
ability in solving problems encountered ■ space 
flight; the degradation of performances it tin- 
effects of zero gravity. 

description 

tto modes of gravity substitution are to be eval- 
uated and data from each mode mill be m the form 
of film and taped comments of the astronaut as nc 
disassembles selected components from the mm 
task board. 

during the aero-oynamic mode, the fab bill create 
an aero-dynamic force field against the "mesh" 
■ork table. the insulated ion collector bill be 
installed in the same frame as the aero-0 yuumc 
work bench. an electrostatic force field bill be 
created against the ion collector by the iob 

SOURCE. 

P. I. - Mr. JMm B. Rmbll MSFC 



Figure 10-21. Gravity Substitute Workbench Experiment. 



The Skylab Programme 

Design, development and ground testing of subsystems and 
complete assemblies of the Workshop, Airlock Module, Multiple 
Docking Adaptor and Apollo Telescope Mount are all well 
advanced. Fabrication of the first flight article, Workshop I, 
has recently begun. The flight systems are scheduled to be 
delivered to Cape Kennedy in the latter part of 1971 and the 
first launch will take place toward the end of 1972, 

While more than 50 experiments have been assigned to this 
programme, they represent only a fraction of those which scientists 
in many disciplines would like to perform in space. However, 
engineering, in this case, is the hand-maiden of science and the 
vital scientific investigations which will lake place in space before 
the end of this century will have to await the establishment of a 
large space station which will be served by the space shuttle. 

Many of the careers which you choose will involve work in the 
space stations of the future, for which the Skylab Programme 
is an initial test platform. 



materials to a bench or work surface. One method holds materials 
to a surface by means of an airflow which uses suction. The 
other uses an electrostatic charge to maintain attraction between 
materials, thus holding an object in a stationary position (Figure 
10-21). 

The Skylab Programme is the precursor of large space stations 
where men will live and work in space. We know that we will 
learn enough from the Skylab flights to build a larger and more 
practical space station which, in the future, may allow us to 
have a continuously manned station in Earth orbit. Later missions 
will begin with crews which will remain in orbit for 120 days. They 
will be joined by the replacement crew, then returned to Earth. 
When sufficient medical information is in hand, we look forward 
to having crews in orbit for extended periods, possibly for more 
than a year. 

412 



413 



CHAPTER ELEVEN 

The Highroad to 
Space 

By L. B. James 

Every new territory, each new area for exploration, has been 
opened by some new form of transportation. Just as the western 
territories of America and Australia were developed after rail 
transportation was available and Antarctica is yielding its mysteries 
to airborne investigators, the new environments beyond Earth's 
atmosphere will prove their usefulness to man when economical 
round-trip transportation is operational. 

Our exploration and use of space has been, so far, constrained 
by the high cost of putting equipment into orbit, and its in- 
accessibility once it has been launched. Today, however, as we 
move into the 1970s, we are developing multiple programmes 
with emphasis on economy and on additional uses of space 
technology for the benefit of man. 

One of these programmes now under study is the space shuttle, 
a reusable vehicle that will offer many economies and benefits. The 
shuttle will be available for use by more than one government 
agency or one space programme. Its development will stimulate 
both space and aeronautical technology. It will reduce the cost 
of payloads by allowing retrieval or repair of satellites in orbit 
and the transportation of cargo and passengers to and from orbit. 
It will have a quick response time and significant space rescue 
capability. Its design for reusability will provide for 100 or more 
flights (.Figure Jl-1}. 

Another programme also under study is the Modular Space 
Station. In Earth orbit, a space station will provide additional 
economic gains and practical benefits. The space station will 
reduce operating costs by its long life and its flexibility, combining 

414 




Figure I !■! . 
Two Stage Fully 
Reusable Concept. 



many operations such as research, applications and support of 
space flight operations. It will be designed so people on board 
will be able to carry out their technical tasks without special 
flight training. The space station modules may be used in various 
Earth orbits and, ultimately, in lunar orbit or on a planetary mission. 

The operation of the sppce shuttle and the space station will 
permit a considerable expansion in the scope of space activities, 
and a steady increase in the number of visitors into space. The 
expanded, more economical flight activities made possible by these 
advanced svstcms will conceivably open space to a broad range of 
public and private interests. 

The space shutt'e which we envision will be extrapolated from 
many concepts, combined with our latest knowledge of rocket 
engines, materials and technology. Our nine years of operation 
in the space environment will contribute significantly to our ability 

415 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

to produce an operational vehicle in a reasonably short period of 
time. Actually, we know a great deal more about how to build 
the space shuttle than we knew about how to build the Saturn V 
in 1961. Studies have been progressing for several years. 

The characteristics of this machine will blend aircraft and rockets 
to achieve the characteristics which will make space operations 
economically practical. 

The other essential element in space exploration and applications 
is a place to work. To fill this need, studies are under way for 
the definition of a space station. Because of the economics inherent 
in the space shuttle, the initiation of operation of the space station 
may depend to some degree upon the readiness of the shuttle. 
However, work is in progress on both of these new designs so 
that advantage may be taken of those breakthroughs in technology 
which can be expected to occur in research and development 
programmes. For we have learned from our Apollo experience 
that planning must provide not only for the unexpected mishap. 
but also for the unanticipated success which permits a flexible 
programme to make rapid progress. 

An operational space shuttle will permit the inexpensive logistic 
servicing of a space station in orbit. Regular trips of the shuttle 
to the station would not only transport crews and supplies, but 
would also be used to return processed experiments to Earth and 
to replace or repair space station equipment. 

Weather satellites, already in general use, have been costly to 
build, as have all unmanned satellites, since they have had to 
operate dependably without maintenance throughout their lifetimes. 
With a space shuttle in operation, it would be possible to perform 
on-orbit repairs, or, if the configuration and orbit were compatible, 
to carry the satellite back to Earth for repair or refurbishment. 
Thus two areas of high cost in unmanned satellites will be attacked 
by the shuttle: (1 ) the original high cost of construction, and (2) 
the waste occasioned by the failure of an unmanned space 
installation. 

The space shuttle is expected to reduce the cost of all space 
activity, at the same time it will greatly increase our ability to 
operate effectively in space. 

416 



The Highroad to Space 

Those elements in the basic design philosophy of the space 
shuttle to which we are looking for cost reductions are aircraft 
manufacturing techniques, aircraft development test procedures, 
maximum flexibility for multiple use and volume production, long 
life components for repetitive reuse and airline type maintenance 
and handling procedures for economy of operation. 

A major point of difference between the space shuttle and 
aircraft will be in the manner of launching this craft, for it will 
be powered by rocket engines and take off vertically from a 
launching pad. We expect that some day these could be located 
at many major airports since the cleared distance around the vehicle 
will need only to be in the order of a mile in radius. Many of the 
present jet ports could be used, especially those which have water 
on one or more sides (Figure 11-2). 

A flight crew will fly the shuttle into Earth orbit to dock with 



Figure 11-2. Space Shuttle Launch. 




Pioneering in Outer Space 

the space station, It will deliver and receive payload, perform its 
other functions which may include satellite maintenance and repair 
or space rescue and return through the atmosphere for a horizontal 
landing at its take-off point on a runway which would not need 
to be over 10,000 feet long. This flight pattern creates a different 
noise situation than that of present aircraft. There is, of course, 
the huge sound of the blast-off which lasts for a few seconds but 
is localized to the airport itself. The next sound is generated as 
the shuttle comes back into the atmosphere but this is hardly heard 
on Earth as the transition to subsonic speed occurs at an altitude 
of about 100,000 feet. As the craft approaches Earth, its speed 
is subsonic, and its landing sounds will probably be less than those 
of large jets. 

As presently conceived, the space shuttle will consist of an 
orbiter vehicle containing crew, passenger and cargo accommoda- 
tions as well as power and fuel for orbital and landing phases, and 
one or more booster elements which will carry the bulk of the 
fuel necessary to achieve orbit. The boosters will also be manned 
and powered for return to Earth and horizontal airport landing. 
Thus, the total vehicle is reusable. The vehicle is being designed 
to carry a flight crew and cargo and/or passengers into and out of 
orbit, with a 10,000 cubic foot internal payload volume. The 
operational altitude will range from 100 nautical miles up to 
approximately 800 nautical miles. 

The design performance and operational characteristics of the 
shuttle will permit its use in orbits ranging from low inclination to 
polar and perhaps even Sun-synchronous (Figure 11-3). 

The design parameters require operational flexibility to enable 
this craft to take off in any direction. 

Designing the internal compartment to accommodate con- 
tainerized cargo will assure that a wide variety of payloads can be 
carried. 

The vehicle configuration will provide crew and passenger safety 
comparable to that of current commercial jets. Extremely reliable 
systems will operate redundantly where feasible; non- redundant 
systems will be operated well within established operational limits. 

418 






The Highroad to Space 

SPACE SHUTTLE 
DESIGN REFERENCE CHARACTERISTICS* 



SYSTEMS 

• TWO STAGi FULLY KEUSAJLE 

• VntTICAltAHOFF/HOIIIONTAt 
LANDING 

• .3.3M LIS. GtQSS LIFT -OFF WEIGHT 

• OUOO «AY HU L) OU « W LO 

• MAXIMUM ATTAIF4UL! FMIOAU 



ENGINES 



■ HIGH PtF55l»F. IE1L Tift HYMOGEN/ 
OXYGEN 

■ THKOTTLEAJLE 

• «K LIS THtUSF IS ENGINE 

* HYEtOGEN FC! JET FUEL 



OPERATIONAL 

• BEE NTH Y EC* IPSITIAL FLIGHTS AT LOW L/TJ 
FOi MINIMUM HEAT LOAD 

• ON-OMIT aVOF EMOFPl 

• SSQUtNILM. IONITION OF STAGES 

■ NOMINAL M NH OdltlAI a" INCLINATION: 

• TWOMANCUW 

■ IFVTACT AIOITT 

» ctitin siif MMMMI Kt 7 0AVI 



• AFFUCAUS TO HIGH AND LOW dOUUNGC DESIGN! 



Figure 11-3. Space Shuttle Design Reference Characteristics. 

This approach should allow for the graceful degradation of any 
system, precluding catastrophic failure and allowing time for a safe 
return to a landing site of passengers, crew and vehicle. 

Two representative artist's concepts are similar in terms of size, 
performance and ascent and on-orbit operational modes. The 
booster element is "staged" at altitudes on the order of 200,000 
feet and velocities of approximately 10,000 feet per second. The 
booster then descends and, at the proper conditions, jet engines are 
started for the approximately 200 nautical miles subsonic cruise 
back to the launch/landing site. The orbiter stage continues on 
to orbit to complete the mission. The fundamental difference 
between the two concepts is the design of the orbiter elements. 

The first concept has fixed wings and is designed for re-entry 
at a high angle of attack. This mode of re-entry results in a 
significant deceleration at higher altitudes and thereby shortens the 
duration of the heat pulse. Therefore, by experiencing reduced 
heat inputs the thermal protection system design requirements may 
be reduced for the fixed wing configuration. On the other hand 
re-entry at a high angle of attack does not take advantage of the 
capability for achieving a large crossrange by manoeuvring at 
hypersonic speeds (Figure 11-4). 

419 



Figure 11 -4. Fixed Wing Space Shin tie. 

The second concept is a delta shaped configuration with a high 
sweep angle. This configuration may re-enter at lower angles of 
attack, and has a higher hypersonic lift to drag ratio and therefore 
a significantly higher crossrange capability than the previously 
mentioned fixed wing concept. Configurations re-entering at low 
angles of attack experience a somewhat more severe thermal 
environment which affects the design requirements for the thermal 
protection system (Figure 11-5). 

These two concepts and their associated development and 
operational advantages and disadvantages are representative of 
the kinds of trade-offs that are being made in our continuing study 
efforts. There are a number of problems of a similar type that 
are currently being evaluated. 

As is the case with most launch systems for space vehicles the 
pacing item is the new engine. The rocket engines for both the 
booster and orbiter elements will be throttleable high performance 

420 



Figure US. Delta Shaped Wing Space Shuttle. 
Figure 1 1-6. Space Shuttle Typical Mission Profile. 



5 7 DAYS 
—J ON U 

'orbit' 



SEPARATION 



HOHMANN 

transfer; 
circularize/ 



PARKING 

ORBITAL 

BURNOUT 



TERMINAL R£ , JRpj 
RENDEZVOUS pHAS|NG 



100 N Ml ORBIT 



DE-ORBIT 



LAUNCH 



^J 



BOOSTER 
RECOVERY 



TRANSITION 



LANDING 



DESCENT 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

hydrogen/oxygen engines. Each engine will have a thrust of 
approximately 400,000 pounds. Depending on the design, the 
orbiter may use two or three engines while the booster may require 
10 or more. 

A typical mission profile for a space shuttle performing a space 
station logistics mission is shown in Figure 7. The first stage or 
booster accelerates the second stage or orbiter to a velocity of eight 
to 10 thousand feet per second and an altitude of approximately 
200,000 feet. Staging occurs at this point in the trajectory. The 
booster coasts to a maximum altitude of about 230,000 feet and 
then begins descending. At approximately 250 nautical miles 
downrange and an altitude of about 50,000 feet the booster 
completes a 180 degree turn and cruises back to the launch site 
on jet engines (Figure 11-6). 

The orbiter stage ignites at staging and continues on to the 
initial insertion orbit. Following a brief coast the orbiter 
circularizes in a nominal 100 nautical mile parking orbit. At the 
proper time a transfer is made to the space station altitude with a 
subsequent rendezvous manoeuvre. Following a period on-orbit, 
during which time passengers and cargo are transferred, the space 
shuttle separates from the station and prepares for the de-orbit 
manoeuvre. 

After waiting for the phasing conditions to allow the proper 
relationship of the orbit with the landing site, the de-orbit manoeuvre 
is performed. The shuttle re-enters the atmosphere at a high 
angle of attack to achieve maximum deceleration at high altitudes 
and minimize the exposed surfaces to high temperature. Following 
the re-entry pullout and glide manoeuvres are performed. Tran- 
sition occurs at an altitude of about 40,000 feet. The shuttle 
then lines up for the approach and lands at a speed of about 150 
to 180 knots. Landings will be conducted under a power-on 
condition with the power being supplied by jet engines. 

The mission profile for a logistics mission is typical of the 
various types of missions that would be flown by the shuttle. 
While the on-orbit condition would vary from mission to mission 
the ascent and descent phases would be essentially the same. The 
shuttle will provide round-trip transportation for passengers and 
cargo from Earth to low Earth orbits (Figure 11-7). 

422 




Figure 11-7. Space Siiultle. 



The technology of all weather terminal flight control extending 
from the transition to subsonic flight at 100,000 feel through the 
final approach and landing of the several configurations under 
study is expected to be well in hand within the next several years. 
Extensive flight data from three lifting body configurations in 
regimes ranging from low supersonic speeds to approach and 
landing, show the feasibility of these designs. Related work on 
regular aircraft is continuing to investigate powered landings, 
automated control systems and operational problems. Results 
from this work will apply directly to the space shuttle. 

The space shuttle will require additions to current technology 
in such areas as (1) efficient lightweight structures; (2) stage 
separation methods; (3) reusable, long-lived rocket propulsion; 
(4) lightweight airbreathing propulsion for terminal flight and 
landing; (5) automatic all-weather landing systems. In addition, 

423 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

detailed configuration analysis and wind-tunnel testing are needed 
to determine vehicle elements that can fly satisfactorily in all flight 
modes, considering different mission modes, variable cargo loads, 
and the large weights and areas associated with rocket engines at 
the base of the vehicles. Pertinent research is being expanded 
with a view to being ready to initiate a preliminary design a little 
over a year from now. 

The technology for thermal protection during entry into Earth 
atmosphere for blunt vehicles is in hand as a result of the work 
done on Mercury, Gemini and Apollo. Velocities up to 36,000 
feet per second, which produce temperatures in the order of 18,000 
degrees Fahrenheit, are successfuliy withstood by ablative materials 
formed by any of three or four compounds and reinforced with 
glass fibres. 

For rc-usable entry vehicles such as the space shuttle, studies 
are being made of re-radiative heat shield materials and design 
concepts that can withstand a number of entries without replacement 
or refurbishment of the structure. Considerable progress has been 
made in adapting high-temperature materials including refractory 
metals such as columbium, as well as more conventional materials 
such as titanium and some nickel alloys, to this use. Composites 
of graphite and carbides are also being examined. The combined 
use of re-radiation with heat sink or convective cooling techniques 
for hot spots seems to promise an indefinitely reusable vehicle. 

The high pressure, staged combustion rocket engines for the 
space shuttle will differ from the expendable engines used in our 
previous launch vehicles since they will be designed to have many 
of the characteristics of the engines in use in modern jet aircraft, 
including stability over a wide range of operating conditions, 
variable thrust to permit vehicle control, time between overhauls 
measured in hours of operations, high performance and operational 
dependability. 

The choice of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen as propellants 
is based on our experience in Apollo, particularly on our ability 
to handle the propellants safely and relatively easily on the ground 
during loading and transferring. We fee! that it will be possible 






The Highroad to Space 

to load these vehicles directly from tank trucks at the launch pad, 
thus greatly decreasing both facility and handling costs. 

Another great advantage is that there are no toxic products or 
components of these chemicals and this propulsion system will not 
add to the pollution of the atmosphere. For simplicity and ease 
of ground handling wc plan to use these propellants throughout the 
vehicle system, including using gaseous hydrogen for the subsonic 
engines for landing. 

Onboard systems will provide the crew with necessary indications 
to make proper flight decisions. Today, there are some 20,000 
people at Cape Kennedy who are directly involved with the checkout 
and launch of the Saturn V. Obviously, the space shuttle checkout 
and launch systems are going to have to be quite different if we 
arc to radically lower operating costs. The approaches we are 
studying employ automation with the option of crew override and 
lead to airline type operations. 

Some recent breakthroughs in electronics can supply the tools 
we need to achieve these goals. The large-scale integrated circuits 
which can provide as many as 1250 bits of memory in less than 
half a cubic centimetre of space are one of the tools which will 
be employed. Another is thin film memories. These advances 
will make possible the self-checking subsystems which we will 
need in the space shuttle. With immense capacity for logic, 
memory and multiple redundancy in a small volume, the self- 
checking black-box is going to be a practical reality. 

A continuing goal in electronics is to perform more functions 
with less power, volume, and weight. Microelectronic circuits 
having a thousand active elements on a chip 150 mils (.001 inch) 
square are now available. It is estimated that through continued 
R&D, a million active elements can be placed on a chip 500 mils 
square. This will require new processes, such as laser or electron 
beam techniques, to replace photographic etching and the develop- 
ment of automated design, fabrication, and testing methods. 

The necessity for new design for such electronic equipment 
creates the opportunity for an important advance toward simplicity. 
At the present time each of our subsystems, be it guidance, com- 
munications or engines, is interconnected by cables having literally 



424 



425 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

thousands of wires. Not only does that represent one of the 
major components of weight, but it is by far the largest contributor 
to unreliability. We are ready for a breakthrough and 1 believe 
that there can and should be no more than six wires in one 
connector, going into or out of any black-box. These six wires 
might be allocated in the following manner; One wire would 
connect to a small computer inside the black-box which evaluates 
all the information from the circuits inside and reports its con- 
dition to the pilot. The second wire will carry all signals into the 
black-box. The third will carry all of the output signals or responses. 
The fourth and the fifth will be used for a standard power supply 
— all electrical equipment will be designed to operate off a 110 
volt 400 cycle bus; any different power required will be generated 
by conversion within the black-box. The sixth wire is a spare. 

The philosophy which will permit this concept is relatively 
simple — to assign the responsibility for the welfare and checkout 
of each subsystem to that subsystem. The microminiaturization 
which has been so notably advanced by the demands of space, 
now makes it possible and practical to build a small general purpose 
computer in a volume of about 10 cubic centimetres with enough 
logic and enough multiple redundancy to make it practical to use 
it to (1) self-check the internal circuits and (2) to provide time 
division multiplexing with proper addressing so that six wires 
can indeed effectively provide all the communications and power 
connections required. 

Another ideal use for a computer on board the space shuttle is 
to throw switches. As a programme switching network a computer 
could not only flip hundreds of switches according to preset 
programmes but could also assure that they were actually in proper 
position. Some of the switching functions in Apollo are controlled 
by computers on the ground, but that task as well as the manual 
task of throwing and monitoring the 1000 switches in the cockpit 
can easily and effectively be taken over by a computer on board. 

Using a computer inside the cockpit can also greatly simplify 
the control panel, which in spacecraft now have five times as many 
switches and instruments as a 727 or a DC8. For the future, I 
envisage a spacecraft command panel which contains three cathode 



426 



The Highroad to Space 

ray displays, one digital input-output circuit which we call a 
DSKY, and an on-off switch for the computer. Two of the 
cathode ray displays would be used for control information, one 
for navigation and one for attitude control. These would operate 
interchangeably so that if one failed all information would be 
available from the other. These would replace the conventional 
"8 ball" attitude display systems which, being mechanical, are 
subject to breakdown. The cathode ray tube, on the other hand, 
has turned out to be one of our most reliable and long-lasting 
electronic products. The third cathode ray display would give the 
pilot information about any part of the total system or his 
computer. He can ask for any information by punching in the 
proper code for any system or subsystem, or internal programme. 
Stored in the computer memory is his checklist for each part of 
the flight, alternatives available to him in the event of an equipment 
malfunction, and such special information as propellant reserve, 
plot of (light path angle, and operational configuration of subsystems. 

The electronic advances which are going to permit on-board 
checkout and control should make the space shuttle much simpler 
to operate than present commercial jets. Further, our design 
criteria require that all subsystems should be designed to continue 
to operate after the failure of any part except for the structure and 
to gracefully degrade in performance with subsequent failures. 
Electronic systems will be designed to give adequate warning of 
potential failures, to continue operation after the failure of two 
critical components, and to fail safe after any failure. 

Present inertial guidance systems are gimbailed, platform 
mounted gyroscopes and accelerometers. In the Lunar Module 
we have introduced a strapdown guidance system which replaces 
the mechanical gimbals with a somewhat more complex electronic 
system. It has demonstrated more than enough accuracy and 
computer capability to carry out the space shuttle missions. These 
strapdown systems with advanced reference devices, the next 
generation of gyroscopes and accelerometers with improved life 
and accuracy, should be capable of meeting all our requirements 
with increased reliability and life and a significant reduction in cost. 

Star, planet, and horizons are basic references for navigation and 
present systems use gimbailed trackers for attitude, reference 



427 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

position alignment, and velocity measurement. I expect that we 
will continue to use this system in our shuttle and space station. 
However, research is under way in several laboratories on holo- 
graphic pattern recognition techniques for star patterns. This new 
reference system would have no moving parts and give three axis 
reference on any spacecraft orientation. This would also be true 
of aircraft navigation techniques. In another area, the technology 
of laser radars for rendezvous and docking, which is of course also 
applicable in clear weather to pin-point landing, has been demon- 
strated in the laboratory for a range of 65 miles and a docking 
accuracy of one inch. Efforts in the next five years should increase 
its range to over 200 miles, and make it an effective competitor 
with our present radio frequency radars. 

Crew and passenger compartments will be maintained in "shirt- 
sleeve" environment. Spacesuits will not be required. As a 
matter of fact they are not now used in the Apollo programme 
except for extravehicular activity and in the event of certain 
emergencies, which, happily, have not yet been experienced. The 
atmosphere of oxygen and nitrogen in the space shuttle at a 
nominal pressure of 10 psia and a maximum flight load of three 
times Earth gravity, will allow any reasonably healthy individual 
to travel in the space shuttle without prior conditioning. 

Communications with the ground can be similar to those now 
provided by FAA Air Traffic Control, but for orbital operations 
will be carried out through the use of communications satellites, 
thus greatly simplifying the ground network requirements. 

Planning projections forecast that the space shuttle will have a 
useful life of 100 missions or more. As is characteristic of aircraft 
maintenance today, subsystems, particularly engines and thrusters, 
would be replaced on a progressive basis, 

Launch operations will be simplified by the on-board system 
diagnostic instrumentation so that only vehicle erection, propellant 
loading and final boarding of payload and passengers will be 
necessary. Pre-launch checkout will be carried out on board by 
the pilots. 

There are several areas which are now being studied. One is 
whether the shuttle should be designed with self-ferrying capability, 



428 



The Highroad to Space 

so that if it lands at an airport other than its home base, it will 
be able to return home in a subsonic flight mode under its own 
power, 

Another is whether the re-usable boost elements should have 
the capability to carry out their missions in an automatic mode, 
including a completely automatic landing system. 

A third is whether the shuttle would have a "go around" cap- 
ability in order to improve its ability to land under all conditions. 
Certainly included will be a powered landing capability which 
appears to be desirable to increase the ease of control and to 
improve performance in winds and gusts. This capability would 
be compatible with both powered landing and self-ferry ability. 

Designs are providing landing visibility at least as good as that 
of high performance jet and SST aircraft and landing characteristics 
and handling qualities not more demanding than those of commercial 
jets. 

One other feature that is being incorporated in the design is 
that wherever possible modules be used which can be replaced 
when the technology advances, without redesigning the total vehicle. 
Standard mountings and interconnections will be incorporated so 
that systems and subsystems can be replaced without basic con- 
figuration changes, as the design matures and improvements are 
available (Figure 11-8). Some unique development and test 
problems lie ahead of us since the shuttle is a combination of a 
rocket space vehicle and an airplane. It poses unique ground and 
flight test requirements. 

The shuttle test programme will result from the combination of 
extensive experience which exists today in the development and 
test of high-speed aircraft, large rocket vehicles and manned space- 
craft. Test philosophy which has evolved through Mercury, Gemini, 
and Apollo must be combined with the applicable experience of 
aircraft programmes such as the B-58, XB-70, X-I5, SR-71, and 
the SST. We will be flight testing the shutde two to three years 
after initial flights of the SST prototype and close liaison with 
that programme will be maintained. The flight regime of the 
shuttle is, of course, much more extensive than experienced in any 
other programme. Nearly 200 X-15 flights have provided valuable 
data for altitudes up to 67 miles and speeds in excess of Mach 6. 



429 



TUIIOFAK 



BIMtAUED ROCKET 
ENGINE 

ON 0R61T TANKAGE - 




Ti 500-600 °F 



RENE 41 
1650° F^y 



RENE '41 





TQ-10W 2750 "F 



RENE' 41 700-IIOO°F 
■_- — Ti 500-700° F 



*r 




-TD-NiCr/Cb752 
BOOSTER 1800-2200°F QRBITER 

NOTES 1 

• PRIMARY STRUCTURE AND TANKS 22I9-T87 ALUMINUM -200" F. Ti -600°F (WING OF 8005 

• LI -1500 RIGID INSULATION POTENTIAL FOR HEAT SHIELD 




Figure IIS. Typical Space Shuttle. Inboard Profile-Orbiler. 



Figure 11-9. Size Comparison of Space Shuttle and Existing Flight Systems. 




Figure 1 1 -10. Summary of Materials and Predicted Temperature. 



In terms of size, the shuttle is comparable to other systems. 
Figure 11-9 shows the relative size of a typical delta wing con- 
figuration with the Saturn V, the SST, and the C-5A. Dry weights 
are indicated for comparison. The comparison of landing weights 
of both the booster and orbiter with several other aircraft are 
shown in Figure 11-10. The booster landing weight will be compar- 
able to the maximum landing weight of the SST and about 100,000 
pounds less than the maximum landing weight of the 747B. These 
weights will be representative of the orbiter and booster weights 
during the horizontal flight testing. Landing speeds of the booster 
of 145-155 knots will be only slightly higher than the 747, Orbiter 
landing speeds will be in the range of 1 55 to 1 70 knots, comparable 
to the SST. In terms of gross lift-off weights, that is quite a 
different situation. Fully fuelled the orbiter would be about 
100,000 pounds less than the SST but the booster, of course, would 
be approximately 2.8 million pounds. 



431 



SATURN V 
SIC 290,000 LB 
Sll ■ 61.000 LB 
SIV- 73.000 LB 



SST 

2B2.GD0 LB 



C-5A 

321.000 LB 



SPACE SHUTTLE 

BOOSTS- 458.000 LB 

ORBITED -203.000 LB 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



Plans for the shuttle rely heavily on the concept of early testing 
of critical components — the "proof-of-concept" approach. We 
therefore plan during the next 18 months to perform design verifica- 
tion tests on such critical concepts as lightweight structures and 
radiative heat shields. These will be large or full scale build-ups 
resulting from the preliminary designs which will be accomplished 
by industry in the definition contract phase. Also, during the 
1 1 -month definition contract there will be heavy emphasis on 
wind tunnel testing of the various configurations. Some wind tunnel 
testing has been done over the past year on possible configurations 
for the shuttle. As the point designs which will be accomplished 
during the definition phase are sharpened, considerable tunnel 
testing will be needed to identify the expected aerodynamics, 
stability and control, and thermal characteristics. Aerothermo- 
dynamics will be the highest percentage of wind tunnel testing. 
This is not surprising when one realizes the magnitude of the 
re-entry heating problem, coupled with the requirement for rc-usable 
heat shields. Figure I J -10 shows typical temperatures on the booster 
and orbiter during re-entry with candidate materials noted. As 
shown, Rene '41, TD-Nickel Chrome, and coated columbium are 
candidate materials for the large percentage of the vehicles for 
testing which are refurbished later for full operational use. This 
would he similar to the approach used for the C5A and the 747, 
The Saturn V was also a case where all vehicles were basically 
the same except for instrumentation and progressive engineering 
improvements. 

Because the initial number of shuttle vehicles produced will be 
small, probably less than five, those vehicles allotted to flight test 
will represent a significant portion of the "fleet" cost. Hence, 
our desire not to plan for prototypes which can have no operational 
use. Of course, a recognition of the need for changes resulting 
from the flight test programme will mitigate against a strict "pro- 
duction approach" on the first flight test vehicles. 

Secondly, a progressively more difficult flight test programme is 
planned which will parallel to some extent the ground testing. 
Rather than committing to sub-orbital or orbital flight, as in the 
case of past space vehicles, the shuttle test programme calls for 



432 



The Highroad to Space 

an aircraft development approach with modifications and correc- 
tions for malfunctions being made following each test phase. 
Typically, in a spacecraft test programme the flight test programme 
cannot begin until the near-maximum level of design maturity has 
been reached. This must be improved on in the case of the shuttle 
to minimize development time and cost and provide an early initial 
operational capability. 

The flight test concept presently envisioned is shown in Figure 
11-11. The first phase of testing would involve horizontal subsonic 
flight of the orbiter and booster separately under jet power. The pos- 
sibility of extending this phase of testing to higher altitudes and 
supersonic speeds by employing rocket propulsion will be studied. 
The second phase would involve vertical launches of the orbiter 
and booster. These would employ both jet and rocket propulsion. 
Initial studies have indicated that the booster flight envelope could 
be explored in this manner. Vertical launch of the orbiter by 
itself (fully fuelled without any payload) could explore the flight 
regime up to approximately Mach No. 8-10. In phase IN vertical 
launch of the total vehicle would provide sub-orbital and orbital 
flight {Figure //-//). 

In addition to flights involving the basic booster and orbiter, 
there will be considerable testing of systems in support aircraft. 
For example, tests involving the avionics may be carried out in a 
military or commercial aircraft. 

I believe that by the time we can produce the space shuttle 
we will be receiving so many benefits from our exploration of 
space and of the Moon, that many nations will want to use these 
economical space shuttles either by direct purchase or through 
chartering or leasing them from other nations. 

If, as we expect, this shuttle will be the progenitor of a global 
transport, it will surely be necessary that multi-company and prob- 
ably multi-national use of the vehicle be facilitated. 

The exploration of space will of course be an international 
activity. As space engineering capability increases many more 
nations will take more active parts. It is interesting here to draw 
an analogy between space and aviation. Although only a few 
countries of the world manufacture the bulk of air transportation 



433 



PHASE I 



JET POWERED 
SUBSONIC 




PHASE II 



JET/ROCKET 

POWERED 

TRANSONIC/ 

SUPERSONIC 



PHASE III 



VERTICAL 
LAUNCH 




30 



10 20 

MONTHS OF TEST 



Figure 11-11. Flight Test Concept. 



equipment, it is used by almost every nation for its own individual 
purposes. Within the next decade, no matter which nations 
provide the mechanical equipment for getting into space, that 
equipment will be used, by means of one or another kind of 
arrangement, to satisfy the space ambitions of all nations. 

No really meaningful estimate of the price of an operational 
vehicle can yet be made, since the number of vehicles that will 
be needed is not yet clear. That number is a function, not only 
of the various jobs it will be called upon to perform, but also of the 
existence of the system itself. After all, no one needed a telephone, 
a computer or an airplane before they existed. 

I fully expect that by the end of the next decade a number of 
the people in this room will have flown into and out of space. 
Consider with me for a moment the possibility of travelling in the 



434 



The Highroad to Space 

space shuttle from, say, London to Sydney sometime in the late 
1980s. You will board the regularly scheduled vertical take-off 
jitney in downtown London to fiy quickly to Heathrow Airport. 
There, in the centre of the field, the Sydney-bound shuttle will be 
erected, being fuelled with liquid oxygen and hydrogen from tank 
trucks alongside. As the fuelling operation is completed, your 
luggage will be put into the baggage pod, and with your flight 
companions, you will enter the passenger module. The passenger 
compartment will be swung into place in the orbiter section of 
the shuttle. The flight crew will be conducting their final check-out 
of the vehicle, querying their on-board digital computer about the 
condition and configuration of each system and subsystem. 

Passenger seats will swivel so that you will be sitting erect until 
power is applied, at which time the seats will recline so that the 
gravity load, not more than three times that of Earth, will be more 
easily accommodated. Your seat will be cushioned and provided 
with its own shock absorbers to lessen the load. 

The shuttle will fly south-east by south on a sub-orbital course, 
taking advantage of the Earth's rotation to save considerable fuel. 
You will attain maximum speed of approximately 12,000 miles per 
hour at 100 miles altitude. Seven or eight minutes after lift-off 
from London, the booster element will peel off and return for a 
regular runway landing. 

Although there was a huge explosive sound at the airport as 
the rockets ignited, it lasted only a few seconds, and you will not 
have heard it since it was far below your vehicle. As a matter of 
fact your whole trip will be practically noiseless. You will not 
hear the sound of entry into the atmosphere, but neither will people 
on the ground as it will occur at about 400,000 feet above the 
Earth. 

While the passenger compartment will have no windows, tele- 
vision cameras mounted at strategic positions on the exterior of 
the orbiter vehicle will bring unobstructed panoramic views of 
the earth and of the sky into the cabin. As you leave the pad 
you will see the great thrusts of fire which propel your craft, and 
the land masses of Europe and Asia, the glistening clouds will 



435 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

occupy the television screens as you fly against the Sun, into the 
night. 

While you arc in flight you will, of course, be weightless. A 
cabin attendant will assist you to float about the cabin, or you 
may choose to remain in your seat which can now stay in the 
reclined position, or not, just as you like. Probably you will want 
to experiment with this new sensation. Certainly our astronauts 
seem to enjoy it. However, as descent begins you will have to 
return to your scat and belt yourself in — just as in other aircraft. 
Your views of the sunlit surface will be memorable as the earth 
seems to come up to meet you at 1 1,500 miles per hour. For this 
flight has not only been noiseless and weightless, but there has 
been no vibration and no feeling of motion after the gravity pull 
at the launching. Upon entry into the atmosphere, however, you 
will again encounter the forces of the Earth and your shock 
absorbing scats will return you to a reclining position. 

Your next sensation will occur when the subsonic jet engines 
take over for your landing on the runway at Kingsford Smith 
Airport. Air traffic control will be programmed, using precise 
fixes on altitude and position verified by communications satellites, 
so you will not encounter any traffic delays, The sound of your 
craft coming in for its landing will actually be less than that of 
current jets. 

Your landing at Kingsford Smith will be a subsonic jet runway 
landing and you will board the scheduled vertical take-off jitney 
there for its quick flight to downtown Sydney. Assuming that you 
took off from London at eight o'clock Monday morning, you would 
arrive in Sydney at eight o'clock Monday evening, in about an 
hour's flight time and 1 1 hours of Sun time. On the return, 
however, leaving Sydney on a Monday at eight in the morning, you 
would arrive in London at nine o'clock on Sunday evening, having 
out-distanced the sunshine. 

We see no technological barriers to this kind of development. 
One lesson we have learned from the lunar landing, "impossible" 
as it seemed to most people less than a decade ago, is that no 
technological development can really be called "impossible" any 
more. 



436 




Figure 11-12, Space Station Concept. 

But long before you and 1 travel in the space shuttle it will be 
carrying scientists, investigators, technicians and photographers 
from Earth to a space station in near-Earth orbit. Studies for the 
space station now in progress will draw upon our experience in the 
skylab workshop which will be operating in space in 1972 {Figure 
U-12). 

The three missions planned for the skylab workshop will con- 
tribute to the fund of design and operational data needed for the 
space station. Assuming successful accomplishment of the skylab 
workshop missions, the space station will obtain data from the 
experiments of the workshop on ( I ) physiological effects of zero 
gravity on the crew for periods up to 56 days, (2) demonstrated 
crew task performance data in station-type activity, (3) flight 
data on the habitability aspects of the workshop, (4) in-flight 



437 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



qualification and demonstration of several important new com- 
ponents including large solar arrays, control moment gyros and 
molecular sieves, and (5) general experience in logistic and orbital 
operations including major in-flight experiments. Other data. 
required from skylab will be identified as the space station definition 
effort progresses. 

The space station is now in the Phase B definition of the overall 
programme. This programme will achieve major advances in the 
nation's space endeavours by providing a centralized and general 
purpose laboratory in Earth orbit for the conduct and support 
of scientific and technological experiments, for beneficial 
applications, and for the further development of space exploration 
capability. This programme will fully use the experience gained 
in all previous flight programmes, both manned and unmanned, 
and those programmes now being initiated, and from appropriate 
ground-based research and development activities both within and 
outside of government. 

The space station will be a centralized facility in Earth orbit 
supporting a wide variety of space activities. It will be similar 
to a highly flexible multi-disciplinary research, development and 
operations centre on Earth. The space station will utilize and 
exploit the unique features provided by its location in low Earth 
orbit — weightlessness, unlimited vacuum, wide scale Earth 
viewing, and unobstructed celestial viewing — with the direct 
presence of skilled scientists and engineers to pursue a wide 
variety of research and applications activities. Like its Earth-based 
counterpart, the space station will be configured for support and 
conduct of activities in many identified areas, and will have the 
flexibility to support others which may not be defined in detail as 
yet. 

The nature of the space station programme can be established by 
examining the categories of activity which will be conducted. The 
combination of the environment of space, the facilities which will 
be available and the capabilities of the crews will provide unique 
research opportunities for investigations into many disciplines, 
especially astronomy, the life sciences, physics and chemistry. 



438 



The Highroad to Space 

Global surveys in Earth resources and meteorology will provide 
new knowledge for use on Earth as well as basic research into the 
systems and methods of collecting data of this kind. 

Research into the possibility of producling unique material in the 
zero gravity and hard vacuum of space, for example the growth 
of large perfect crystals, precision casting, formation of com- 
posites and of perfect ball bearings, may lead to production of 
one or more of these candidate products. In that event it could 
be expected that the private sector of our economy would become 
interested. 

Of course, the continual updating of a major space facility and 
its equipment is intrinsically a forcing function upon our technology 
in many regimes. 

The space station will also be a prime source of information 
necessary to the continued exploration of the Moon and the solar 
system. 

International co-operation, not yet possible on a day-to-day basis 
because of the constraints of present equipment, can be expected 
to expand and develop when it will be possible for the scientists 
of other nations to conduct their experiments on board the space 
station. 

In all space activity, the space station will have an important 
role. It will act as a servicing and maintenance station for manned 
and unmanned equipment in space. Spacecraft of other nations 
will be able to call upon the space station for needed assistance. It 
will also act as a supply depot for the expendables necessary for 
expeditions to the Moon or to very high orbits, or to the planets. 

These are the objectives which have already been established for 
the space station. Many more will undoubtedly be added as we 
move closer to its operation: 

(a) Conduct beneficial space applications programmes, scientific 
investigations and technological and engineering experiments. 

(b) Demonstrate the practicality of establishing, operating and 
maintaining long-duration manned orbital stations. 



439 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

(c) Utilize Earth-orbital manned flights for test and development 
of equipment and operational techniques applicable to lunar 
and planetary exploration. 

(d) Extend technology and develop space systems and subsystems 
required to increase useful life by at least several orders of 
magnitude. 

(e) Develop new operational techniques and equipment which 
can demonstrate substantial reductions in unit operating costs. 

(f) Extend the present knowledge of the long term biomedical 
and behavioural characteristics by man in space. 

The in-flight operations of the space station will be more 
autonomous than present systems. On-board command and control 
capability will be incorporated and life support systems will be 
provided for extended periods without resupply (Figure 11-13). 
As a result, round-the-clock mission control activities on the ground 
will be minimal. While the space station will be reasonably 
independent of ground support except for routine resupply, it will 
use communications with the ground to augment the capabilities 
of the on-board research teams. Continuous communications 
capability may be implemented through the use of a data relay 
satellite system. Television and multi-channel voice links may 
allow principal investigators on board to consult with colleagues 
on the ground on a real-time basis (Figure 11-14). 

Orbital research activities will ultimately be staffed with specialists 
with a minimum of astronaut-type training or physical conditioning. 
Therefore, particular attention will be paid to assuring comfortable, 
attractive and effective working and living conditions. The provisions 
may include individual quarters, kitchen and dining facilities, 
recreation areas, showers and greatly improved toilet facilities. 
Housekeeping functions will be highly automated to free the crew 
as much as possible for more productive work (Figure 11-15). 

While the station will normally operate in a zero gravity mode, 
it will carry out an engineering and operational assessment of 
artificial gravity in the early weeks of its mission. A very extensive 
research and applications programme is being planned in the 
following years of space station operations. 



440 







I 






Figure 11-13. Space Station Control Room. 
Figure 11-14. Space Station Core Modules. 





Figure 11-15. Space Station State Room. 

The space station is expected to be operated in circular orbits 
inclined 55° at approximately 270 nautical miles altitude in order 
to accommodate the wide variety of experiments identified so far, 
including Earth viewing. In addition, the space station will also 
be designed for polar and slightly retrograde orbits at 200 nautical 
miles. For this second design mission, special equipment for 
artificial gravity assessment will not be required. The original 
space station may serve as a module of a space base which is being 
studied as a later programme. There may be more than one growth 
version of the space station module. However, the space station 
will also be designed as an independent spacecraft. 

One concept of a space station has core stations which may 
exceed 100,000 pounds in weight. Equipment of the station includes 
the essential for crew habitability and protection, command control 
and data management, experiments, utility services and docking. 

442 




Figure 11-16. 
Space Station 

Concept 
Cutaway. 



Autonomy of operation is enhanced by the provision of flexible 
on-board data management and checkout systems, television, 
multiple voice channels, broad band experiment data transmission. 
extensive telephone inter-communications and real-time continuous 
transmission paths to the ground via data relay satellites. This 
capability provides the mission flexibility required for the wide 
range of applications planned for this multi-purpose module. 

This concept has five decks. Two will be devoted to living, 
eating, sleeping and controlling the space station. One deck will 
receive and house supplies. One will house the subsystems such 
as electrical and environmental control. The fifth deck would be a 
laboratory equipped for the conduct of a wide variety of 
experiments. This would be supplemented by other modules 
containing specialized experiments. Electric power would be 
supplied by large solar cell arrays or by a nuclear power system 
(Figure 11-16). 

The station will provide living accommodations for a crew of 
12, some responsible for the maintenance and operation of the 
space station — others for the conduct of experiments and 

443 




observations. To keep crew morale high and to stimulate creative 
and effective research operations, a great deal of care will be taken 
to selection of the every-day living facilities. Food served will be 
as near as possible to that served on Earth. Quiet, private areas 
or staterooms will be provided for the crewmen. Adequate personal 
hygiene facilities will be provided. A wardroom area will serve 
both for dining and as a conference room. 

The space station and the space shuttle can be operational in 
the late 1970s if the national decision to go ahead is made. This 
capability will signal the merging of the manned and unmanned 
activities in space. It will also initiate a new era in scientific 
exploration as investigators in all regimes make use of the unique 
characteristics in space to add to our store of knowledge about the 
Earth, the Moon, the solar system and the universe (Figure 11-17). 



CHAPTER TWELVE 

Planning for the 
1970s and 1980s 

By L. B. James 

During the first decade of space exploration, the programme of 
the United States progressed from the 31 -pound Explorer I satellite 
in Earth orbit to Apollo spacecraft weighing 50 tons sent to the 
Moon. From manned flights of a few thousand miles and 
15-minutc duration, the 500,000 mile round trip, eight-day mission 
which landed men on the Moon and returned them safely to Earth 
became a reality. The rudimentary data of the Vanguard satellite 
paved the way to development of the sophisticated Nimbus and 
Tiros operational weather satellites now serving 50 nations. A 
commercially successful communications satellite system relays 
television around the world as a result of experiments with the 
early Echo balloon. 

Yet these achievements are only the beginning of the long-term 
exploration and use of space by man. It is now apparent that we 
can seriously consider unmanned space flight missions to the farthest 
corners of our solar system; manned stations in Earth orbit or 
on the Moon; reusable space vehicles that can shuttle passengers, 
scientific gear and supplies to an orbital base at a tiny fraction of 
today's space travel cost; nuclear space vehicles for logistics supply 
of a lunar base or for planetary operations; a manned expedition 
to the planet Mars; large astronomical observatories in Earth orbit; 
and Earth resources satellites for beneficial services to man here 
on Earth. 

To make the best possible selection from the broad spectrum of 
space possibilities available to the United States, President Richard 
Nixon appointed a Space Task Group in early 1969 and charged 
the group with making definitive recommendations on the direction 

445 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

which the American space programme should take in the post- 
Apollo period. In September, 1969, the Space Task Group 
presented to the President a co-ordinated space programme for the 
future. This programme contained the recommendation that a 
future national space programme should emphasize balance and 
unlike the single-minded objective of the 1960s to land a man 
on the Moon, the post-Apollo programme should pursue a steady 
rate of progress over the entire spectrum of space possibilities. 

Specifically, the Space Task Group recommended emphasis on 
the following objectives: 

— increase the use of space capabilities for services to man; 

— enhance the defence posture of the United States and thereby 
support the broad objectives of peace and security for the 
world by exploiting space techniques for military missions; 

— increase man's knowledge of the universe by a continuing 
strong programme of lunar and planetary exploration, 
astronomy, physics, the earth and life sciences; 

— develop new systems and technology for economical space 
operations that emphasize multiple use of the same space 
vehicles for different tasks and reuse of space vehicles in 
repeated space flights; 

— promote a sense of world community through a programme 
which provides opportunity for broad international participation 
and co-operation. 

In March, 1970, President Nixon announced the United States' 
future goals in space which were based on the recommendations of 
the Space Task Group. He stated that the following specific 
objectives would be pursued: 

1. Continued exploration of the Moon. Future Apollo manned 
lunar landings will be spaced so as to maximize the scientific 
return from each mission. Decisions about manned and 
unmanned lunar voyages beyond the Apollo programme will 
be based on the results of these missions. 

2. Bold exploration of the planets and the universe. In the next 
few years, scientific satellites of many types will be launched 
into Earth orbit to bring new information about the universe, 
the solar system and our planet. During the next decade, 

446 






Planning for the 1970s and 1980s 

unmanned spacecraft will be launched to all the planets of 
our solar system, including an unmanned vehicle which will be 
sent to land on Mars and to investigate its surface. In the late 
1970s, the "Grand Tour" missions will study the mysterious 
outer planets of the solar system — Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, 
Neptune and Pluto. One major but longer range goal is to 
eventually send men to explore the planet of Mars. 

3. The cost of space operations should be reduced substantially. 
Less costly and less complicated ways of transporting payloads 
into space must be devised. The feasibility of reusable space 
shuttles as one way of achieving this objective is currently 
being examined. 

4. Man's capability to live and work in space should be extended. 
The Skylab Programme will be an important part of this effort. 
It is expected that men will be working in space for months 
at a time during the coming decade. On the basis of the 
experience gained in the Skylab Programme, a decision will 
be made on when and how to develop longer-lived space 
stations. Flexible, long-lived space station modules could 
provide a multi-purpose space platform for the longer-range 
future, ultimately becoming a building block for manned 
interplanetary travel. 

5. The practical applications of space technology should be 
hastened and expanded. The development of Earth Resources 
Satellites — platforms which can help in such varied tasks as 
surveying crops, locating mineral deposits and measuring water 
resources — will enable the assessment of our environment and 
use our resources more effectively. Application of space- 
related technology in a wide variety of fields, including meteor- 
ology, communications, navigation, air traffic control, education 
and national defence should be continued. 

6. Greater international co-operation in space should be en- 
couraged. Progress wilt be faster and accomplishments will 
be greater if nations join together in the space effort. 

This set of space objectives reflected not only the views of the 
Space Task Group, but those held by virtually all groups favouring 
a continuous, vigorous space programme. The question that 



447 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

remains is the pace at which these objectives are to be pursued 
in the coming years. 

With these broad objectives in mind, let us now turn to the plans 
that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has mapped 
for the future of America in space. 

Unmanned Spaceflight 

In order to fully understand the comprehensiveness of space 
exploration and applications, it is necessary to consider the future 
plans and possibilities of both manned and unmanned missions and 
how they complement each other. 

Unmanned space efforts for the decade of the 1970s will include 
flights to all the planets in the solar system, development of Earth 
Resources Satellites, and continued development and utilization of 
satellites for communications, navigation, air traffic control, 
education, and national defence. 

In the important field of Earth applications, plans have been 
laid to launch two Applications Technology Satellites (ATS) in the 
first half of this decade. The design characteristics of these satellites 
will provide basic capabilities for air traffic control, satellite laser 
communications, satellite-to-satellite tracking and data relay, propa- 
gation in the millimetre wave region, community broadcasting for 
instruction and education, and thermal mapping of the Earth from 
geostationary orbit. 

One important utilization of the ATS to be launched in 1973 
is the Indian Instructional Television Experiment. The experiment 
provides for NASA to position the ATS spacecraft in a location 
visible to India and retransmit instructional television material 
received from the Indian communications satellite station at 
Ahmed abad. These retransmissions will be received with aug- 
mented television receivers located in 5000 villages selected by the 
Indian Government, which will also be responsible for the 
programme material and the Ahmedabad station. 

The Earth Resources Survey Programme is progressing toward 
the launch of the first Earth Resources Technology Satellite 
(ERTS) in 1972 followed by a second satellite launch in 1973. 
This programme will be a major step in establishing a capability 






Planning for the 1970s and 1980s 

for responsible management of the Earth resources and human 
environment. These satellites offer the key to world-wide crop 
prediction and an agricultural educational television service to 
advise farmers all over the world, in their own language, of vital 
and profitable information such as choice of suitable seed material, 
irrigation, fertilization and the like. The same satellites can be 
used for updating maps and to keep track of the rapid urbanization 
of mankind. 

The field of hydrology will also benefit from these orbital tech- 
niques. By obtaining data on snow cover and ice occurrence in 
rivers and glaciers and by mapping circulation patterns in coastal 
waters, estuaries and lakes, the hydiologists will be able to provide 
a sufficient quantity of water to the places of need and minimize 
the detrimental effect of natural events such as floods and man-made 
effects such as pollution. Since the oceans affect our lives in 
many ways, systematic Earth observation from orbit will greatly 
benefit oceanography. Correlation of the various data collected 
by satellites will enable us to more efficiently route shipping, 
predict long-range weather patterns, and, by studying the migration 
habits of fish, we may some day be able to direct fishing fleets to 
herring and tuna schools. 

Turning from the studies of the planet Earth, the United States 
will pursue a balanced approach to the studies of the other planets 
in the solar system. The exploration strategy calls for the 
detailed exploration of the planet Mars and the broad-based 
exploration of the other planets. This approach will permit a 
comparison of the planets which is fundamental lo the basic goals 
of planetary exploration. 

We know from studies dating back to Galileo that the planets 
are different from each other in most respects and similar in some 
respects. In addition to the large variation in the size of the 
planets and number of their moons, they vary in terms of the 
types of atmospheres they possess, their densities, their energy 
characteristics, and the manner in which they rotate on their axes 
and how they orbit the Sun. Yet, there are many similarities. For 
example, both Saturn and Jupiter emit more energy than they 
receive from the Sun and the planets Earth and Venus are similar 



449 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

in size, density and gravitation force. It is the study of these 
differences and similarities that will increase our understanding 
of the origin and evolution of the solar system and the evolution 
of life in our solar system. 

In the 1970s, most emphasis will be placed on the detailed 
exploration of Mars. This planet, which orbits the Sun some 40 
million miles outside the Earth's orbit, has been of interest to 
scientists for centuries. The Hybys of Mariner 6 and 7 in 1969 
provided a major step forward in exploring ihe mysterious red 
planet. After trips of more than 250 million miles both spacecraft 
passed within 260 miles of their aim points. Over 200 photo- 
graphs and more than 5000 ultra-violet and infra-red spectra of 
the planet's surface and atmosphere were returned by the two 
spacecraft and excellent results on the atmospheric surface tempera- 
ture and pressure were obtained. As a result of these missions, we 
now know that the atmosphere of Mars is composed primarily of 
carbon dioxide. Nitrogen was not detected and an upper limit 
of a few per cent has been placed on its abundance. 

One of the major surprises was the discovery of two unexpected 
types of terrain, termed "chaotic" and "featureless". The chaotic 
terrain is a series of short ridges, slumped valleys, and irregular 
topography. Some irregular/chaotic terrain exists on the Moon 
but it is not comparable to that observed on Mars. About 300,000 
square miles of chaotic terrain on Mars were observed by Mariner 6. 

The "featureless" terrain has neither craters nor other distinguish- 
able characteristics. One such area observed by Mariner 6 was 
the bright desert region called Hellas, which covers an area of 
almost 300,000 square miles. Even more intriguing is that while 
Hellas is now seen as one of the brightest areas on Mars, it was 
observed as one of the darkest areas in 1954. It is quite possible 
that there arc other featureless plains on Mars which could be 
detected by spacecraft in the next few years. 

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration will attempt 
for the first time in 1971 to place two spacecraft in orbit around 
the planet Mars. The designed operational lifetime of the space- 
craft while in orbit will be about three months. 



450 



Planning for the 1970s and 1980s 

The objective of the Mariner Mars 1971 project is to explore 
Mars from orbit long enough to observe a large portion (about 
70 per cent) of the planet's surface from an altitude of about 1000 
miles, and to look at selected areas to observe temporal changes 
of surface markings such as the wave of darkening which has been 
observed from Earth. 

The Mars missions will involve two identically instrumented 
spacecraft. They will be named Mariners 8 and 9 and will be 
assigned separate missions when they reach Mars. Each spacecraft 
will weigh approximately 2200 pounds and will be launched by an 
Atlas-Centaur launch vehicle from Kennedy Space Centre, Florida. 
The spacecraft will be based on the design of Mariners 6 and 7, 
which flew past Mars, but did not orbit, in the summer of 1969. 
A basic change will be the addition of a retro-engine to insert 
the spacecraft into Martian orbit. Carrying 970 pounds of pro- 
pellant, each engine will be capable of five mid-course or trim 
manoeuvres and can provide a velocity change of 3400 milcs-per- 
hour for orbital insertion (Figure 12-1). 

Both spacecraft will carry a wide angle television camera for 
maximum coverage of the surface and a camera with a telephoto 
lens for more detailed pictures. Other scientific experiments 
include an infra-red radiometer to measure surface temperatures, 
an ultra-violet spectrometer to analyze constituents of the atmo- 
sphere and an infra-red interferometer spectrometer to analyze 
the planet's atmosphere and surface. Two other scientific experi- 
ments will be performed without special instrumentation: an occulta- 
tion experiment that measures the effect of the Martian atmosphere 
on radio signals from the spacecraft to determine atmospheric 
density and a celestial mechanics experiment that will use tracking 
data to refine further the mass of Mars, Earth and the Astronomical 
Unit which is the distance from the Sun to Earth. 

Each spacecraft will be assigned a scientific mission to carry out 
in Martian orbit. The first spacecraft will be launched in May, 
1971, and will arrive at Mars in November, 1971, to perform a 
reconnaissance mission. It will be inserted into an orbit with 
an apoapsis (high point) of 10,500 miles, a periapsis (low point) 
of 1000 miles and an orbital period of 12 hours. Using its wide 



451 



,SOLAR PANEL STRUCTURE 

PROPELLANT TANK SHIELD 
.ROCKET NOZZLE 




MEDIUM- GAIN ANTENNA 



<& 



SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 
ON SCAN PLATFORM 



MARINER I 

RECORDS TEMPORAL CHANGES IN:' 
SURFACE FEATURES, SURFACE I. 
ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURES, 
ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION & 
PRESSURE PROFILE. 'CLOUD 
FORMATIONS AND OTHER ■' 
FEATURES. 



EARTH 







MARINER H 

MAPS: TOPOGRAPHY, SURFACE 

TEMPERATURE. ATMOSPHERIC 
- CONSTITUENTS. 

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE i 

DENSITY PROFILE. 



Figure 12-1. Mariner 1971 Mars Orbitcr. 



Figure 12-2. Mariner 71 Orbits Mars. 



angle TV camera with a resolution of about iwo-thirds of a mile 
on Mars* surface from an altitude of 1000 miles, the spacecraft 
will systematically map the surface of Mars from 60 degrees South 
to 40 degrees North during the first 90 days in orbit. The space- 
craft's orbit will be synchronized to the viewing period of the 
giant 210-foot diameter antenna of the Goldstone station of the 
Deep Space Network in California's Mojavc Desert. The antenna 
will receive daily transmissions of photographs and other scientific 
data. 

The second spacecraft, launched no earlier than eight days after 
the first, will arrive at Mars in November, 1971, to perform a 
variable features mission. It will be inserted into an orbit with 
an apoapsis of 27,000 miles, pcriapsis of 1000 miles and an orbital 
period of 32.8 hours. This orbit will allow the spacecraft to 









observe the same area on Mars every fourth day. Thus it will 
repeatedly photograph features of interest to scientists since these 
features appear to change with the Martian seasons (Figure J 2-2). 

In 1976 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration will 
land instruments on the surface of Mars as the next exploration 
step. The Viking Project is directed at the major unknowns 
concerning the chemical, physical and environmental properties of 
the Martian surface and the near surface atmosphere. An orbiter 
will team up with a lander to permit correlation of remote 
observations with direct measurements in the atmosphere and on 
the surface. 

A series of scientific investigations will be conducted during 
the 1975-1976 missions. The orbiter which will carry the lander 
into orbit has a complement of three bore-sighted instruments to 



452 



453 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

help select the best landing site. The lander will begin its inves- 
tigations during its descent with the determination of the vertical 
profile of the composition and structure of the Martian atmosphere. 
After touchdown, the two cameras on the lander will visually 
characterize the landing site and help in the selection of surface 
samples. These samples will be analyzed for organic materials, 
water and biological activity. The chemical analysis will be 
conducted by a combined gas chromatograph and mass spectro- 
meter. An integrated life detection instrument will look for 
evidence of life in the form of photosynthesis, respiration, meta- 
bolism and/or growth. A meteorological station, a seismometer, 
and investigations of soil physical and magnetic properties will 
complement the chemical and biological determinations. 

Data obtained by the orbiter overhead will alert the scientists 
who have investigations on the lander as to the best time to 
take the samples, such as during the passage of the wave of 
darkening. The orbital data will enable the scientists to correlate 
the lander data with local and regional weather activities. When 
not employed directly with the lander investigations, the orbiter 
will continue the visual, thermal, and water mapping of the planet 
and the study of significant dynamic properties. 

Now let us turn inward toward the Sun, to the planets Venus and 
Mercury. Venus is a planet which is very similar to the Earth in 
terms of size, density and gravitational force, yet it has a considerably 
different atmosphere. Its surface pressure is over 100 times that 
of the Earth's atmosphere and its surface temperature approaches 
900° Fahrenheit. The atmosphere of this planet has been examined 
by the Mariner 2 and Mariner 5 spacecraft during their flybys and 
by three Russian atmospheric probes. 

The planet closest to the Sun is tiny Mercury. Its size is some- 
what larger than the Earth's moon and it has a very high density. 
The high density is probably due to either a high concentration of 
iron or a relatively large loss of volatile material from its interior. 
It would appear that either Mercury's original formation was 
different from that of the Earth or else its evolutionary process has 
been significantly different. Thus far, no atmosphere has been 

454 






Planning for the 1970s and 1980$ 

delected on Mercury. However, very little is known about this 
planet because of its proximity to the Sun, which makes it difficult 
to study from the Earth using astronomical facilities. 

The first spacecraft mission to Mercury will occur in 1973 with 
(he Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973 spacecraft. This will also be 
the first attempt to perform a gravity-assist dual planet mission of 
the type which will be performed in the exploration of the outer 
planets in the late 1970s. The spacecraft will be launched in 
October, 1973, during an opportunity which will permit the space- 
craft to fly by Venus, obtain a gravity-assist deflection, and then 
move inward toward the Sun and fly by Mercury. 

Top priority in this mission is being afforded to the scientific 
investigation of the planet Mercury. Investigations will be made of 
the planet's environment, atmosphere, surface and body charac- 
teristics. While passing Venus, however, ultra-violet photographs 
and atmospheric data will be obtained, where possible. In addition, 
exploration investigations will be performed in the interplanetary 
medium while the spacecraft is en route from Earth to Mercury 
(Figure 12-3). 

Figure 12-3. Mariner 1973 Venus/ Mercury Spacecraft. 



HIGH-GAIN ANTENNA 



TV ON SCAN PLATFORM 




SCIENCE 
INSTRUMENTS 



SCIENCE 
INSTRUMENTS' 



"OUR PAN 



THERMAL SHIELD, 



OMNIDIRECTIONAL- 

ANTENNA 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

The exploration of the outer solar system will receive considerable 
attention during the decade of the seventies. For the first time, 
this area of high potential for new scientific discoveries will be 
exploited, 

lupiter, one of the most interesting planets in our solar system, 
will receive greater study in the first half of the 1970s. Jupiter 
has a mass some 318 times that of the Earth yet rotates very 
rapidly — its period of rotation being somewhat less than 10 hours, 
The atmospheric constituents of the Jovian atmosphere have been 
detected as hydrogen with minor amounts of methane and ammonia. 
An amount of helium has also been inferred. 

Jupiter has 12 satellites and is endowed with multicoloured bands 
around it, the structure of which changes with time. It is the first 
planet that was discovered to emit more energy than it absorbs 
from the Sun. Current measurements indicate that the planet emits 
about twice as much energy as it absorbs. The precise measure- 
ment of Jupiter's temperature in different wavelengths and from 
the night side of the planet will shed light on this mystery. 

The Pioneer F spacecraft will be launched during the Jupiter 
opportunity in March, 1972, and Pioneer G will be launched during 
the 1973 Jupiter opportunity, some 13 months later. The spacecraft 
will take just under two years to reach Jupiter and will cover a flight 
path of almost 500 million miles. These spacecraft will permit 
exploratory investigations of the interplanetary medium beyond the 
orbit of Mars, the nature of the asteroid belt, and the environmental 
characteristics of the planet Jupiter. 

With a complement of 13 scientific investigations on each mission, 
it will be possible to study spacecraft hazards associated with flights 
through the asteroid belt, to measure the gradient of the Sun's 
influence on interplanetary space, and to investigate the penetration 
of galactic cosmic radiation into the solar system. While the 
spacecraft are in the vicinity of Jupiter the scientific instruments will 
measure properties of charged particles, magnetic fields and 
electromagnetic emissions associated with tlic planet. The spacecraft 
will also take a number of pictures of the planet at resolutions 
considerably better than those possible from the Earth. The data 
returned by Pioneers F and G will be used in studies of the 



456 



GAS JET 



LAUNCH 
SEPARATION 
RING \ 



THERMAL 
CONTROL 
LOUVERS/ 




HIGH-GAIN ANTENNA 



MEDIUM-GAIN ANTE 



SCIENCE 

INSTRUMENTS'" 



RADIOISOTOPE 
THERMOELETRIC 
GENERATOR [RTG] 



Figure 12-4, Pioneer l : /G Spacecraft. 



MAGNETOMETER 



composition and dynamics of the atmosphere surrounding Jupiter, 
its cloud structure and its interaction with the planetary medium. 
The infra-red radiometer experiment should make it possible to 
analy2e the thermal balance of Jupiter and the planet's source of 
energy (Figure J 2-4). 

After Jupiter come Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto in the 
most far-reaching space missions yet conceived by man. The best 
outer planet alignment in 179 years, occurring in the 1976 to 
1980 time period, opens the outer planets to exploration in an 
effective and timely manner. The infrequency of such favourable 
alignment is due to the slow movement of the outer planets about 
the Sun. 



457 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

Plans for two three-planet Grand Tours in the tatc 1970s arc 
being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration. One such mission would fly by Jupiter, Saturn and 
Pluto, and the other would go to Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune. 

Either conventional or solar-electric propelled spacecraft with a 
nuclear isotope power source to operate spacecraft equipment will 
be employed for the planetary tours. From Jupiter on. the 
spacecraft will use the gravitational attraction of each planet to 
spin on to the next. This method of exploring the outer solar 
system is an extension of the "interplanetary billiards" proposal 
which explains how the heavy mass and strong gravitational fields 
of Jupiter and the other larger planets make large deflections and 
speed changes possible for passing spacecraft. As the name 
implies, this method of space travel has been compared to the 
ricocheting of billiard balls. 

The basic Grand Tour spacecraft will weigh about 1200 pounds 
and will continue past Neptune or Pluto, escaping the solar system. 
The trajectories projected for the missions extend into intcrgalactic 
space. The planetary carom effect will enable a spacecraft to reach 
Pluto in seven or eight years where a direct flight to Pluto (at 
closest 2670 million miles from Earth) would take 41 years. 
Neptune, the next farthest out, might be reached in 8.9 years instead 
of the 18-plus years via direct flight. 

The technological challenges of the Grand Tour missions are 
formidable but not insurmountable. The spacecraft will have to be 
capable of automatically replacing failed equipment because it will 
take hours for telemetry signals to reach Earth and to return a 
corrective command to the spacecraft. Such self-repairing computer 
and data storage systems are presently under development. Since 
the spacecraft's power will be generated by electrical conversion of 
heat produced by a nuclear source (plutonium), work is also 
proceeding on a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. The great 
distance from which signals must be received at Earth stations 
would require the spacecraft to have a large, precisely parabolic 



458 












Planning for the 1970s and 1980s 

antenna. It will take four hours for a radio signal transmission 
from Neptune to Earth. 

Although the specific science instrumentation remains speculative, 
the key mysteries of the outer planets will require photography, 
atmospheric measurements in ultra-violet and infra-red wavelengths, 
plus radiation-detecting equipment. Along the way, cometary 
particles also could be measured in the asteroid belt between Mars 
and Jupiter. Instrumentation required for the planets is also 
suitable for measuring interplanetary regions, and even the inter- 
ya lactic regions beyond the solar system. 

These automated space programmes are indicative of the major 
unmanned projects thai the United States hopes and plans to pursue 
in the future. Now let us turn to the manned space flight objectives 
for the 1970s and 1980s 

Manned Space Flight 

During the past 10 years there has been universal personal 
identification with the astronauts and a high degree of interest in 
manned space activities which reached a peak both nationally and 
internationally with the Apollo programme. Sustained high interest, 
judged in the light of current experience, however, is related to 
the availability of new tasks and new challenges for man in space. 
The presence of man in space, in addition to its effect upon public 
interest in space activity, can also contribute to mission success by 
enabling man to exercise his unique capabilities and thereby enhance 
mission reliability, flexibility, and the ability to react to unprediclcd 
conditions. 

The approach used in planning manned space flight for the next 
two decades is based on the Space Task Group recommendation 
that manned planetary exploration be a focus for the development 
of new capabilities. Therefore, the establishment of a foundation 
for manned planetary exploration becomes a transcendent objective 
in defining the programme of the future. 

The basic Apollo capability will be extended to provide more 
increasingly important results of scientific knowledge about the 
Moon. Through 1974, Apollo flights will take teams of two 



459 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

astronauts to different landing sites of particular scientific interest 
while a third astronaut remains with the Command Module in 
lunar orbit. Each subsequent mission will offer more involved and 
extended scientific exploration and a longer stay-time on the lunar 
surface (eventually up to 54 hours). By the latter part of 1971, 
there are plans to provide the astronauts with a lunar rover which 
will enable them to explore areas of the Moon which may be 
several miles distant from the landing site. These extended Apollo 
missions will allow more detailed sclenological studies at a number 
of lunar sites and a range of experiments in lunar physics and 
chemistry. They will also provide the necessary base of experience 
required for future missions of longer duration on the lunar surface. 

The Skylab programme, derived from Apollo hardware, will be 
placed in low Earth orbit in late 1972. The prime objectives of 
this programme arc to establish physiological and psychological 
data on man for extended space flight missions and support high 
resolution solar astronomy at short-wave length that is not directly 
observable from the surface of the Earth, In addition, the Skylab 
programme will support a broad spectrum of experimental inves- 
tigations in other scientific disciplines. For a detailed explanation 
of this programme see Chapter 10. 

The Skylab programme is a first step toward manned utilization 
of space, but further steps will be taken to realize the full potential 
of this capability. In the regions of Earth orbit, a permanent, 
flexible space station supplied by a reusable space shuttle will form 
the basis of the major space transportation system of the late 
1970s. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is 
currently involved in the definition phase of the Space Station. The 
overall objective to this effort is to obtain the technical and 
managerial information required so that a choice of a single 
approach to a space station design can be made from the alternate 
approaches available. The Space Shuttle effort has progressed to 
the point where the definition phase studies can now proceed. 
These studies are the next logical step in providing a basis for 
evaluation of competing designs to the point of preparedness 
necessary for initiating of development. The Space Shuttle and 
Space Station are discussed in detail in Chapter 11. 



460 






Planning for the 1970s and f98Q$ 

To this point, manned space flight programmes which are being 
defined or which are in the development stage have been discussed. 
However, the following discussion is directed toward space systems 
which could become a reality in the late 1970s and 1980s although 
no decision has yet been made by the United States to move ahead 
with definition studies or development. 

A new mode of lunar exploration could well begin in the late 
1970s with the establishment of a lunar orbit station. The 
station would be established by placing a space station module 
(similar to the Earth-orbit module) in polar orbit around the 
Moon. In addition to performing orbital science, this station 
would make possible the visitation of any point on the lunar surface 
every 14 days with the introduction of a new system, the Space Tug. 

The Space Tug is one of four major new pieces of equipment 
which would be required in the balanced space programme of the 
next two decades. The Space Tug concept is a highly versatile 
multi-application system that would utilize three major modules — 
crew, propulsion and cargo — which may be used separately or 
together with a variety of supplementary kits depending on mission 
support function required. These kits would contain components 
such as landing legs, environmental control systems, power, guidance 
and navigation and manipulator arms. Each module would be 
recoverable and economically rcfurbishablc. 

Significant improvements in lunar exploration would be introduced 
with the advent of the Space Tug. In delivering payloads to the 
Moon, the Space Tug would provide improved performance to the 
Saturn V launch vehicle by adding a fourth stage to the three-stage 
rocket. An unmanned launch would initiate this operating mode 
by transporting a Space Station Module into lunar polar orbit at 
approximately 60 miles altitude. Manned launches would deliver 
Command Modules, Space Tugs and support cargo to the orbiting 
station. The Command Module would be used for Earth-to-Moon- 
and-return crew delivery and would be modified to remain at the 
station for extended periods. For the lunar landing, the Space Tug 
propulsion module, crew module, landing legs and other appropriate 
support kits would descend from the Lunar Orbit Station to the 
lunar surface for exploration missions of 14 to 28 days. After 



461 




Figure 12-6. Space Tag/ Lunar Applications, 




Planning for the 1970s and 1980s 

surface mission completion, the tug would ascend to the Orbit 
Station to refuel and resupply for another surface sortie {Figures 
12-5 and 12-6). 

The Lunar Orbit Station would provide a station from which 
many activities could be conducted. Surface roving vehicles would 
be used during the surface excursions to increase mobility on the 
lunar surface. Serological samples would be collected from the 
surface, returned to the station and analyzed in lunar orbit. The 
first major lunar surface farside radio telescope could be deployed 
and the polar orbit of the station would make possible the complete 
mapping and remote sensing of the Moon. At the end of this 
mode of lunar exploration, enough surface experience would have 
been accumulated so that a lunar surface base could be implemented 
if it was deemed desirable. 

The versatile Space Tug would be configured for conducting 
operations and tasks in Earth orbit as well as lunar orbit. Such 
operations might include the movement of space stations, movement 
of large payloads in the vicinity of the space station, and satellite 
placement, retrieval and maintenance services (Figure 12-7). 

The introduction of a low cost, reusable Earth-orbit to lunar-orbit 
space transportation system will be required to support long term 
high energy missions, such as synchronous and lunar surface bases. 
At this time, it appears that the nuclear shuttle is the most 
economical system to fulfil these requirements, A prototype of 
the nuclear engine required for just such a vehicle has already 
performed a number of highly successful static tests and could be 
operational by 1978. In addition to cislunar missions, the nuclear 
shuttle would serve as an economical propulsion system for manned 
planetary missions in the 1980s (Figure 12-8). 

The nuclear shuttle, designed for multiple reuses, will be able to 
operate in either a manned or unmanned mode. It will possess the 
capability of long term, cryogenic storage in space and will have 
the ability to station keep in orbit between mission applications. 

A two-stage configuration of the Saturn V rocket would launch 
the nuclear shuttle into orbit. Thereafter, the space shuttle would 
be used to transport fuel and payload into Earth orbit to support 



463 



CREW MOOUIE, 



HOPUISION MOOUIE 



• >&~ 



f LKJHT CONFtGUtAftON 



fc 




Planning for the 1970s and 1980s 

the nuclear shuttle operations (Figure 12-9). The nuclear shuttle 
would have necessary maintenance performed by personnel of the 
orbiting space station between mission applications. 

The nuclear shuttle will initially be used as a logistics vehicle for 
supporting manned operations in synchronous orbit, in lunar orbit, 
and on the lunar surface. The shuttle should, therefore, be 
adaptable to transporting pay'loads of varying size, weight and 
configurations. The payload weight that the nuclear shuttle will 
be able to transport to its destination is a function of the weight 
it will be expected to return to Earth orbit. For instance, in early 
phases of the programme, the Space Tugs will be returned to Earth 
orbit from both synchronous and lunar orbit station to be refuelled 
and refurbished. Several representative payload configurations 
for the shuttle arc illustrated in Figure 12-10. Configurations of 
both Cargo Modules and fully fuelled Space Tugs would be able 
to be transported on a single flight. The space station or experiment 
modules would also be able to be transported to any point of 
scientific interest in cislunar space. Other applications of the 
nuclear shuttle would include rotation of crews between synchronous 
and lunar orbit stations and transportation of specialized equipment 
required for lunar surface operations. 

Figure 12-11 illustrates the use of the three major space 
transportation elements just discussed. The sequence shown 
depicts the cargo transfer from a space shuttle to the nuclear 
shuttle which is to depart from Earth orbit to lunar orbit. The 
space shuttle nose is hinged open and an interior expulsion device 
moves the space shuttle cargo forward and out into the open, 
exposing the individual cargo modules for removal (Phase I). A 
Space Tug with a manipulator equipped crew module then extracts 
the Cargo Module from the space shuttle pallet and docks with it 
(Phase II). The Space Tug then propels itself and the Cargo 
Module toward the nuclear shuttle (Phase III), stationed at some 
distance away, and transfers the Cargo Module to the nuclear 
shuttle cargo structure by hard docking (Phase IV). This operation 
and other similar cargo transfers would be a standard operation in 
Earth orbit for any cargo destined for the Moon. 



465 



LIQUID HYDROGEN DEPOT 



REFUELLING ADAPTER 



MOfUSXM MQMJUI 
CHW MOOUUfJI— 



PAYIOAD NUMBER 3 




Figwe 12-11. Etirth Orhit Cargo Transfer. Space Shuttle H> Nuclear Shuttle. 



With the introduction of the nuclear shuttle for logistics support, 
the development of a permanent base on the lunar surface then 
becomes feasible. If lunar resources could be developed to sustain 
a base, the preparation and operation of the base could provide 
invaluable data on manned planetary operations in the 1980s 
and later. 

The initial build-up of the base would require that a Space Station 
Module be placed on the lunar surface from lunar orbit with the 
propulsion module of the Space Tug. The station would be manned 
and logistically supplied via the operation of the Space Tug from 
lunar orbit; at this phase of the lunar programme all equipment, 
supplies and crew rotations would be supported from Earth orbit 
with the nuclear shuttle (Figure 12-12). In-depth sclenological 
exploration would begin as the base expanded and specialized 
equipment would be assembled. Drills of several hundred feet 
capability could be employed to determine if lunar resources could 



467 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

be exploited. Large optica! X-ray and gamma-ray telescopes could 
be erected, and an extended base operation could be developed 
(Figure J 2-13). 

Successful exploration missions on the lunar surface and the 
establishment of a lunar base could conceivably lead to discoveries 
of materials and techniques for utilization of lunar resources by 
man. Production of propellants, fuel and food on the Moon 
would greatly reduce logistic requirements from Earth. A permanent 
colony could result consisting of multiple shelters, various systems 
for surface transportation, permanent scientific observatories and 
electro- chemical conversion systems for processing lunar materials. 
The base would provide not only basic life support and working 
facilities for the inhabitants, but also essential recreation, entertain- 
ment and social functions. It is assumed thai by this time in 
lunar operations, non-astronaut scientists and specialized technicians 
(including men and women) would make up the largest part of 
the base personnel. Since these operations and experiences would 
be fully exploited in manned operations on Mars or other planets, 
crew rotation would be extended to a year or greater mriesa 
emergencies developed. 

The space station programme to be initialed in the 1970s will 
be the first step in an incremental programme which would lead 
toward a centralized and general purpose Earth orbital laboratory 
in the 1980s. This centralized facility, or space base, would 
introduce a new more mature and routine mode of space operations 
than past programmes. Long term operation with an associated 
low cost reusable transportation system would enable full 
exploitation of Earth orbital operations. 

Initially, the base would accommodate approximately 50 persons 
including a small number to perform command, control, service 
and maintenance functions. Growth to a 100-man capacity could 
be anticipated by the late 1980s. All personnel working in the 
space base would be highly trained in specialized disciplines. Since 
the base would provide an Earth-like environment in addition to 
large zero gravity facilities, little training, in comparison to present 
astronaut training, would be required to compensate for the 
environment. 



468 




Figure \2~\2. Lunar Orbit Operations. 
Figure 12-13. Lunar Surface Base. 








Figure 12-14. Space Base Operations. 



One of the space base options being investigated is illustrated in 

Figure 12-14, The space base would be designed for both zero 
and artificial gravity. In its linal assembled form, portions of the 
living quarters are conceived to rotate around a central hub of 
about four revolutions per minute at a radius of some 100 feet 
from the axis of rotation. Large portions of the base would be 
counter-rotating to facilitate docking and to support scientific 
investigations taking place in the weightless environment. 

The base would be modular in construction to enable recon- 
figuration or expansion through in-orbit assembly. It would be 
powered with a large nuclear power supply and would contain 
advanced closed loop life support systems. Command post functions 
would permit highly autonomous mission operations and would 
reduce mission support ground activities. 

Extensive laboratory facilities aboard the base would provide 
experiment support capability for space astronomy, space physics, 

470 



Planning for the 1970s and 1980s 

Earth surveys, advanced technology, aerospace medicine, materials 
processing and engineering operations. Modules which could 
operate in an attached mode to the base would be launched 
periodically during the lifetime of the base and docked to one of 
the many experiment support docking ports provided on the base. 
Others, which require extremely fine pointing or very low gravity 
levels not provided by the base, would be operated as free-flying, 
remote modules which could return and dock to the base periodically 
for servicing. Some of the astronomy and space biology experiment 
modules fall into this category. 

The space base would provide docking, servicing and recharging 
functions for the Space Tug which would be utilized in the initial 
assembly and buildup of the base and which would provide a variety 
of support functions as a part of the overall base operations. Included 
in these lug functions would be base exterior inspection and repair; 
service of the nuclear power supply; support in the unloading of 
upcoming cargo from the space shuttle to the base; service, inspection 
and retrieval of remote experiment modules or satellites; and transfer 
of crew or cargo modules from the space shuttle to a nuclear shuttle 
for missions to lunar and geosynchronous orbits. 

Versatile docking facilities would be provided for the space shuttle 
at the base to enable accommodation of frequent crew and cargo 
deliveries. During use of the space shuttle to rcsupply the nearby 
propcllant storage depot, the base would monitor, support and 
provide shuttle crew accommodation if needed. Monitoring of 
propcllant transfer operations, servicing and maintenance at the 
propel] ant depot would be provided by the Space Base-Space Tug 
system. 

In the 1980s, the precursor activities necessary for manned 
exploration of the planets will have been accomplished. One of the 
options available as a logical follow-on in the manned space flight area 
in the post-Apollo period is a manned mission to Mars. This mission 
would be based on the information provided by unmanned Mars 
flights, the Mariner and Viking programmes. To date, no schedule 
or hardware timetable has been established by the United States 
to accomplish a manned Mars landing. However, in the interest 



471 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



of planning for the future, the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration has conducted a study to determine the feasibility 
of a Mars mission. The following discussion is based on that study. 

The manned Mars mission will be made possible by the new 
systems developed in the 1970s with the exception of the Mars 
Excursion Module which would have to be developed. The Space 
Station Module would be used as a crew compartment and cargo 
storage area and the Nuclear Shuttle would be used for propulsion. 
In preparation for the Mars expedition, the crew, cargo, experiments 
and fuel would be placed into Earth orbit by the Space Shuttle 
and the Space Station Modules and Nuclear Shuttles necessary 
for the mission would be placed into orbit by the two-stage Saturn 
V launch vehicle (Figure 12-15). 

Although spacecraft may be launched to the Moon approximately 
once each month, it is the nature of planetary missions that launch 
windows (the interval of time that a spacecraft may be launched 
to achieve the proper trajectory) do not occur as frequently. 
Missions to Mars can be launched only approximately every two 
years, 

The Mars expedition would be made with two space ships, each 
carrying a crew of six (Figure 12-16), In view of the total 
round-trip flight time of 640 days, the spacecraft would be far 
more comfortable and roomy than the Apollo Command Module 
(Figure 12-17). The proposal to use two space ships is based on 
the thought that ship redundancy will be particularly helpful when 
the crew is so far away from Earth that any idea of help provided 
from Earth would be completely out of the question. If one ship 
became incapacitated and unable to return, then its six-man crew 
could transfer to and return in the other ship. It would be more 
crowded but acceptable to return all 12 in one ship. 

Each spacecraft would be equipped with three nuclear engines. 
The power manoeuvre of departure from the Earth orbit would 
be performed by two of these engines. After acceleration from 
orbital to escape speed to inject the spacecraft into their unpowered 
flight path to Mars, these two engines would be detached, turned 
around 180 degrees and fired back to Earth orbit for reuse at a 

472 



shutiu . 
tminN re .a 

UUMKI '' 

0«»n ' ' 



IMtH 
ASMMUr 
Mill 



MAM IHJtClXJW 

■TNtKUU tHumn 



SHumi 






y fMUTTLI curat* 
amo nriu*r>oN 



Figure 12-15. Earth Orhil Departure Manoeuvres. 



Figure 12-16. Earth Orhii Departure. 





FigOTt 12-17. En route Spacecraft Configuration. 



' 




Planning for the 1970s and 1980s 

later date. The third nuclear engine would be used for deboosting 
into the Mars orbit and the return trip to Earth, 

Upon arrival at Mars, the spacecraft will be braked by firing the 
nuclear engine and enter into the Martian gravitational field 
{Figure 12-18). Mars would then pull the craft around and at 
the lowest point of the approach trajectory, the engine would be 
fired again to convert what would otherwise be a hyperbolic sweep 
through the Martian gravitational field into an elliptic orbit of 
about 24 hours period of revolution around Mars. 

After achieving this orbit, unmanned landers will be dispatched 
to the surface of Mars to determine what the conditions are in 
particularly interesting, potential landing sites. These vehicles will 
make an aerodynamic entry, unmanned, into the Mars atmosphere 
and land at a predetermined spot, each on its own jet power, very 
much like the Lunar Module. Upon touchdown on the surface, the 
hatch will open and a small remote controlled vehicle will emerge 
and begin scooping up surface sample material. The remote con- 
trolled vehicle will move 100 to a thousand feet away from the lander 
so that the samples will be made from an area that is not spoiled by 
the lander's exhaust jet, The probe will then re-enter the lander, 
the ascent stage will be fired, and the lander will return to orbit for 
docking with the spacecraft (Figure 12-19). 

After the initial samples have been analyzed, the men aboard 
the spacecraft will enter the Mars Excursion Module (MEM) and 
descend to the Martian surface. The MEM will be designed to 
transport the surface exploration crew and their equipment to the 
Mars surface, provide living accommodations for 30-60 day 
exploration periods, and transport the crew, scientific data and 
samples back to the orbiting spacecraft (Figure 12-20). The 
MEM will be an Apollo-shaped vehicle which uses aerodynamic 
braking to remove most of the velocity of the craft during descent 
and a terminal propulsion system for the final braking and landing 
manoeuvres. The descent stage will contain crew living quarters, 
a scientific laboratory for use during the surface exploration, and 
a hangar for transporting a small rover vehicle to the surface and 
storing it during periods of non-use. The descent stage will also 

475 




Figure 12-20. Mars Excursion Module Configuration. 



Figure 12-21. Mars Initial Landing. 



Figure J 2-22. Mars Surface Excursion. 



m DE-ORBIT 



Wl RENDEZVOUS 
* DOCKING 



-^r s hi shroud & 

HEAT SHIELD 
/ JETTISON 



(SI STAGING 



(J) DESCENT 
BRAKING 



(5) LANDING 









(*) SURfACE 
OPERATIONS 



Pioneering in Outer Space 

serve as a launch platform for the ascent vehicle. The crew 
compartment, located above the ascent stage, will be occupied by 
all crew members during descent and ascent phases of the mission 
and will serve as a command control centre during the surface 
exploration. 

The scientific objectives of the manned Mars landing mission 
will be to make geophysical observations including studies of the 
gravitational field, magnetic field and the internal composition of 
Mars; collect soil and atmospheric samples; study life forms; study 
the behaviour of terrestrial life forms in the Mars environment; 
and search for water and usable natural resources (Figure 72-2/). 

The Mars surface activity on the initial mssion will be similar 
in many ways to the early lunar exploration activities. Notable, 
however, is the much longer stay-time of 30 to 60 days per MEM 
which will permit more extensive observation, experimentation, and 
execution of scientific objectives. Surface operations will include 
experiments to be performed in the MEM laboratory as well as 
the external operations on the Mars surface. The small rover 
vehicle will permit trips to interesting surface features beyond the 
immediate landing area. 

While the crew on the surface carries out the expedition, that 
part of the crew which remains in the orbiting spacecraft will 
conduct experiments, monitor the surface operations, and conduct 
the necessary spacecraft maintenance. 

With the completion of Mars surface activities, the explorers 
will enter the MEMs, ignite the ascent stages, and return to the 
mother ship (Figure 12-22). The nuclear engine will then be fired 
again to drive the spacecraft out of the Martian orbit and project 
itself into a circumsolar ellipse by way of Venus to Earth (Figure 
12-23), 

During the outbound and inbound legs of the mission, experi- 
mental activities will be conducted, such as solar and planetary 
observations, solar wind measurements, biological monitoring of 
the crew, test plant and animal observations and (during the return 
flight) analysis of the Mars samples. 



478 




Figure 12-23. Man Departure. 



Figure 12-24. Release of Venus Probe. 




Pioneering in Outer Space 

One hundred and twenty-three days after the Mars departure, 
the spacecraft will fly by the planet Venus. Using the fiyby 
velocity of the spacecraft, it will be planned to inject two small 
(2000 pound) unmanned probes into the atmosphere of Venus. 
These probes may land on the Venusian surface or it may be 
possible to launch them so that they would float in the cooler 
regions of the Venus atmosphere and make a radar survey of the 
surface (Figure 12-24), 

After 640 days or nearly two years, the spacecraft crews would 
fire the nuclear engines and settle in an orbit around the Earth. 
From this orbit the crews would then enter another vehicle, most 
likely the Space Shuttle, and descend to Earth (Figure i2-25). 

When the findings of the early Mars surface explorations establish 
the desirability of a more comprehensive exploration of the planet, 
a temporary base could be established (Figure 12-26). This base 



Figure 12-25. Return Earth. 





Figure 12-26. Marx Duxe 



would be used to further the scientific exploration of the planet and 
to investigate the feasibility of exploiting the planet's natural 
resources as a means of establishing a more permanent operation. 
The surface exploration would be complemented by an extensive 
scientilic programme conducted by the crew in the orbiting 
spacecraft. Of a total mission duration of about 1000 days, 
approximately 300 days would be spent in Mars orbit and on the 
Mars surface. 

Maximum effectiveness of the temporary Mars base would require 
an improved surface transportation system that would permit sorties 
for exploring the planet's surface outside the immediate vicinity of 
the landing site. This system could be an enlarged and improved 
version of a similar system used in the lunar programme and 
earlier Mars missions. Other systems would be common to those 
used in the first Mars landing mission. 



48 i 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



In the far more distant future, a more sophisticated facility would 
be needed to support Mars operations. The Station Module 
originally developed Cor Earth orbit applications and later used as 
the lunar orbit station, lunar surface base, and planetary mission 
module could serve as the building block for the surface base. The 
descent stage of the Mars excursion module wouid be used for 
lauding the Station Module on the Mars surface and augmenting 
the Station Module's facilities and services. This facility would 
provide living quarters, a medical facility, scientific research 
laboratories and a control centre to monitor operations at remote 
sites. Redundancy in design and maintainability of systems would 
assure dependable, long-life operation (Figure 12-27), 

The facility just described could be developed into a Mars colony 
capable of exploiting the natural resources of the planet so as to 
be as nearly self-supporting as possible. It may some day be 
possible, for example, to establish a plant to manufacture propellants 
at the colony for use in a logistics spacecraft that shuttles between 



■^y* 



■^.> 



MOUf SUDOM 



TLy-l 



tOOB IKS VtHIClE 



Figure 12-27. Temporary Marx Base 




Figure 12-28. Man Seml-PermamM Base. 



the surface of Mars and a station in Mars orbit. It could also be 
possible to extract the oxygen needed for life support and 
environmental control systems from minerals (Figure 12-28). 

The Mars surface colony activities would be accompanied by a 
significant activity in Mars orbit. An orbiting space base would 
be maintained in Mars orbit to support the surface operations and 
to conduct deep space scientific research. It is probable that the 
tours-of-duty of the Mars exploration crews would include 
assignments at both the Mars orbiting base and Mars surface colony. 
The engineering support activities would include assembly of Base 
Modules from Station Modules and descent propulsion systems 
transported to Mars orbit by Nuclear Shuttles. The Mars orbiting 
base may also include a depot where supplies from Earth would 
be stored until needed by the surface operations and where materials 
brought up from the Mars surface would be kept until it was 
convenient to send them to Earth (Figure 12-29). 



483 




Science and Mankind 



by 
M. Oliphant 



Figurr 12-29. Mars Orbital A airily. 



Conclusion 

Man now has the demonstrated capability to move on to new 
goals and achievements in space. Space exploration that seemed 
impossible a few years ago has become today's accomplishment. 
And, significantly, the challenge of the future is not confined to 
one or two nations, fn the coming years, greater international 
co-operation in space will develop. The adventures and applications 
of space missions will be shared by all peoples. Progress will be 
faster a*hd accomplishments will be greater as nations join together 
in this effort, both in contributing the resources and in enjoying 
the benefits. 

Our opportunities are great and we have a broad spectrum of 
choices available. It remains only to chart the course and to set 
the pace of progress in this new dimension of man. 




Sir Mark Olipiumt, F.R.S.. 

Emeritus Professor, Fellow oj the Australian National University. 
Canberra. 



Science and 
Mankind 



1. Science and Technology Now Determine 
the Course and Nature of Civilization 

(a) The Development of Science and Technology 

Man as we know him today has existed on earth for at least 
100,000 years, and possibly for a million years or more. For 
thousands of years his numbers were small and scattered, so that 
few remains of the greater part of his primitive history have been 
found. It was only when he began to practise the simplest forms 
of technology, chipping stones to make tools and weapons, and 
making lire, thai ihis most defenceless of all animals could increase 
substantially in numbers and leave behind durable evidence of his 
existence. From then on, radioactive carbon-dating of the remains 
of fires and bones allows a reasonably complete early history to 
be compiled. It is man's use of tools, that is his development of 
technology, which has enabled him to become civilized and to 
dominate the earth. The discovery of metals, which could be 
hammered or cut into a variety of shapes to suit his needs, and 
of utensils of clay hardened by fire, some 10,000 years ago, together 
with the earlier ability to domesticate animals and grow crops, 
enabled him to live in settled communities and begin the process 
of civilization. 

Language developed enormously, and the written word appeared. 
The arts, music and literature enriched the lives of mankind. The 
rules of conduct necessary for orderly life in a community became 
codified into religion, social behaviour, and the law. Freed from 
the continuous struggle for existence, the upper classes had leisure 
to observe nature about them and record their findings. 
Philosophizing about shapes produced geometry, which was 
formal i?ed by Euclid. Observation of ihe heavens showed thai 
some stars, the planets, moved with respect to the fixed pattern 
of the firmament. Astronomy was bom. and given a structure 
by Ptolemy. 



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Pioneering in Outer Space 

Unfortunately, this early enthusiasm for knowledge of nature 
did not last, although some astronomical observations continued 
in the East. In the West, the supremacy of the Church, and the 
conviction that all philosophy was to be found in the writings of 
the Greeks, particularly Plato and Aristotle, led to the rejection 
of any ideas which did not conform with the concepts of nature 
propounded by these authorities. Revelation, on the one hand, 
and a formalized theory of a perfect universe, divorced from the 
imperfections of observation, on the other, virtually prevented 
progress in science for almost 1,000 years. During this period, 
skills in fabrication of metals, stone and wood increased, and 
some of the most beautiful buildings on earth were const rue led. 
Bui the life of the ordinary man remained almost unchanged. Most 
lived and worked on the land, producing the food, wood, flax, 
and so on required by themselves and by the few who associated 
with the rulers and armies in or around the cities. Travel was 
difficult and costly, and life centred around the village. Few 
learned to read and write. Development of the arts, or of any 
form of intellectual life, depended upon the patronage of the rich. 
The only universities were centres of theological study, as 
Cambridge and Oxford in England. 

The great discoveries of foreign lands made by intrepid Spanish, 
Portuguese, Dutch, and above all English navigators in the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries, brought realization that there remained 
much to learn about the world. The wealth of the East and of 
the Americas began to pour into Europe, and by the middle of the 
sixteenth century had created a new class of rich, the merchant 
adventurers. The demand for education grew, and with it the 
number of men and women capable of independent thought. The 
power of the Church was curtailed by the Reformation, and a 
similar change in the approach to learning accompanied this 
upheaval. 

Slowly, after a turbulent period, the new freedoms and the 
growth of the entrepreneur gave rise to the Industrial Revolution. 
The cities grew, factories were built, and the modern age of man 
commenced. A new era of questioning of all beliefs led to the 
rapid growth of the experimental method for obtaining information 









Science and Mankind 

about nature. Mathematics flourished, and with the advent of 
Newtonian mechanics, in the middle of the seventeenth century, 
and the foundation of the Royal Society of London for Improve- 
ment of Natural Knowledge, the pursuit of science became a 
recognized and respectable hobby, and even vocation. 

At first, the growth of industry was slow. Techniques for 
producing the basic materials of industry — iron and steel, 
non-ferrous metals, chemicals, etc. — on a large scale, had to be 
developed, machinery for fabricating metals devised, and the 
necessary organization worked out. Until the middle of the 
nineteenth century science played little part in industrial 
development. These were the days of the inventor, of Watt and 
his steam engine, Stephenson and the locomotive, Cartwright and 
his textile machinery, and so on. The family business, exploiting 
the creative skill and business acumen of its founders, reigned 
supreme. Daring men had the courage to build iron ships, and 
propel them with steam engines. Others, like Telford, used iron 
and steel to build bridges, towering railway stations, and the Crystal 
Palace. The need for precision in engineering led to great 
development of the lathe, of large planing and shaping machines, 
of forges and equipment for handling heavy loads. The ingenious, 
practical-minded tradesman was of far greater importance to 
industry than the scientist. 

Probably the most important single factor, which introduced into 
technology the need for considerable scientific knowledge, was the 
rise of electrical engineering towards the end of the nineteenth 
century. The work of Michael Faraday, at the Royal Institution 
in London, in his endeavours to understand the relationship 
between electricity and magnetism, had resulted in the invention 
of the dynamo and electric motor. Swan's development of the 
carbon filament electric lamp led to an increasing demand for the 
new, convenient form of lighting, and rapid improvements in the 
dynamo and motor made this mode of power distribution of 
growing importance in industry. 

During this period of rapid industrial development, science made 
great strides. Understanding of mechanics, of the properties of 
gases and liquids, of light, electricity and magnetism, together with 



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Pioneering in Outer Space 

corresponding advances in chemistry, made of the physical sciences 
an awesome edifice of knowledge. Maxwell's theories of electricity 
and magnetism, the kinetic theory of gases, and beautiful concepts 
of chemical structure, added new dimensions to understanding. 
Darwin's theory of evolution brought life itself into this mechanistic 
picture of existence. An understandable but regrettable arrogance 
grew among many men of science, who began to believe that they 
had the key to all understanding. Marx developed his ideas of 
the ideal organization of society from this malestrom of materialism. 
By the end of the nineteenth century, it was clear that science had 
much to offer industry, and engineering became based upon a 
sound knowledge of fundamental science. Kelvin, in Glasgow, 
showed that a physicist could both advance his subject itself, and 
at the same time undertake or suggest developments of importance 
to technology. The departments of physics and chemistry, with 
the older mathematics and the newer disciplines of applied science, 
rapidly assumed a great importance in the universities, old and new. 

The certainty of many men of science that ihey knew all the 
answers was rudely shattered by three momentous discoveries, all 
made about 1895. J. J. Thomson, in Cambridge, demonstrated 
the existence of an elementary particle, the negatively charged 
electron, which was a constituent of all atoms. Roentgen, in 
Germany, shrewdly following up a chance observation that 
penetrating radiations originated in an electric discharge through 
a gas, discovered X-rays. Bcquercl, in France, showed that 
uranium and thorium emitted radiations spontaneously and 
continuously, independent of chemical combination or physical 
state, thus discovering radioactivity. 

These three discoveries revolutionized the physical sciences, 
and provided tools of enormous importance in the development of 
all science. Over the years, they have had an incalculable effect 
upon technology. Probably they have influenced our lives as 
have no other discoveries made in the history of science. From 
the discovery of the electron, there has flowed understanding of 
chemical binding and a new approach to the "design" of molecules; 
the modern picture of the metallic state, of electrical conduction 
and of magnetism; and the vast technology of electronics. It has 









Science and Mankind 

given us powerful instruments of progress in most branches of 
science, like the electron microscope and the computer, and 
techniques of entertainment such as sound-cinema and TV. 
Medicine without X-rays would be hard to imagine today, but 
this same radiation has innumerable other uses. The Braggs 
showed that it could reveal the positions and spacings of the 
atoms in a crystal lattice, and it has now provided information 
enabling unravelling of the structure of complex organic molecules, 
including that of those carrying genetic information. Rutherford 
showed that radioactivity was a process of spontaneous atomic 
transmutation, from uranium or thorium, through successive 
emissions of ft- particles, or helium atoms, and negative electrons 
or ^-radiation, to stable lead. He went on to use the o-particlcs 
to probe the interior of atoms, discovering that they were open 
structures like the solar system, with a tiny, heavy nucleus at the 
centre, bearing a positive charge of electricity, surrounded by 
electrons in number sufficient to make the whole atom neutral. 
There followed experiments showing that the nuclei of light elements 
could be transmuted, the first observation being the transmutation 
of nitrogen into oxygen. Thus, he founded nuclear physics, and 
laid the foundations of the increasing knowledge of nuclear 
reactions and nuclear structure which led to the release of atomic 
energy, with all its implications for mankind. 

In this rapid, and necessarily incomplete story of the rise of 
modern science and its increasing importance in technology, I 
have omitted to mention some developments in basic science 
which have influenced enormously our picture of matter, radiation, 
and the universe in which they exist. This is because Einstein's 
theory of relativity, and Planck's quantum theory, important though 
they are in basic science, and with a fascinating beauty of their 
own, have not influenced directly the development of technology. 
Some applications of the quantum theory, as in chemistry and in 
the undcrstunding of metals and semiconductors, have contributed 
indirectly to technological progress. Recognition of the relationship 
between mass and energy postulated by Einstein, has been 
important in the development of nuclear accelerators and in nuclear 
physics. However, their impact on the development of technology 



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Science and Mankind 



as a whole has not been as great as the other discoveries I have 
mentioned. 

Enough has now been said to indicate clearly that modern 
science is the father of technological development, and that the 
rate at which each is growing is increasing exponentially. We 
recognize that science includes a whole spectrum of activities, 
ranging from the pursuit of natural knowledge for its own sake, 
through development, to industrial or other applications. Ii is 
very important to recognize clearly that each part of this spectrum 
is critically dependent upon every other. Thus, the unravelling 
of the genetic code by Crick and Watson would have been 
impossible without the existence of commercially available X-ray 
equipment, electron microscopes and computers, Our present-day 
knowledge of the fundamental particles of matter, the very frontier 
of physics, depends upon sophisticated engineering of particle 
accelerators, and complex instrumentation provided by industry. 
Discovery of quazars and pulsars depended upon the availability 
of the many techniques used in radio-communications and radar 
equipment. Nuclear physics has benefited enormously from the 
great array of instruments developed in the progress towards 
industrial nuclear power. Also, each part of the spectrum of 
scientific activity provides its own intense excitement, its own 
satisfaction, and its own rewards. The idea, sometimes expressed 
by the misinformed, that basic or "pure" science is a higher activity 
of man than is development or applied science, is clearly nonsense. 
The one end of the spectrum contributes to natural philosophy, 
and hence to the stature of mankind; the other to man's well-being, 
and indirectly to basic science. 

The rate of increase in scientific activity throughout the world 
is well illustrated by a recent estimate that there are more scientists 
at work today than in all time before the Second World War, and 
by far the greater part is financed by governments. It will be 
appreciated that governments give little financial assistance to 
activities which will not contribute, in a relatively short period, 
to an increase in productivity. They support only in a minor 
way such prestige activities as art, literature, theatre or sport. 
Governments are therefore convinced that science pays dividends. 






Following the 20-year honeymoon period after the war, there is 
now some decrease in the rate at which expenditure on science 
rises, but the rate of increase remains substantial. 

(b) The Interaction between Science and Society 

Let us now examine how the practical fruit of science, which is 
technology, dominates every part of the life of man, determines 
the course of development of any country, and hence the policies 
of governments, provides our entertainment, and is even invading 
the arts and literature. 

Advancing technology has made the whole world one, physically 
speaking. The jet aircraft has brought any two places on earth 
within a few hours of travel from one another. The globe can 
now be circled in 24 hours, so that when travelling in an easterly 
direction local time remains unchanged. The speed of communica- 
tions is now so great, using coaxial cables, radio and telecommunica- 
tions satellites, that news of any event is known all over the earth 
virtually instantaneously. One can telephone anywhere in the 
world, at will. Improvements in roadways and motor vehicles 
make travel throughout the continents an everyday experience, as 
many young Australians have shown. The barriers of language 
and social customs arc fast disappearing as English becomes the 
recognized international speech, and knowledge of the ways other 
people live is spread by radio and TV. Every nation is now 
virtually dependent upon international trade, and none can be 
self-sufficient. Happenings within any one country are now the 
concern of all men, and claims of absolute internal sovereignty 
become less tenable every day. Whether we like it or not, Australia 
is no longer sufficient unto itself, able to determine her own destiny 
independently of other nations. She is now part of the community 
of mankind, and the directions in which she develops are determined 
as much by America, Japan, China, Britain and Europe, as by her 
own will. Thus, the gigantic iron-ore deposits of Western Australia 
would remain untouched red-brown hills, if Japan did not need 
steel; the wheat fields of western N.S.W. would be bare if China 
did not buy the grain; Australian industry would come to a halt 
if machinery from America and Europe was not available; our 



492 



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Pioneering in Outer Space 

aimed services are critically dependent upon aircraft, naval ships, 
weapons and know-how from abroad; Australian TV would be 
dismal without imported programs, and athletics and sport would 
decline without competition with other nations. 

Science and technology know no national boundaries. American, 
Russian, Chinese, British and Australian scientists can communicate 
easily and directly with one another about their work, and share 
in one another's achievements. Recently, when man walked for 
the first time on the surface of the Moon, people throughout the 
world shared a common pride as they watched the televised pictures 
of that momentous event, while it was actually happening. Science 
and technology have become perhaps the most important avenues 
of co-operation and understanding within the whole human family. 
The desire of men of science to talk with one another, regardless 
of frontiers, is looked upon with suspicion by many governments, 
but any attempt at isolation rebounds on a nation by reducing 
the effectiveness of its scientific effort. 

Technological advance in every industry is very rapid and 
accelerating. We have all seen the transformation of earth-moving 
for construction of roadways, airfields, foundations of buildings, 
dams and reservoirs, where complex machinery has replaced men 
with shovels and wheelbarrows. Bulk-carrying ships, loaded and 
unloaded by ingenious devices, are removing one of the most 
arduous, dangerous and degrading forms of human labour, and 
similar changes have taken place in mining and quarrying. New 
techniques for cutting and forming metals are being introduced. 
Such traditional industries as steel production are undergoing 
drastic transformation as a result of the development of cheap 
methods of producing oxygen by the ton from the air. Alloys 
with improved strength, resistance to corrosion, magnetic properties, 
and so on are introduced continually. Industrial gases are 
transported all over the world in liquid form. Chemical technology 
produces improved plastics which are easily fabricated and which 
can replace metals for many applications. Since the discovery of 
the sulpha drugs and antibiotics, the pharmaceutical industry has 
poured an increasing stream of improved drugs into medical 
practice. 



■ 



Science and Mankind 

Probably, the most significant developments, with far-reaching 
applications and social significance, have occurred in electronics. 
The transistor, based upon solid state physics, has revolutionized 
almost all applications of electronics, and has made possible the 
development of large and growing numbers of computers and com- 
puting systems. Recently, a new magnetic material has been 
produced in U.S.A., which is capable of storing a million or more 
bits of information in a cubic inch of the substance, and this 
information can be fed in and extracted at enormous speed. It is 
claimed that such a magnetic memory will reduce drastically the 
space required for storage of information, and will increase the 
speed of a computer so that more and more complex calculations 
can be carried out in a given time. Thus, it is now possible to 
store all the information required for automatic operation of every 
machine in a complex factory, for checking such operation, and 
for testing automatically the components produced. Automation 
on this scale will render the machine-minder redundant where 
production runs are long enough to justify the investment. Already, 
many individual machines, including steel rolling mills, are 
completely automated, and the practice is growing rapidly. Under 
these conditions, the small production staff of a factory would 
consist of highly skilled technologists and technicians to set up 
a run and maintain the equipment. Moreover, the computer can 
take over many parts of the process of design of an item, or 
system, allowing, for instance, three-dimensional viewing of a 
design from every aspect, and checking of its compatibility with 
other components. 

The computer can not only control operations in a factory, it 
can keep stores, check them, and order material required. It can 
keep accounts and write cheques and receipts. Management can 
use it to analyse market information and show future trends, to 
store information about every employee and make it available on 
demand. In a similar way, most of the work now requiring hordes 
of clerical staff in stores and commerce, banks and government 
departments will be done by computers. In a medical clinic, 
specialists will feed information, much of it gathered by instruments, 
into a computer, which will then diagnose the illness and specify 



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Pioneering in Outer Space 

treatment. The factual information stored now in a multitude of 
books in libraries, which has to be sought laboriously by the 
scientist, engineer, scholar or student, is now being placed in the 
memories of computers, and is then instantly available on demand. 
Even translation from one language to another may be possible 
by computer. 

Enough has been said of the power and flexibility of computer 
applications to indicate that most of the tedious tasks now carried 
out by men and women will be transferred to computers, and a 
great part of the labour force will need retraining for more skilled 
jobs, or will become redundant. Certainly, automation will reduce 
the hours of work for all but specialists, and so increase the amount 
of leisure which must be filled by other activities. Large-scale 
social problems of adjustment are inevitable, as is already apparent 
in some occupations, such as that of the waterside worker. The 
machine and the computer are producing irreversible changes in 
the nature and organization of society. We shall see later that 
while this revolution can improve greatly the quality of life, it 
embodies grave dangers of misuse. 

There is another aspect of the application of scientific knowledge 
which we have not yet mentioned. This is its use in warfare. 

Killing always leads to a callous disregard for life, and the 
rights of individuals. This is true of all people, regardless of the 
principles to which they adhere in peace. The dehumanizing 
effects of war were apparent in the days of the sword, or of bows 
and arrows. They have been multiplied enormously by the 
development of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction, 
all of which arc fruits of scientific endeavour. There was room 
for bravery and individual skill in ancient times. It is the 
impersonal killing, by remote control, which makes of modern 
war the most degrading activity of man. 

Science was applied to some military problems long ago, but 
it was during the First World War that it was found to be of 
supreme importance. Nevertheless, it played only a minor part 
in the conflict, which was resolved by foot soldiers fighting a 
bloody war in the trenches and fields. 

The 'Second World War began where the first left off, with 



496 



Science and Mankind 

two important differences. Development of the aircraft made 
of it a formidable weapon, but more important, it became an agent 
of terror against cities and civilian populations, and their associated 
factories and services, rather than a weapon for use in actual battle. 
The development of radar increased the power of defensive 
measures against raiding aircraft, but it also increased the efficacy 
of night bombing and the effective deployment of military aircraft. 
Every man, woman and child, and not only fighting troops, became 
the target of attack by both sides. The crews of bombers did not 
see the slaughter and suffering they caused when their deadly 
loads were released by pressing a button. None of the natural 
human reluctance to kill remained in even the gentlest and most 
religious of these men. And this ability to put aside all that 
civilization stood for extended to those at home who produced 
the aircraft and bombs, any twinges of conscience disappearing 
rapidly as propaganda fostered hatred and revenge for the death 
and injury of their civilian fellows. 

Late in the war the Germans launched against London small 
pilotless aircraft, and then high speed rockets, each carrying a 
substantial explosive charge. These ingenious German rockets 
were the forerunners of the long-range ballistic missiles now 
deployed by both America and Russia. After the defeat of Hitler, 
the scientists and engineers who had developed the rockets were 
captured and removed to the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. The 
demonstration of the practicability of long-range rockets, able to 
carry large loads, was a major technological development during 
the war which changed completely the whole nature of warfare, 
and which ushered in the age of space exploration. 

The revolution in armed conflict, which has made of total war 
an unimaginable disaster, is due to the development of nuclear 
weapons. Since the first of such nuclear weapons, known as 
fission bombs, devastated Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the power of 
these devices has been multiplied 1,000 times by using a small 
fission explosion to detonate a far more powerful fusion, or 
thermonuclear weapon, popularly known as the hydrogen bomb. 
Nuclear weapons now exist in the armouries of U.S.A., U.S.S.R., 
Britain, China and France, which are equivalent in explosive 



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Pioneering in Outer Space 

power to a million or more tons of normal explosive, A single 
such weapon releases more than the total power of all the explosives 
used in the Second World War. It can obliterate completely, in 
one moment, the largest city in the world, killing millions of 
people, wounding severely as many more, and causing serious 
radiation danger to survivors on the periphery. Other nations 
such as Japan, West Germany, Israel, Canada, Australia, and 
above all India, could develop these diabolic weapons if they 
wished to do so. A worsening of the international situation, in 
any one of several areas, could lead to a wholesale proliferation 
of nuclear armaments throughout the world. 

The efficacy of these terrible weapons has been increased 

enormously by the development of rocket systems which can deliver 
them with accuracy to targets in any part of the earth, from 
launching bases in any country. The number of such weapons 
and delivery systems possessed by the two great nuclear powers 
is now sufficient to over-destroy all the major cities and industrial 
centres of Russia, Europe and North America, together with a 
large fraction of the population. As China becomes fully armed 
with nuclear weapons, the same potential fate will threaten also 
the whole of Asia. 

While these developments have been taking place, medical 
science has been distorted to breed virulent strains of bacteria 
and viruses which could kill millions of people if released over any 
country. Chemistry has developed insidious chemicals which, in 
very small quantities, can kill, maim or render mad all human 
beings with which they come in contact. These agents of death 
can be delivered and spread efficiently by rockets similar to those 
used for nuclear weapons. They will kill men. animals and 
vegetation, but they do not destroy buildings as do nuclear 
weapons. 

Nations which indulge in these perversions of medical science 
and chemistry claim, as they do with nuclear weapons, that they 
would be used only in retaliation against similar forms of attack. 
But, like nuclear weapons, they are poised ready for use. Know- 
ledge that use of any one of these weapons of mass destruction 
would inevitably bring retaliation in kind, produces at best an 



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Science end Mankind 

uneasy peace, in which accident, or deliberate provocation by a 

madman, could lead to all-out war. Such a war would destroy 
civilization as wc know it, and could do irreparable genetic harm 
to the remnants of the human race. 

Mankind therefore finds himself in a situation where his 
increasing knowledge of nature, and his technological ingenuity 
have been misused on a colossal scale to create the greatest threat 
which he has ever faced. World war has become unthinkable, but 
he stands on the brink of a precipice which he himself has created, 
frightened to withdraw and take those steps which would eliminate 
this terrible prostitution of knowledge, and enable it to be used 
instead to bring prosperity and happiness to all men. The 
inherent instability of the present situation calls for heroic 
measures if all the grave consequences of world war are to be 
avoided. What are the possible solutions to this dilemma? 

The non-proliferation treaty, which Russia, America and Britain 
have jointly sponsored, would be a useful exercise in international 
control, involving some decree of inspection, and for this reason is 
worthy of adoption. However, it cannot be claimed that it confers 
on the world any real security against nuclear warfare, A nation 
hard-pressed in a war with conventional weapons would almost 
certainly use nuclear weapons if they were available, and their 
use appeared to offer some advantage, for in the atmosphere of 
war, all restraints disappear. With the widespread use of nuclear 
power stations, almost every nation will soon be able to manufacture 
plutonium, and under the clause in the treaty allowing withdrawal 
of a nation from its obligations upon giving six months' notice, any 
threat to security, real or imagined, could lead to rapid development 
of nuclear weapons. Recent experience with relatively small wars, 
fought with ordinary weapons, as in Africa, the Middle East and 
Vietnam, has shown that these can continue for many years 
without victory to either side. They breed just that kind of final 
desperation which ignores the plight of people. Biafran leaders 
would have been sorely tempted to use any weapon which they 
could obtain. 

A ban on the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass 
destruction would be likely to suffer the same fate. While 



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Science and Mankind 






conventional wars arc tolerated, the ultimate use of such weapons 
is not only possible, but probable. 

At a meeting in New York in 1965, Adlai Stevenson said: 

"The central question is whether the wonderfully diverse and 
gifted assemblage of human beings on this earth really knows 
how to run a civilization. Survival is still an open question, 
not because of environmental hazards, but because of the 
workings of the human mind. And day by day the problem 
grows more complex. It was recognized clearly and with 
compassion by Pope John; to him the human race was not a 
cold abstraction. Underlying his messages and encyclicals was 
this simple thought: that the human race is a family, that men 
are brothers, all wars are civil wars, and all killing is fratricidal." 

The only rational steps for the salvation of mankind are those 
designed to eliminate war as the final arbiter of disagreements 
between nations, and to substitute the rule of law and order 
throughout the world. Utopian though this goal may appear, it is 
the only possible objective. It cannot be achieved overnight, but 
every step taken should be planned as an intermediate stage in 
movement towards that end. Complete and general disarmament 
will be acceptable only when the nations feel safe from revival of 
armies and armaments by a criminal or irresponsible nation. This 
means that methods must be devised to detect breaches of the 
agreement to disarm at a very early stage, before peace is 
threatened. Science and technology can devise such methods. 
Much work has been done already, and though more is required, 
it is becoming clear that effective safeguards arc possible. In the 
final analysis, however, the elimination of the habit of violence 
from the human race requires much more fundamental changes, 
which are not so easily amenable to scientific investigation, at 
any rate at the present time. 

There arc other dangers which arise from applications of science. 

The rapid spread of technology throughout the world is creating 
unprecedented demands for raw materials, some of which are 
wasted on a colossal scale. Thus tin may now be classed as a 
semi-precious metal, in short supply, yet it is almost all wasted in 



500 



the coating on steel cans for foodstuffs, industrial products like paint, 
etc., and for beer! Nickel, so important for making steel alloys 
and munitions of war, is in such demand that it also is becoming 
semi-precious. Similarly, the known world supplies of phosphate 
rock, essential for fertilizer production, are being exhausted rapidly, 
and soon the equally essential material, sulphur, will no longer be 
available in free form. It is becoming clear that such materials, 
sources of which are exhaustible, arc the property of all men, and 
not only of the nations on whose territory they occur. Some sort 
of international caretaking seems essential if they are to be enjoyed 
by coming generations, and this means international action. 

Over-grazing and over-cropping of large areas of the land 
surface of the earth have resulted in the creation of deserts, the 
erosion of soils, and serious decreases in fertility, and this goes 
on despite the knowledge which agricultural science has made 
available. Problems of pollution of the air, or rivers and lakes and 
even the sea, by effluents from factories and motor vehicles, sewage 
works and runoff from fertilized farm lands, some of which are 
already irreversible, have arisen in many areas. The largest area 
of fresh water in the world, the Great Lakes of North America, 
is suffering from this man-made pollution, which is rapidly changing 
its whole ecology. Recently, animals, birds and fish in the arctic 
regions of the earth have been shown to have increasing quantities 
of D.D.T. and other insecticides in their bodies. The extent of 
such pollution of the Baltic Sea is so great that some remedial 
action is being taken by countries around it. Again, this is a 
problem for all mankind. 

The surface of the earth is being changed totally by man. We 
have mentioned already the inroads made annually by the expansion 
of cities, growth of factories, provision of roadways and airfields. 
Earth-moving equipment and explosives enable man to shape the 
land to suit his needs. The natural forests of the earth are 
disappearing, and in many regions no longer provide a habitat for 
native animals or birds. Rivers are diverted from their courses 
and enormous dams are built so that fish are unable to move freely 
in them. Much of the wild life of the continents is in danger of 
extinction. 



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Pioneering in Outer Space 



Rapidly, man is gaining complete control of biological evolution 
on the earth, including his own. He allows only those trees, plants 
and grasses to continue to exist which he regards as useful to him 
at present. He chooses which animals, birds and insects may live 
on the planet. With the aid of modern medicine, he keeps alive 
the unfit, who would not have survived under the natural conditions 
where man evolved from lower forms of life, and allows them to 
breed, increasing the undesirable elements in the gene-pool of his 
kind. This increasing control of all life throws an enormous 
responsibility upon the human race. These deleterious effects of 
the application of technology are seldom deliberate. They arise 
from ignorance of the overall effects of new processes and materials, 
and of large-scale activities now possible, upon the natural 
ecological order and the overall environment. Only increasing 
knowledge, which scientific investigation alone can bring, can save 
mankind from the deleterious effect of his own activities. 

We have already noted that the development of modern methods 
of communication has made the whole world one, physically 
speaking. Yet men arc divided as never before. Extreme 
nationalism is rampant, breeding fear and suspicion. The gap 
between the standards of living of the advanced and the developing 
nations grows greater every year. Trivial border disputes and 
political differences lead to the closing of frontiers and reduced 
freedom of movement. Countries like U.S.A., U.S.S.R. and China, 
which have known revolution and benefited from social upheaval, 
now condemn strenuously any further changes. Religion has 
created the artificial division of the Indian subcontinent and of 
Ireland, while military power and politics have divided Europe. 
The explosive situation in the Middle East, where the Moslem 
nations are united only in their confrontation of Israel, has closed 
the Suez Canal and threatens world oil supplies. The great hopes 
created by the United Nations Charter have crumbled as it becomes 
an assembly of disunited nations which pretends that 750 million 
Chinese do not exist. There are gluts of wheat and other grains 
in North America and Australia, while much of the world goes 
hungry, and some of the factories of the advanced nations work 
at reduced capacity, while the poverty-stricken two-thirds of 
humanity is in desperate need of their products. 



502 



Science and Mankind 

There is not time to consider the many other ways in which 
scientific knowledge has been misused, or used carelessly. I 
mention only the unfortunate use of the drug thalidomide on 
pregnant women, resulting in the birth of many deformed babies, 
and the recent discovery that the defoliants, in use on an extensive 
scale in the war in Vietnam, can produce similar deformations in 
children whose mothers have been exposed to them. 

2, The Responsibilities of the Scientist 
We have seen that science has created modern civilization, so 
that today our lives, from conception to death, in the home, the 
factory, office, or any other job, throughout the nation and 
internationally, are governed by its applications. Existing knowledge, 
properly applied, can solve quite easily all the problems of material 
existence, and create a new era of prosperity and happiness for 
every inhabitant of the Earth. But this same progress in knowledge 
of nature has created new and serious problems for mankind. The 
most important of these problems are: 

1. Those resulting from the development of weapons of mass 
destruction, nuclear, chemical and biological, and of means 
of delivery against which there can be no effective defence. 
The rapidly increasing armaments race disturbs the economies 
of the rich nations, and cripples the developing nations, so 
that the gap between the "haves" and the "have nots" grows 
steadily. 

2. The population explosion resulting from the application of 
medical science, hygiene and sanitation. About 73 million 
more people are added to the world's population every year, 
and these must be fed, clothed, housed, educated and provided 
with the manifold services necessary for life. The population 
of India grows by 13 million each year, more than the total 
population of Australia. 

3. The ecology of the earth — the relationships between it and 
its plants, animals and man — is changing rapidly as a result 
of advancing technology and increasing population, and there 
is no real knowledge of the ultimate results of this interference 
with the balance of nature. 



503 



Pioneering in Outer Space 



4. The de-humanizing and de-personalizing results of push-button 
warfare and of control of the individual in the computer age, 
and the grave dangers of passive acceptance of this loss of 
freedom. 

5. Application of new drugs and new techniques in medicine, of 
food additives and methods of processing foods, of pesticides, 
fungicides, and so on, without exhaustive examination of their 
overall effects on health and well-being. 

6. The effects of technological advance upon the organization of 
industry and government. Are those applicable in the past 
necessarily the best in the age of science and technology? 

7. How can the whole process of education, which because of 
the rapidity of change must now cover a lifetime, be fitted to 
the needs and responsibilities of the new era? 

These questions concern every member of society, but because 
they arise as a result of advance in natural knowledge, the scientist 
has a special responsibility to endeavour to contribute to their 
solution. 

Many suggestions have been made. It has been proposed that 
there should be a moratorium on science and technology, a halt 
in further development, until existing knowledge and its applications 
have been fully digested by mankind. This is clearly impossible 
in a competitive world, in which a nation accepting such a pause 
in the garnering of new knowledge and technologies would fall 
behind in the race. Another suggestion is that men of science 
should refuse to work upon warlike or other obviously harmful 
applications of their knowledge. But scientists are ordinary citizens 
working in a particular field, and will respond to a call for 
patriotism or of financial gain as will any other cross-section of 
the people. A proposal that a scientist should withhold any 
discovery he makes, if in his opinion it can be misused in any 
way, has little meaning, for neither he nor his fellow-scientists can 
foresee its consequences. Who can say whether man will devise 
some terrible use of Professor McCusker's quark, if its existence is 
confirmed, though that probability appears now as remote as did 
the atomic bomb when Rutherford discovered the nuclear atom. 



504 



Science and Mankind 

Those who have thought deeply about this question conclude 
that the scientist can fulfil his obligation to society in one way 
only. This is by endeavouring, through every means in his power, 
to create awareness of the situation among the public, which can 
then make sensible decisions through the ballot box, and in other 
ways. Through public discussion, radio and TV talks, and by 
raising these questions with his fellows, he can help create a 
climate of opinion in which solutions will be sought, and found. 
He is no more capable of resolving political or economic issues 
than are others, but he can see that questions involving science 
and technology, and their consequences, are not left to uninformed 
politicians, or financiers and industrialists, whose sole objective is 
gain. 

Some men of science are inarticulate, and unable to contribute 
personally to this recognition of their responsibilities, though they 
can help indirectly. Others arc self-centred, and determined not 
to allow involvement in public debate to interfere with what they 
regard as their only duty, the search for knowledge. Many will 
fear that participation in any activity smelling remotely of politics 
or protest will prejudice their careers. It is inevitable that there 
will be extremists who will use this activity to push their own 
political or sociological beliefs, and a few who just see it as an 
opportunity for personal publicity. However, the majority are 
now recognizing their responsibilities, and are doing their best to 
aid the solution of these pressing problems. 

Finally, there can be little doubt that you who are young, whose 
future as men and women of science, and as citizens of the world, 
lies before you, arc more likely to bring about the necessary 
reformation than arc those already immersed in the system. It is 
the young who make the important discoveries in mathematics and 
science. It is they who have the uncommitted minds and the 
courage to look at all problems without preconceptions or 
embarrassment. I hope that you will prove as successful in these 
important directions as you undoubtedly will in your learning and 
research. 



505 







NOTES 






p*